Scientific Report Writing Part II INSTITU by sma39436

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									Scientific Report Writing
             Part II


INSTITUTE OF DISTANCE LEARNING-
             KNUST
             2009/10




                                  1
Overview
  This discussion is designed to help you:
• Understand the nature of social
  investigations/research
• Prepare a research proposal and
• Write a good report on your investigations




                                               2
Objectives

To assist and prepare you to develop the
 skills needed to conduct
 research/Investigate social problems

To enable you to produce a project
 proposal and your final Research report


                                            3
Procedures/Design
• Research design is the plan for the study

• From the beginning you need to determine
  the type of research you want to conduct

• Types of research may include: survey
  research, case studies, evaluation,
  historical or longitudinal studies and
  Action Research
                                              4
               Action Research
This is an applied research which involves
the researcher diagnosing a local problem
and finding solution to it in a local setting
  As an Executive, this course is designed to enhance your ability to
  diagnose/identify strategic problem or opportunities facing organisations
  and to design action focus research process that will enable you find an
  innovative solution to it


Example
An organization’s research department may attempts an
investigation into the changes in performance after
applying a mid week bonus for employees as a
motivating tool.
                                                                          5
Data collection procedures
    • Sampling Procedures

• Data collection tools/methods
           – Primary data collection




                                       6
Sampling

Sample: subset
of a larger population      Sample

Types
 Random
 Non-Random             Population




                                      7
8
         Random Sampling
  A sampling procedure is random if each
 member of the population has an equal and
 independent chance of being included in the
 sample
   Ex.
• simple random sampling ,
• stratified random sampling
• systematic sampling
                                               9
                 Non-random
Non-randomised sampling techniques are forms of
 sampling used by social researchers which do
 not require randomisation
Ex
•   accidental sampling,
•   Purposive sampling,
•   quota sampling,
•   Expert sampling
•   snowball sampling.

                                              10
Instrumentation/Data Collection
Tools

 • Interviewing: Structured or Unstructured
         Telephone interview
        Face- to-Face interview
        Group Interview/Focus Group Discussion
 • Questionnaires : Closed or Open-ended
        Mailed Questionnaire method
        Face-to-Face Interview
 • Observation methods:
        Participant observation
        Non-participant observation:
                                                 11
    Data analysis
Data
 organisation/Processing
•   Editing
•   Coding
•   Tabulation
•   Statistics
Statistics tools
• Frequency/Cumulative
  frequencies
• Frequency distribution
• Mean/Mode/Percentages
                           12
Presentation of Data
• Data can be presented in various forms.
  Each form depends on the set of data and
  how the researcher wants to present them
  to convey his thoughts. Data can be
  presented in:
• Tables
• Figures -Graphs/Charts/Maps/Diagrams
• Use of words (non-tabular presentation)
                                             13
Summary, Conclusions and
Recommendation
• Final chapter of research work
• Summarises the main findings of the study and
  the conclusion that has to be drawn
• Suggestions you make in relation to the study




                                                  14
 Preparing a research proposal
• It is useful to prepare a proposal of what
  you intend to do and discuss with your
  supervisor/tutor to see if what you want to
  do is right




                                                15
  Structure of thesis/Report

  Introduction                       Methodology
  •Background                        •Sampling
  •Problem Statement                 •Instrumentation (survey, questionnaire etc)
  •Objectives
  •Research Question/Hypothesis
  •Research Design
  •Justification of study
  •Limitation and delimitation
                                    Results &Discussion
                                    •Data Analysis/Presentation
                                    •Using Research Questions/Hypothesis as a guide
                                    •Discuss using theoretical/Conceptual Framework

Literature Review
•International discourse
•Continental Discourse              Conclusion/Recommendation
•National Discourse                 •Summaries of the study in the context of the
•Local Discourse                     problem statement
                                    •Suggestion are recommended                 16
•Theoretical/Conceptual Framework
       Writing your proposal
• Set out what you want to investigate in
  your proposal - research problem
  identification / objectives of the study
• Pay attention in the proposal to how you
  want to go about the study - research
  design/plan



                                             17
   Writing your proposal-con’t
• Plan how to get your information –
  methodology: sampling techniques and
  data collection techniques
• Indicate how your data is to be analysed-
  manually or with the computer (e.g SWOT,
  Statistics, etc)



                                          18
 WRITING THE RESEARCH REPORT

• A research work is not
  complete until the results are
  written

• Reports must be based on the
  field work or information you
  collect in connection with the
  study

                                   19
Report Writing Cont’
• Major components of the report are:
  – Introduction (problem context, statement of problem)
  – Review of related literature
  – Methodology (research design, sample/sampling,
    instruments)
  – Presentation and Analysis of data/findings (data
    organisation, statistics, presentation of data)
  – Summary, main conclusions and recommendations




                                                           20
Report Writing Cont’
•   Other important aspects of the report are
•   Use of appropriate language
•   Typing
•   Presentation of tables and figures




                                                21
 Writing / Preparing Assignment
1.   Preliminary Pages
      •   Cover page
      •   Table of Content
      •   Abstract/ Executive Summary
2.   Main Pages
      •   Introduction
      •   Main text/body
          –   Part 1
          –   Part 2
          –   etc
      •   conclusion
3.   Supplementary Pages
      •   Reference
      •   Appendices

                                        22
SAMPLE COVER PAGE




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THANK YOU !!!!!!




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