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					BENCHMARKING PROJECT-ORIENTED SOCIETIES

Different POSs have different competences, which can be analysed.
A questionnaire for this analysis was developed in the IPMA project:
"POS Benchmarking". It includes questions regarding project management,
programme management, project portfolio management, and services
provided by PM education, PM research, and other PM related institutions.


PROJECT MANAGEMENT COMPETENCES


 Project Management             Austria        Denmark    Hungary    Romania     Sweden         United
                                                                                               Kingdom
 PM methods in project start
 process for planning

 PM methods in project start
 process for consideration of
 the project context
 PM methods in project start
 process for the design of
 project organization
 PM methods in project start
 process for the design of
 project culture

 PM methods in project
 controlling process

 PM methods in project
 discontinuity management
 process

 PM methods in project close
 down process

        always                  often                sometimes          seldom                never




SERVICES OF PM EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

United Kingdom currently offers 13 master degree programmes in project
management. Austria in comparison does not offer any.


PM EDUCATION SERVICES


             Formal PM Degrees
                                                           Master        Bachelor
                                          Doctorates                                      Diploma
    Country                                                Degrees       Degree

    Austria                               possible         none          3                3

    Denmark                               possible         none          1                none

    Hungary                               possible         2             none             none

    Romania                               none             2             none             none

    Sweden                                possible         2             none             none

    United Kingdom                        13               13            3                3
programm I austria

programm I austria - The Austrian Project Management Initiative, has
the objective to further develop the competences of Austria as a POS.
Strategies of programm I austria are "PM for everybody", which is
implemented by projects such as "PM in the family", and "PM in schools",
and "Further development of project-oriented companies", which is
implemented by projects, such as "PM auditing" and "Network of PM
Office Managers".


DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES OF AUSTRIA AS POS

                         Project management
                                    100
  PM standardisation                                 Programme management
                                       80
                                       60
                                       40
PM marketing                           20                    Project portfolio
                                                             management
                                       0



  PM research                                               Personnel management
                                                            in project-oriented
                                                            companies


              PM education                        Organisational design of
                                                  project-oriented companies




PM INITIATIVES IN EUROPE

 EPROM is a TEMPUS project performed by 4 Romanian universities in
 cooperation with the University of Business Administration Vienna. It´s
 objective is to establish PM master degree programmes in Romania.




    Country             Name of Initiative              Homepage


    Austria             programm I austria              www.programmaustria.at

    Denmark             PM Body of Knowledge            www.projektforeningen.dk

    Finland             Global Project Business         www.ramse.fi/extranet/gpb

    Norway              Project 2000                    www.ps2000.ntnu.no

    Romania             EPROM                           www.unibuc.ro

    Sweden              project sweden                  www.svenskaprojekt.nu
   ROLAND GAREIS
   Management in the
   Project-oriented Society ®



   Reference Card

                       Project management
                                  100
  PM standardisation                           Programme management
                                 80
                                 60
                                 40
PM marketing                     20                    Project portfolio
                                                       management
                                 0



  PM research                                         Personnel management
                                                      in project-oriented
                                                      companies


          PM education                      Organisational design of
                                            project-oriented companies




                                                            www.rgc.at
                                                www.wu-wien.ac.at./pmg
THE PROJECT-ORIENTED SOCIETY MODEL

A society, which applies projects and programmes as temporary
organisations can be perceived as a ”Project-oriented Society” (POS).

SPIDER WEB: MODEL OF THE POS
PROJECT MANAGEMENT is a business process of the project-oriented
company. It consists of the sub-processes project start, project co-
ordination, project controlling, project discontinuity management,
and project close-down.

PROGRAMME MANAGEMENT: A programme is a set of projects and
tasks which are closely coupled by common objectives, strategies,
rules and values.

A PROJECT PORTFOLIO is the set of projects (and programmes) perfor-
med by a project-oriented company at a point in time. The objective of
project portfolio management is to optimise the results of the project
portfolio.

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT processes in the project-oriented companies
are recruitment, disposition and development of the project personnel
(Junior Project Manager, Project Manager and Senior Project Manager,
Project Team Member, Project Owner).

ORGANISATIONAL DESIGN: Project-oriented companies have integrative
structures, such as PM-Offices, Project Portfolio Groups or Expert Pools.

Formal PM EDUCATION programmes might lead to academic degrees
in project management.

PM RESEARCH projects and programmes, PM related publications
and events are services provided by PM research institutions.

The primary PM MARKETING institution in a POS is the national
PM association. Services like membership, certifications of project
managers, PM events, etc. are provided.

Services provided by PM STANDARDISATION institutions are PM norms
and formal project management requirements for public tenders.

                          PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS
                                One process of
    One routine process                                 One process of
                                medium or high
     of low complexity                                  high complexity
                                 complexity
        Performed                 Performed               Performed
       continuously                uniquely                uniquely
        Short- or                 Short- or               Medium- or
       medium term               medium term               long term



     Base Organisation             Project                Programme

                               ORGANISATION
PROJECT AND PROGRAMME MANAGEMENT

Project management and programme management are business processes
of the project-oriented company.
Objects of consideration are not only the scope, time, and costs but also
the organisation, the culture, and the context of the project or programme.


PM PROCESS

                        Project
                      Assignment



                       Project Start


                                                                      Continuous
                    Project Controlling
                                                                  Project Coordination


                    Management of a
                   Project Discontinuity


                   Project Close-down



                         Project
                        Approval




PROGRAMME ORGANISATION

The programme management processes and methods are similar to the
project management processes and methods. But new organisational
structures, in addition to the single project organisations, are required.


PROGRAMME ORGANISATION CHART

                                      Programme
                                        Owner

                                                    Programme Organisation

                                      Programme
              Programme Team           Manager


               Programme
             Office Manager
                                                                   Project Y



                          Project 1     Project 2     Project X
THE PROJECT-ORIENTED COMPANY

The project-oriented company (POC) combines permanent and temporary
organisations. Specific permanent organisation structures are PM Offices,
Project Portfolio Groups and Expert Pools.


ORGANISATION CHART OF THE POC


                                        Management
                                          Board


                                                                        Project
                                                                    Portfolio Group




  Business        Business                               Projects
                                   Service                Type A
   Unit A          Unit B


  Department          Department   Department            Projects
                                                          Type B             Programme I

  Department          Department   Department
                                                         Projects
 Expert Pool 1    Expert Pool 3     PM Office             Type C


 Expert Pool 2    Expert Pool 4




PROJECT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT

The perception of the set of projects of the project-oriented company
as a project portfolio creates added value. A project portfolio database
is the basis for project portfolio management.


PROJECT PORTFOLIO REPORT
             Profit




         high                                        C
                              B


       middle
                                                D


           low           A                           E
                                                                         Risk
                        low        middle           high

				
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