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					 ENTREPRENEURIAL STUDIES IN INSTITUTIONS OF
  HIGHER LEARNING: METHODS FOR DELIVERING
       ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION


                        Lead Researcher:
                Prof. Dr. Mohd Fauzi Mohd Jani
                         Co-Researchers:
                     Dr. Norasmah Othman
                Prof. Madya Dr. Arifin Hj. Zainal
              Prof. Madya Dr. Imran Ho Abdullah
              Prof. Madya Zainal Abidin Hashim
                 Dr. Ahmad Azmi Mohd Ariffin
                   Dr. Jamaludin Hj. Badusah
 Universiti                                          Ministry
Kebangsaan                                          Of Higher
 Malaysia                                           Education   1
INTRODUCTION

Entrepreneurial studies was given serious attention in the Ninth
Malaysia Plan (2006-2010) by virtue of its importance in:
 supporting the economic drive of the national economy
 narrowing the wealth differentials among the population
 addressing the unemployment issues among the graduates of this
  country
 equipping the graduates with a variety of skills and knowledge in
  order to produce successful entrepreneurs who are not only
  competitive locally but also globally.




      Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
      _____________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                                                                  2
Among the existing measures undertaken (although not widely
practiced) to expose the graduates to the world of entrepreneurship:


 Incorporating the entrepreneurial element in all subjects or courses
 that are related to business, management and entrepreneurship from
 the primary school level to the tertiary level.


 Elements of entrepreneurship are also included in the co-curricular
 programs such as the Entrepreneurship Program for Youths at
 the secondary level and the entrepreneurship program for
 graduates at the institutions of higher learning.
 (also at primary level – Malaysian Junior Entrepreneurship Program
 or MALJEP’07 by FEP UKM in Nov 2007, and COBLAS –
 Integrated Education and Consultancy Program –
 SMIDEC-SME Bank)                                                        3
 NAME OF PUBLIC          DETAILS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL STUDIES IN
      IHL                 THE ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES AT PUBLIC
                                          IHL
Kolej Universiti Islam   Entrepreneurial studies is just one of the research
Malaysia (KUIM)          areas in the Masters and PhD levels offered by
                         the Faculty of Economic and Muamalat.
Kolej Universiti         Offered as a foundation program and as an
Kejuruteraan dan         elective for the following program:
Teknologi Malaysia       1)Entrepreneurs and Business is a core course
(KUKTEM)                 for the Bachelor in Chemical Engineering
                         (Biotechnology)
                         2)Entrepreneurship and Business is a core
                         course for the Bachelor in Mechanical
                         Engineering
                         3)Cyber Entrepreneurship is a core course in the
                         Diploma of Computer Technology (Software
                         Engineering)
                         4)Entrepreneurship is an elective for the Bachelor
                         of Electrical Engineering (Electronic)          4
NAME OF PUBLIC IHL         DETAILS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL STUDIES IN
                          THE ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES AT PUBLIC IHL
Kolej Universiti        Entrepreneurial Engineering is a core subject in the
Kejuruteraan Utara      university
Malaysia (KUKUM)
Kolej Universiti Sains No subject on Entrepreneurship is offered in any
dan Teknologi Malaysia academic programme.
(KUSTEM)
Kolej Universiti        A core subject in the Faculty of Information
Teknikal Kebangsaan     Technology and Communication for the Bachelor of
Malaysia (KUTKM)        Software Development, Computer Networking, Base
                        Data, and Interactive Media.

                        Entrepreneurship is also offered as a program at
                        Master’s level – Master in Entrepreneurial Science.
                        For the Doctoral degree, entrepreneurship is one of
                        the research areas.



                                                                               5
 NAME OF PUBLIC        DETAILS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL STUDIES IN THE
      IHL                 ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES AT PUBLIC IHL
Kolej Universiti      A core course for the following faculties
Teknologi Tun         1)Business and Entrepreneurship is a core subject in a
Hussein Onn           diploma program offered by the Faculty of General
(KUiTTHO)             Engineering and Environment
                      2)Basic Business and Entrepreneurship is a core
                      subject for a diploma offered by the Mechanical
                      Engineering and Manufacturing Faculty.
Universiti Islam    An elective for the Bachelor of Business Administration
Antarabangsa (UIAM) offered by the Faculty of Economics and Management
                    Science.
Universiti            Entrepreneurship is an elective subject for the
Kebangsaan            Bachelor of Business Administration offered by the
Malaysia (UKM)        Faculty of Economics and Business.

                      Entrepreneurship is a minor program for the Bachelor’
                      in Administrative Management offered by the Faculty
                      of Education. It is also one of the research areas in the
                      Faculty of Education for Maths Studies and doctoral
                      program.                                                  6
   NAME OF            DETAILS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL STUDIES IN THE
  PUBLIC IHL             ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES AT PUBLIC IHL
Universiti Malaya   Elective subject for the Bachelor of Business Administration
(UM)                course as well as for the Master’s Programme in Business
                    Administration.

                    Entrepreneurship is a research area for doctoral
                    programme and is offered by the Policy and Business
                    Strategy Department and the Business and Accountancy
                    Faculty.
Universiti          A core subject for the Bachelor’s degree of Business and
Malaysia Sabah      Bachelor for Economics with majoring in entrepreneurship
(UMS)               offered by the School of Business and Economics.

                    It is also one of the research topics for the Master’s and
                    Doctoral degrees offered by the School of Business and
                    Economics.




                                                                                   7
   NAME OF           DETAILS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL STUDIES IN THE
  PUBLIC IHL            ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES AT PUBLIC IHL
Universiti         One of the major subjects in the Master’s for Corporate
Malaysia           Management Business Administration course (CMBA).
Sarawak
(UNIMAS)           It is also one of the research areas for the Masters and
                   Doctoral program for the Business and Economics Faculty.
Universiti         One of the core subjects for the Bachelor of Entrepreneurial
Pendidikan         Studies offered by the Faculty of Business and Economics .
Sultan Idris
(UPSI)
Universiti Putra   One of the major areas in Bachelor of Business
Malaysia (UPM)     Administration offered by the Economics and Management
                   Faculty.

                   It is also one of the research areas for the Masters and
                   Doctoral program offered by the Faculty of English Studies .
Universiti Sains   A minor subject in the Bachelor of Management offered by
Malaysia (USM)     the Centre of Management Studies.

                                                                                  8
   NAME OF         DETAILS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL STUDIES IN THE
  PUBLIC IHL          ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES AT PUBLIC IHL
Universiti       “Entrepreneurship and Marketing” is one of the elective
Teknologi        subjects for Bachelor of Management (Marketing) offered
Malaysia (UTM)   by the Faculty of Human Resource Development.

                 It is one of the research areas in the Masters and Doctoral
                 program.
Universiti       Entrepreneurship is a core subject in all diploma courses
Teknologi MARA   except for the Diploma of Business Study – as a major.
(UiTM)




                                                                               9
   NAME OF          DETAILS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL STUDIES IN THE
  PUBLIC IHL           ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES AT PUBLIC IHL
Universiti Utara “Basic Entrepreneurship” is a core subject in the
Malaysia (UUM) university.

                  Entrepreneurship, on the other hand, is a core subject for
                  all programs under the Faculty of Business Management
                  except for the Bachelor of Entrepreneurship.
                  Apart from that, it is also a core subject for Bachelor of
                  Tourism Management and the Bachelor of Educational
                  Management.

                  Entrepreneurship is also a major subject for the Bachelor
                  of Business Management. The Department of
                  Entrepreneurship (Faculty of Business) offers
                  Entrepreneurship as a special program in the Bachelor of
                  Entrepreneurship.

                  Entrepreneurship is also act as a core for co-curricular
                  subject for the university.
                                                                             10
  NAME OF          DETAILS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL STUDIES IN
 PUBLIC IHL       THE ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES AT PUBLIC IHL
Universiti Utara At the post-graduate level, the entrepreneurship
Malaysia         domain is one of the research areas for the Master’s
(UUM)            of Management Science and Doctoral program,
                 whereas in the Master’s of Business Management,
                 “Entrepreneurial Development” is offered as an
                 elective subject.

                 UUM has also a special program at the Master’s level
                 i.e. Master’s of Techno-Entrepreneurship. This is a
                 twinning between MARA and UUM. It is offered by
                 the Information Technology Faculty and IPK acts as
                 the Secretariat.




                                                                        11
KEY SUCCESS FACTORS FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION

Hytti & O’Gorman (2004), and Galloway & Brown (2002) identified 2
fundamental factors that enables the entrepreneurial educational
program to be more successfully implemented:

 The objectives of the program – must be clear and achievable.

 The education or program delivery methods – must be effective.

The objective as well as the delivery methods to be implemented
should be developed based on a thorough research of the
existing situation, i.e; Gap analysis – to determine the differences
between the norms (most ideal) and the actual performance.



        Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
        _____________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                                                                   12
                      Gap Analysis – Cognitive Index


Dimension                           N      IPTA        Norm    Gap     SD
Knowledge of Business Functions    1523    86.15       83.56   1.85   9.03
Goal Development                   1516    76.32       76.49   -.17   13.63
Planning                           1523    82.48       82.60   -.12   9.51
Problem Solving                    1520    79.12       78.42   .69    10.49

                     Gap Analysis – Non Cognitive Index


 Dimension                          n      IPTA        Norm    Gap     SD
External Control                   1518    81.62       79.92   1.70   9.91
Controllable                       1508    77.28       75.96   1.32   11.31
Inner self Control                 1516    84.12       83.71   .41    10.22
Tolerant Toward Ambiguity          1513    79.05       76.34   2.71   10.67
Self Evaluation                    1517    82.33       80.84   1.49   10.27
                                                                          13
        Linear Regression Model - Contribution of Cognitive on Gap


                                           R             Adjusted
     Model               R               Square          R Square                     SE


1 (a)                 .863(a)             .744               .744                  4.27286
2 (b)                 .955(b)             .913               .913                  2.49764
3 (c)                 .978(c)             .956               .956                  1.76429
4 (d)                1.000(d)            1.000              1.000                   .00000

a   Peramal: (Constant), Skor_K_PR (Planning)
b   Peramal: (Constant), Skor_K_PR, Skor_K_PMT (Planning & Goal Development)
c   Peramal: (Constant), Skor_K_PR, Skor_K_PMT, Skor_K_PMS
d   Peramal: (Constant), Skor_K_PR, Skor_K_PMT, Skor_K_PMS, Skor_K_PTFK
e   Dependent Variable:GAP_KOGNITIF




        Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
                                                                                                  14
        _______________________________________________________________________________________
    Linear Regression Model - Contribution of Non Cognitive on Gap


                                             R                Adjusted
       Model              R                Square             R Square                   SE
      1 (a)              .856(a)                 .733                     .733            4.39174
      2 (b)              .943(b)                 .890                     .890            2.82021
      3 (c)              .974(c)                 .949                     .949            1.91566
      4 (d)              .990(d)                 .979                     .979            1.21995
      5 (e)            1.000(e)                 1.000                    1.000              .00000

a   Peramal: (Constant), Skor_NK_TTK
b   Peramal: (Constant), Skor_NK_TTK, Skor_NK_FKL
c   Peramal: (Constant), Skor_NK_TTK, Skor_NK_FKL, Skor_NK_PD
d   Peramal: (Constant), Skor_NK_TTK, Skor_NK_FKL, Skor_NK_PD, Skor_NK_BDKS
e   Peramal: (Constant), Skor_NK_TTK, Skor_NK_FKL, Skor_NK_PD, Skor_NK_BDKS, Skor_NK_KDD
f   Dependent Variable:GAP_NONKOGNITIF



          Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
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          _______________________________________________________________________________________
APPROACHES OF ENTREPRENEURIAL EDUCATION

According to Klandt (1993), entrepreneurs are not born but can be
developed through learning. There are two different approaches in
entrepreneurial education:

 Education ‘about’ entrepreneurship.
  The emphasis of learning is on the theory of entrepreneurship,
  entrepreneurs, the process of entrepreneurship, the creation of
  business and its contribution to the economy.

   Education ‘for’ entrepreneurship.
    The emphasis in on how to embark on (start-up) business and the
    involvement and managerial behaviors/skills of the students in the
    enterprise operation to achieve the desired business profits/goals.

         The current widely practiced approached is ‘about
         entrepreneurship’ but according to Laukennen (2000), the
         effective one should be ‘for entrepreneurship’!
                                                                          16
Methods of Teaching                           For   About
Listening to lecturers                        X      X
Students’ entrepreneurship club               X
Preparing the project paper/thesis                   X
Writing the case study                        X      X
Research                                             X
Invited speakers                              X      X
Role Play                                     X
Reading                                       X
Working with entrepreneurs                    X
Writing business plans                        X
Providing consultation services to students   X
Computer simulation                           X
Watching videos on entrepreneurs              X
Visiting companies                            X      X
Practical fieldwork                           X             17
ENTREPRENEURSHIP-ORIENTED EDUCATION

Laukkannen (2000) also stresses the differences between education that
is entrepreneurship oriented and traditional education. Education that is
entrepreneurship oriented has the following characteristics:
     Focused on the process (not content)
     Teaching staff function as facilitators
     Oriented to knowing how and knowing who (not knowing what)
     Emphasis on the practical relevance of the theory (not the theory)
     Professional training (not humanistic)
     Decision makers
     Personal action and commitment oriented
     Focuses on pragmatic competencies
     Evaluating real situations in business
     Accepting relative situations


                                                                       18
The Didactic Learning Approach and the Entrepreneurial Approach

         Didactic Approach                   Entrepreneurial Approach
•Performs a passive role as listener    •Learning occurs among one another
•Learning from the written text         •Learning through practice
•Learning from the lecturer as expert   •Learning from the exchange of
•Learning from feedback from            ideas, discussions and experience.
lecturers                               •Learning from discovery with
•Learning in a structured and           guidelines
scheduled situation                     •Leaning from the customers’
•Learning without stress to achieve     reaction and entrepreneurial
the goal at a rapid pace.               networking
•Copying from other people is not       •Learning in a flexible situation and in
allowed.                                a non-formal environment
•Failure is feared                      •Learning under stress to achieve the
•Learning from notes                    goal
                                        •Learning from borrowing and value-
                                        adding ideas from others
                                        •Learning from mistakes
                                        •Learning from solving problems
                                                                             19
ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION – MALAYSIAN WAY

      The process of teaching and learning entrepreneurship also has to
      emphasis on the inculcation of values and ethics.

      important in order to develop noble individuals who devote themselves
    not only to worldly things but also emphasize the welfare of society.

      to minimize the cases of abuse of trust, corruption and swindling in the
    business world (not focusing on long-term business survival).

        Apart from creating the intelligent and competitive entrepreneur, the
           importance of soft-skills needs also to be stressed.

            . related skills include communicational skills, digital and
                 technological skills. Students also need to be sensitive to
                    changes in the environment, as well as global changes, so
                        that they are not left behind.


                                                                              20
RECOMMENDED DELIVERY METHODS FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP
EDUCATION IN MALAYSIA

Entrepreneurship has been identified as one of the key areas in human
resource development. Most experts generally agree that entrepreneurs
are not born; they learn to become entrepreneurs.

Thus, a more positive result would be expected if the steps taken to
develop the entrepreneurship culture, interest and mind are geared up
when they are still at their lower level of education – primary or even pre-
primary school. (requires cooperation between MOHE and MEducation)

To produce a Malaysian generation of independent, confident and
creative persons who will have the entrepreneurship mind to spur the
country's development further in future, the delivery methods at the
tertiary level (in particular) must be developed based on the:
• Problem-Based Learning (PBL), and
• Experiential Learning (EL)

                                                                          21
 PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING (PBL)

 The curriculum is made up of selected problems that are designed
 meticulously and require students to possess:
  critical knowledge,
  proficiency in solving problems,
  self-directed learning strategies and
  group-working skills.

 These four aspects can help in:
  analyzing problems,
  generating ideal alternatives and
  selecting effective solutions for implementation.

This approach can assist in narrowing the existing cognitive gap –
particularly the “planning” dimension, and non cognitive gap – particularly
the “tolerance toward ambiguity” (Mohd Fauzi et al., 2007).


                                                                          22
PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING (PBL)….Cont.

Students can develop the skills and the required knowledge effectively
through the application of the entrepreneurial curriculum in situations
that resemble the real business world.

In PBL, the traditional roles of the facilitator and student do not exist.
Students need to possess a high degree of responsibility for their
learning. This can motivate them more and create the mood needed to
achieve the best to realize the goal of becoming life-long learner who is
successful.

The teaching staff and the educational institutions involved function as
resources, tutors, mentors and facilitators to guide the students in their
efforts to solve their problems.Students are encouraged to work actively
using the material and the facilitators merely give advice, guidelines, and
discuss alternatives.



                                                                          23
    Specifically, PBL provides opportunities to the students to:

    Examine and experiment with what they know
    Explore what they need for knowledge
    Develop spiritual skills in order to achieve high performance in their
      groups
    Improve their oral and written communication skills
    State and defend their arguments with evidence that is available.
    Be more flexible in processing knowledge and fulfilling obligations
    Practice skills that are needed after they graduate

  PBL was first implemented in the 1950’s by Case Western Reserve
University at the medical faculty. Today, PBL has started gaining the
attention of various disciplines and levels in the education system around
the globe.




            Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
            _____________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                                                                       24
PBL provides a new paradigm whereby:

 Students are responsible for their own learning and are free to be
  involved in problems according to the level of difficulty they want.

 Students work in small groups and try to create various solutions to
  problems ( MULTI disciplines group).

 Assessment of students is more comprehensive and varied.

 Students are challenged with problems that are less structured that
  serve as starting points and stimuli for learning. PBL encourages
  students to generate and create ideas as part of the learning process.

 PBL provides more meaning, application and relevancy to materials to
  be discussed in the class apart from facilitating the development of the
  critical-analytical skills needed for entrepreneurship.


                                                                         25
EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING (“Learning by Doing……in real”)

According to Biers et al. (2006), an effective model of entrepreneurial learning
should be based on the processes of doing, reflecting and applying.

The Association for Experiential Education (AEE) defines EL as “….. A process
through which a student is able to create knowledge, skills and values from direct
experiences that is real.




                                                                                   26
EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING (EL) ….Cont.

Requires the full and more strategic implementation of U-G-I Triangulation
approach in entrepreneurship development program.
                           INSTITUTIONS OF
                           HIGHER LEARNING
                                     - Centre of Excellence
                                       in Entrepreneurship
                                         - SME’s Incubator Centre
                                           - Academician/Consultant
                                           - Student trainees
                               U-G-I
                           Triangulation
                               Effort



GOVERNMENT                                                 INDUSTRY
AGENCIES                                                   -Successful
-SMIDEC, MECD.                                              entrepreneurs
                                                                        27

-MARA, MOHE                                                - Banks/Firms etc.
EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING (EL) ….Cont.

Assessment by the individual student, peer-group, facilitator as well as the
entrepreneurs are utilized to evaluate the students’ performance.

External financial sources were collected (based on commercial merit) to
support the business investment that was initiated. Throughout the
course, groups of students were required to evaluate and implement
business transactions based on the objectives, time, returns and
opportunities to negotiate for outside sources.

The assessment process is continuous throughout the semester by the
facilitators as well as peer-group based on the followings:
 Level of involvement with the business
 Reliability of the individual in dealing with professional matters
 Respect and ability to work with others
 Ability to organize and list priority of duties
 Communicational skills
 Ability to manage and handle crises
                                                                         28
EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING (EL) ….Cont.

“The Entrepreneurship Speakers Program” - draws famous and
successful entrepreneurs to the educational institution to discuss ideas,
opportunities and business management.

 expose students to unique experiences, lessons that are acquired and
  issues/challenges as experienced by the entrepreneurs in real-life
  situations.

 students in the groups can interact directly with the entrepreneurs to
  share experiences and interests.

UKM’s COBLAS (Consulting Based Learning for ASEAN SMEs)
- Collaborative project between SMIDEC, SME Bank and UKM.
- Also involve experts from Waseda University in Japan.
- university students serve as trainee consultants to participating
  firms/SMEs.
- Ongoing program in FEP, UKM lead by Prof Mohd Fauzi.
                                                                            29
     ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION AT TERTIARY LEVEL

                       Model B CoBLAS Program
                       (FEP-SMIDEC-SME Bank)



                                       Entrepreneurs (SMEs)
                                                  (Firms/Ent)


                              Graduates                Education
Support for SMEs:      (Multi Descipline Group)   (ResearchTeam)

Business Consulting
Marketing Strategies
Accounting System
Human Resources
e-Commerce
Financing
                                                                30
Network
   ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION AT PRE-TERTIARY LEVEL

UKM’s MALJEP (Malaysian Junior Entrepreneurship Program)
- Organized by the UKM’s Entrepreneurship & Marketing Research
  Group under FRGS Funding
- Employed Experiential and Problem-based Learning.
- Successful pioneering project in November 2007 involving 47
secondary school (Form 1&2) students.
- Based on ASEAN SMEs Project by Waseda University (Prof Takeru
  Ohe), Japan
- The findings indicated substantial increased in student’s interest in
  venturing into business in the future.




                                                                          31
CONCLUSION

To start develop the entrepreneurship mind of Malaysian generation when they
are still at lower stage of education – Young/Youth Entrepreneurship.

To develop delivery method and contents/curricula based on:
• Problem-based learning (PBL), and
• Experiential learning (EL)

To encourage more entrepreneurship development programs based on the UGI
(university-government-industry) Triangulation approach at the higher education
level.

To provide training for the instructors/teachers/lecturers (train the trainers)
to deliver effective delivery methods based on PBL/EL/UGI Triangulation.

To draw successful entrepreneurs to the education institutions to share knowledge
and ideas in business.

To set an integrated entrepreneurship course as a compulsory course at all level
of education (primary, secondary and tertiary according to the entrepreneurship
skills development stages) – public as well as private institutions.             32
 ENTREPRENEURIAL STUDIES IN INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER
LEARNING: METHODS FOR DELIVERING ENTREPRENEURSHIP
                    EDUCATION




            THANK YOU



                   Universiti
                 Kebangsaan
                  Malaysia                           33