PRODUCTION CHEMICAL

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               PRODUCTION CHEMICAL
               INTERNATIONAL HOLDINGS LTD.
               Forwarding Address; 1 Belle Vue Close, Staines, Middlesex, TW18 2HY
               Telephone + 44 (0)1784 453477 Fax + 44 (0)1784 466320 Mobile 0973 730065
               E Mail email@productionchemical.com Web Site www.productionchemical.com




Production Chemical began operations in the African continent and we have
expanded rapidly to other areas in the last 10 years. We are operating in
Nigeria,Libya,Gabon, and the Caspian/Russia areas. We also have
associations in the Far East. We have substantial business in Pakistan and
some business in Egypt. We have been operating with, and doing business
for over 15 years. We do some supplies of chemicals to the Middle East but
these are not regular supplies.

 We specialise in service, monitoring the chemicals we supply combined
with comprehensive technical backup. We have been very successful in
Nigeria where we treat over 350,000 bbls of crude oil and are also treating
150,000 bbls of seawater for pressure maintenance. Also in Kazakhstan, we
have been operating for over 5 years with Shell, Buzachi and CNPC, and are
treating approximately 100,000 bbls of crude. We are providing service and
chemicals to Conoco, Canadian Occidental, Marathon, Mono Polu, Addax, ,
Shell, ExxonMobil plus other small indigenous companies in the countries
in which we operate.

 We have a complete Production Chemical product range from
demulsifiers, pour point depressants, paraffin inhibitors, anti-foam, and all
water treatment products associated with the oil industry – water clarifiers,
scale inhibitors, corrosion inhibitors, defoamers, polyelectrolytes, filter aids,
biocides, oxygen scavengers and other specific chemicals. Quality control
is essential to maintain our standards and we therefore source our
products from multinational suppliers and toll blend to our specification
specific to the problems encountered. We have a blending facility sited in
Nigeria and we are also considering a blending facility for Gabon, to reduce
costs to our customers.
We have an innovative system for treating wells with scale/corrosion
inhibitors. This is performed by placing the caps (Encapsulated
scale/corrosion inhibitors) in the well – and because they are weighted they
fall to the rat hole of the well. Using the similar time release principal used
in the pharmaceutical and agricultural industry, the caps release the
required quantity of inhibitor to protect your tubing from the perforations to
the surface and will also follow through to the topside equipment.
Squeezing of scale inhibitors have been performed and we are positive
that our clients would benefit financially and technically in using our
Registered in the British Virgin Islands No.151095. Registration Office:-Craigmuir Chambers , Road Town, Tortola, British
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technology compared with the squeezing                                     methods that are used at
present.

We were agents for Conoco Drag Reducer and a PC Drag Reducer PC
DRA 2001 (Conoco Specialty Products Inc. – CSPI) in Nigeria and therefore
have qualified engineers in this field . If you have applications for this
product massive financial savings are possible. We are in the process of
Marketing our own DRA – called PC DRA 2001. If there are bottle necks and
more Oil is required to be transported through inadequate capacity pipelines
the PC DRA 2001 can be injected and as much as 50% increase in flow can
be obtained.

We also provide a complete survey on your facilities free of charge where
water analyses are performed. With the information we get from the survey
we can predict possible problem areas and how to solve them – from the
produced water to the produced oil.

We also have a Tank Cleaning division. Mainly for large crude oil tanks but
we will consider FFO and other tanks after an inspection has taken place.
There is a section on our web page that deals with the tank cleaning
business.

 We have three expatriate engineers based in the African continent with 21
years, 10 and 8 years respectively in the oil industry. We also have 12
qualified West African engineers working across West Africa. We have two
engineers in the Kazakhastan/Russia and three local engineers. We have
other personnel we use for other areas of the world and this operation is run
out of our UK office. We believe service is essential to the success of
injecting Treating Chemicals. In most cases on waterfloods we provide 24
hour engineering coverage – this service is included in the price per drum –
this involves routine testing, compatibility studies on mixing waters, bacteria
cultures, oxygen levels, troubleshooting problems, emulsion and effluent
water quality. The engineer will perform oil in waters so as to maintain ppm
levels within specified guidelines, routine and export BS&W’s, scale
predictions using tendency calculations and continuously optimizing
chemicals. This has been proven to be more cost effective as the engineer
ensures, on the spot, adjustments due to his regular testing programme.
Alternatively we can train company personnel to carry out regular testing and
establish ongoing trends and setup field laboratories.

We would be very interested in performing field tests such as demulsifier
bottle testing, pour point tests, water analyses and other field tests to
establish our best product specific to your needs. We provide cost
effective products and you will find us to be very competitive within the oil
industry.

We will be happy to provide a number of contacts of our existing clients if
references are required. Please use the following addresses if you require
to contact us: -



Registered in the British Virgin Islands No.151095. Registration Office:-Craigmuir Chambers , Road Town, Tortola, British
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                         PRODUCTION
                          CHEMICAL

                           CONTENTS
                       Introductory Letter



International / Africa Structure



                               Technical Data




Registered in the British Virgin Islands No.151095. Registration Office:-Craigmuir Chambers , Road Town, Tortola, British
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                                       PRODUCTION CHEMICAL GROUP
                                               Production Chemical Group are operating in different regions of the World




                                        P C (Ireland)                                                                                            P C Nigeria Limited
P C International                          Limited
                                                                    P             C           P C Near East                                            Directors
Holding Limited                           Directors                 Overseas                  Limited                                            Mrs C.O. Agodo
                                        Mr Paul Sirrat                                                                                           Mr and Mrs Watson
Director                             Peter van der Sloot            Limited                   Director
Mr D.K. Watson                                                      Directors-                Mr D.K. Watsn
                                                                    Mr         D.K.
                                                                    Watson Staff -
                                                                      Technical
                                                            Mr K.J. Watson – Development Manager
                                                                    Mr         S.B.
                                                          Mr D.K. Watson – Technical Director
                                                                    Agodo Technical Manager
                                                          Mr Leonard Rasor –
                                                          Mr Martin McDonagh – International Eng
                                                          Mr Toni Eputuku – International Engineer




   Numerous                           Operational staff                  Mr Lenny Rasor –                   Mr Lenny Rasor –                     Managers –
   Agencies for other                    Pakistan                        manager fof                        manager fof                          Elizabeth Agodo –
   parts of the wprld               Manager Muzaffar                     Production                         Production                           Admin/Accounts
   such as Indonesia ,              Khan                                 Chemical Near East.                Chemical Near East.                  Keme Agodo –
   Malaysia, Sudan,                                                                                                                              Business
   Egypt..                          Business                             Personnel – two                    Personnel – two                      development
                                    Development                          Engineers in                       Engineers in                         Everest Uke
   other third party                (Col (R) Ayaz                        Kazakhstan , Joint                 Kazakhstan , Joint                   Felix Aigbe
   companies are                    Mahmood Ahmad                        Venture in Libya                   Venture in Libya
   involved in our                  Khan)                                                                                                        Engineers and
   sales drive                                                           Third part supplies                Third part supplies                  supporting staff
                                    Engineer –                           to Russia                          to Russia                            Senior Engineer Toni
                                    Muhammad Masood                                                                                              Epetuku., Enite $Esi, -
                                    Ahmed                                                                                                        12 other qualified
                                                                                                                                                 engineers – 12
                                                                                                                                                 supporting staff



               Registered in the British Virgin Islands No.151095. Registration Office:-Craigmuir Chambers , Road Town, Tortola, British Virgin Islands.
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Production Chemical




                   The Problem Solvers




         Treating Chemical Specialists




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PRODUCTION CHEMICAL
in Africa and Eastern Europe.

The Continents of the future for
the Oil and Gas Industry.
Production Chemical
An independent group of companies specialising in the specialty treating chemical
industry. Founded in 1991(we operated for 5 years under another name Oil Chem
(Production Chemical Ltd), the company has concentrated its operations in Africa and is
expanding into other areas Far East and Middle East and hoping to enter into the
Eastern Europe Region. We operate in a number of African Countries in


West Africa
South Central
North Africa
Associations in Singapore, Middle/Far East


Services:
Engineering and Complete Chemical Package including:
Corrosion Monitoring
Continuous 24 hr Engineering Support
Ad Hoc Supplies
Consulting Services specific to Commissioning and pre Start Up Design.
Crude Oil Tank cleaning


Specialty Services Including:
Corrosion Control
Scale Control
Water Treatment
Resolving Emulsions
“Tailor Made” Formulations
Specialty Supplies in EOR product.
Laboratory Set Up and Advice and Commissioning.
On Site Client Training.




Resources:

Registered in the British Virgin Islands No.151095. Registration Office:-Craigmuir Chambers , Road Town, Tortola, British
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Personnel
We, as a service orientated company, feel that the key resource is our people.


We have numerous international and local engineers. We operate a policy of combining
the benefits of expatriate engineers and indigenous engineers. This has resulted in a
team of engineers achieving the highest technical standards combined with a practical
approach to operating and process requirements.


Our ethos is to provide on site qualified engineers to support the optimisation of chemical
treatment where this is agreeable to the client.


“ The job doesn’t end with the supply of chemicals.”
“ The best chemical must be monitored to be effective”


All our intermediates are manufactured to the most exacting standards to our
requirements by major corporations backed by ISO 9001 certification or better. This
reflects in the quality of the finished products which results in the ‘SOLVING OF
PROBLEMS.’
We specialise in giving a service where we monitor the chemicals we supply. It is our
strongly held belief that the simple supply of chemicals is not enough. We believe that
success depends on regular follow up. This is often provided in the form of twenty four
hour engineer cover. At the very least we attend site regularly, monitoring injection rates
and equipment as well as critical indicators like BS&W, corrosion rates and scale
deposition. We have been very successful in Nigeria where we treat over 300,000 bbls of
crude oil. We are also treating 150,000 bbls of seawater for pressure maintenance and
50,000 bbls of produced water.

We have a complete product range from demulsifiers, pour point depressants, paraffin
inhibitors, anti-foam, and all water treatment products associated with the oil industry –
water clarifiers, scale inhibitors, corrosion inhibitors, defoamers, polyelectrolytes, filter aids,
biocides, oxygen scavenger and other specific chemicals. Quality control is essential to
maintain our standards and we therefore source our products from multinational suppliers.
We have developed a very strong relationship with many of the industries leading
manufacturers and we have developed products especially tailored to our clients specific
needs and designs. All our products are tailored to the specific nature of the problem and
we formulate all our own products.

We have an innovative system for treating wells with scale/corrosion inhibitors. This is
performed by placing the caps (Encapsulated scale/corrosion inhibitors) in the well – with
them being weighted they fall to the rat hole of the well. With the similar time release
principal used in the pharmaceutical and agricultural industry the caps release the
required quantity to protect your tubing from the perforations to the surface and will also
follow through to the topside equipment. More information on this method of treatment
can be e-mailed or faxed from our U.K. office.

We also are the agents for Conoco Drag Reducer in Nigeria and in other West African
Countries. We have a wealth of experience in the use of this leading edge technology
and we have qualified engineers in this field.

We have three expatriate engineers based in Western African region with 18 years,12
years and 6 years respectively in the oil industry. We also have 12 qualified West African
engineers working across West Africa – holding Masters, Degrees and chemistry related
subjects. We believe service is essential to the success of injecting Treating Chemicals. In
all cases where we are treating waterfloods we provide 24 hour engineering coverage –
this service is included in the price per drum – this involves routine testing, compatibility
studies on mixing waters, bacteria cultures, oxygen levels, troubleshooting problems,
emulsion and effluent water quality. The engineer will perform oil in waters so as to
maintain ppm levels within specified guidelines, routine and export BS&W’s, scale
predictions using tendency calculations and continuously optimising chemicals. This has

Registered in the British Virgin Islands No.151095. Registration Office:-Craigmuir Chambers , Road Town, Tortola, British
                                                       Virgin Islands.
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been proven to be more cost effective as the engineer ensures, on the spot, adjustments
due to his regular testing programme. Alternatively we can train company personnel to
carry out regular testing and establish ongoing trends. We also advise on offshore
laboratory services, equipment specific to your needs – purchase the equipment if
needed and set-up the Laboratory. We have a very good reputation on waterfloods and
would like to mentioned some names of our clients who would be very willing to give a
reference.

We have engineers covering other areas such as the Far East, and Middle East

Shebah – contracted Alliance Marine to operate the Trinity Spirirt (before Conoco –
Independence – offshore Nigeria – 10,000 bbls/day of seawater and 10,000 bbls of
crude oil.

Tetra Petroleum (Owned by TransAtlantic – Alias CanOxy (Canadian Petroleum) –
offshore Nigeria - Ejulebe Platform – 20,000 bbls/seawater flood –Mr Chris Bowrey. Tel
00 871 383 025569 –email :- ejulebe.platform@tpos-ng.com

Monu Polu – Agbani Barge – mouth of the Calabar River – 50,000 bbls/day of
Seawater injection. – Contact Mr Gregg Moser – Tel 00 234 1 262 4893 – Email
–Adebayo Ayorinde - email :- bayo.ayorinde@monipulo.com

ADDAX Petroleum – 100,000 bbls of crude oil 20,000 bbls of produced water –Nnamdi
Nwachukwu – tel 00 234 1 2610631. - email :-nnamdi.nwachukwu@addaxpetroleum.com

ExxonMobil – Qua Iboe terminal - – treating tank sludge _ million barrels per month.

Shell Arman, Kazakhstan - Edgar.Folmar@armanjv.kz

All these projects are manned and have a resident engineer on board 24 hours. Please
feel free to contact the above people. All our Engineers have been trained and we would
be happy to place them anywhere in the world.

We would be very interested in performing field tests such as demulsifier bottle testing,
pour point tests, water analyses and other field tests to establish our best product specific
to your needs. We provide cost effective products and you will find us to be very
competitive within the oil industry.

Please we would be very interested in supplying you with chemicals and the appropriate
engineering services, and advice on your facilities.




Registered in the British Virgin Islands No.151095. Registration Office:-Craigmuir Chambers , Road Town, Tortola, British
                                                       Virgin Islands.
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                      Technical Data




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                 PRODUCTION CHEMICAL SPECIALTY PRODUCTS


PRODUCTION CHEMICAL GROUP market specialty chemicals and provide services to
the oil and gas exploration industry. These products, marketed under the trade name
PRODUCTION CHEMICAL OR PC span the complete range of speciality organic
chemicals and solvents, including biocides, corrosion inhibitors, defoamers, emulsifiers,
foamers, rig washes,scale inhibitors, hydrogen sulphide scavengers, formulated emulsion
breakers, paraffin inhibitors ( including solvents and dispersants), and deoilers/water
clarifiers. Tank cleaning chemicals – and specialized formulations for specific problems
associated with the treatment of oil and gas systems.

Behind PRODUCTION CHEMICAL products are multinational companies willing to supply
intermediates and research to problems associated with the oil industry. PRODUCTION
CHEMICAL has access to these facilities and any problem associated with oil and gas
production. PRODUCTION CHEMICAL will give the field service, technical backup,
including research chemists to solve any problem with the production of oil and gas.

PRODUCTION CHEMICAL are marketing a complete range of TREATING CHEMICALS
but we also supply a full range designed for use in the following applications:- ( if more
information is required on any of our products please do not hesitate to contact us.)




                   Drilling Fluids.

                    Completion/Workover Fluids.

                    Stimulation Fluids.

                    Enhanced Oil Recovery.

                    Water Treatment.

                    Oil Treatment.

                    Corrosion protection.




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PRODUCTION CHEMICAL supplies all field service applicable to all the these chemicals
and their applications:-




                 DRILLING APPLICATIONS

                    Antifoams/Defoamers

                    Biocides

                    Corrosion Inhibitors

                   Emulsifiers

                   Foamers

                    Solvents

                    Cleaners (including rig washes)

                    Drilling Detergents

                    Scale Inhibitors

                    Surfactants(including tensides and
                   wetters)

                     Lubricants (including spotting fluids &
                    torque reducers)

                     Completion/Workover fluid components
                    (including diverting resins)




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PRODUCTION CHEMICAL PRODUCTS GROUPED BY FUNCTION


     Name

   DEFOAMERS

  PC DF 100      - Alcohol base, particularly suitable for
  use in water-injection systems.

  PC DF 200      - Silicone base, particularly suitable for
  use in water treatment, but has wide application.

  PC DF 300           - Dimethyl siloxane polymer in hydrocarbon
                       solvent. Wide application.

   PC DF 400     - Alcohol and silicone polymer blended in
    hydrocarbon solvent. Designed for application in water based drilling
   fluids.

   PC DF 900     - Glycol based formulation particular suited
   for cementation, completion and workover operations, but has wide
   application.

BIOCIDES

   PC B 1110          - An 80% active aqueous solution of a fatty
                        benzyl quaternary ammonium chloride. Particularly suitable
                      for use in water injection systems. Also provides some
                       corrosion protection.

  PC B 1111          - A liquid blend of quaternary ammonium and
                      ethoxylated salts. Suitable for control
                      of sulphate reducing bacteria.

  PC B 1107 -           A 50% active aqueous solution of a fatty
                       benzyl quaternary ammonium chloride.
                       Suitable for use in water injection
                      systems.

   PC B 1101 - A 40% active aqueous solution of a
              Triazine based product.. Suitable for control
              of sulphate reducing bacteria. Secondary function
              as an H2S scavenger – excellent for FPSO/FSO slop oil tanks
              Biodegradable.

PC B 1500         - Microbiocide based on isothiazolones. Biodegradable. Excellent for
                   waterfloods – very good in combination with the B1101. Thiey both are
                   compatible and can be mixed together without an adverse reactions.


We also have numerous other biocides which we have developed by blending chemistry
so as to broaden the effectiveness of the biocides. For example we have B 1101 which is
a triazine chemistry and we have mixed with Isothiazolones which produces a very
effective product for seawater floods - this product is B 1101 E – which is also
biodegradable. We are constantly developing different chemistry so as increase
effectiveness of our products.




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CORROSION INHIBITORS


  PC C.I.2100 -         A ready-to-use aqueous solution of film
                      forming fatty amine derivatives
                      particularly suited for water injection
                      systems. Also acts as a biocide
                       capable of controlling sulphate reducing
                      bacteria.

 PC C.I.2101          - A ready to use aqueous solution of fatty
                       acids and fatty amines derivatives
                        designed to protect against carbon
                       dioxide corrosion. It is dispersible
                       in both water and oil. Thus it is
                       effective on oil/water mixtures.

 PC C.I.2116         - A ready to use aqueous mixture of fatty
                       acids, fatty amine derivatives and a
                       volatile amine. Particularly designed to
                       protect against carbon dioxide corrosion
                       in both the liquid and vapour phases of
                       oil and gas pipelines and gathering
                      systems.

  PC C.I.2111        - A ready to use water-soluble blend of
                       cationic, anionic and non-ionic surface
                      active agents. Particularly suited for
                      solids free aqueous packer fluids
                      including brines. Also has a biocidal
                      action including control of sulphate
                      reducing bacteria.

  PC C.I.2110        - An aqueous blend of film forming fatty
                       amine derivatives and a solution of
                      ammonium bisulphite. It's a dual
                       function of corrosion protection and
                       oxygen scavenging is particularly suited
                      for water - based drilling fluid
                      applications.

 PC C.I. 2108 -             A quaternary ammonium compound which has
                       Biocidal properties and is an excellent
                       Corrosion inhibitor. Completely water
                       soluble and ideal in waterfloods.

  PC C.I.2151        - A ready to use hydrocarbon solution of
                      fatty amine derivatives soluble in oil
                       and dispersible in water. Designed for
                      protection of oil pipelines and
                       gathering systems against carbon dioxide
                      corrosion.




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 PC C.I.2152         - A ready to use aromatic hydrocarbon
                        solution containing a blend of fatty
                      acids and fatty amine derivatives.
                      Designed to protect oil wells and
                        pipelines against carbon dioxide and
                        hydrogen sulphide attack. It is soluble
                       in oil and dispersible in water. Can be
                      used in diluted form for `squeeze'
                      treatment.

     PC C.I.2195 - A 90% active solution of di-
                 isopropanolamine, appropriate for cold
                 weather storage and handling. Acts as
                 a solvent to strip acid gases from sour
                 gas streams, especially where sulphur is
                 recovered as a saleable commodity.


EMULSIFIERS

 PC E 200            - An oil soluble alkyl phenol ethoxylate
                       designed to provide a balance of
                       properties including a high level of
                       surface activity. Applications include
                       down-hole emulsifications , oil-in-water
                       pipeline emulsification and tank
                       cleaning operations. It is capable of
                       emulsifying a wide range of oil, waxes
                       and hydrocarbon solvents.

  PC E 201           - An water soluble alkyl phenol ethoxylate
                       designed to provide a high level of
                       surface activity. Applications include
                      down-hole emulsifications , oil-in-water
                       pipeline emulsification and tank
                       cleaning operations. It is capable of
                      emulsifying a wide range of medium
                      polarity oils and solvents.

  PC E 206           - A concentrated aqueous solution of a
                       polymeric alkylene oxide condensate
                       containing an organic co-solvent.
                       Particularly suited for enhancing crude
                      oil recovery where injected water
                      contains high salt or `hardness'
                      contamination. It is insensitive to
                       water hardness, elevated temperatures
                      and electrolytes.




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FOAMERS

  PC F 300          - An aqueous solution of an alkyl dimethyl
                     amine oxide miscible with water in all
                      proportions over a wide temperature
                      range. It combines good foaming
                      characteristics with good stabilizing
                     qualities.

  PC F 372          - A 70% active anionic biodegradable
                      foaming agent.


SOLVENTS


 PC H 600           - A mixture of isomeric branched chain
                      primary C9 aliphatic alcohols used as a
                      component in acidizing fluids. It is
                      soluble in most organic solvents but
                      almost insoluble in water.

  PC H 601          - A mixture of isomeric branched chain C9
                       aliphatic alcohols used as a component
                      in acidizing fluids.

  PC H 602           - An alcohol based high flash point, polar
                      solvent with low systemic toxicity. It
                       is suitable as a component in acidizing
                       fluids and as a solvent for preparing
                      formulations.

 PC H 610            - An aromatic petroleum derived solvent
                       consisting mainly of C9 and C10 alkyl
                       benzenes. Its high flash point, low
                       viscosity, low pour point, low sulphur
                       content, mild odour and thermal
                       stability make it an ideal organic
                       solvent for      many applications,
                       especially formulated preparations.

(Numerous other special purpose solvents are available on request)

CLEANERS INCLUDING RIG WASHES.


  PC S 5640           - A non-alkali, non-hydrocarbon, liquid
                       cleaning concentrate totally miscible
                       with fresh or sea water. Suitable for
                       use as a rig wash.

  PC S 5609/5610 - See data sheets

  PC S 5611/5612 - See data sheets.




DRILLING DETERGENTS

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  PC DD 706            - An aqueous concentrate of a blend of
                        surface active agents formulated for
                       water based muds. A `winterized'
                       version is available.

  PC DD 707            - A blend of surface active agents
                        formulated for water based muds
                       similar to PC DD 706 but with a
                        defoamer     incorporated in the
                        formulation. A `winterized' version
                       is available.

NOTE :- Because of their high level of surface activity DD706 and DD707 have found to
be useful in formulating MUD/CEMENT SPACERS as well. Their properties promote
removal of dirt, metal particles and mud-cake as spacer scours the well-bore and casing
prior to cementing operations.

SCALE INHIBITORS

 PC S.I. 3404            - An aqueous solution of low molecular
                          weight sodium polyacrylate suitable
                          for inhibiting the formation of
                           carbonate and sulphate scales. It is
                          stable to hydrolysis, non foaming
                           and does not contain halogens or
                           phosphates/phosphonates.

  PC S.I. 3403           - See data sheets.

  PC S.I.3405            - An aqueous solution of diethylene-
                           triamine pentamethylene phosphonic
                          acid hepta sodium salt. Suitable
                          for inhibiting the formation of
                           carbonate and sulphate scales.

NOTE :- Blends of PC S.I. 3404/3403/3405 have shown to yield superior performance
characteristics in field use under some circumstances.

SURFACTANTS

There are a wide range of PRODUCTION CHEMICAL products that can find use as
detergents tensides, wetters, wax dispersants and surface activity enhancers. Most are
fully biodegradable. More information on these can be supplied.

All PRODUCTION CHEMICAL products are chosen from years of experience out in the
field and as new products are introduced, PRODUCTION CHEMICAL use them in the
field to establish their efficacy and if found to be effective are introduced into the
PRODUCTION CHEMICAL product list.

In addition to the above range of products suitable for use in the oilfield pre-production
stage, there are PRODUCTION CHEMICAL demulsifiers intermediates ranging over 250
obtained from six major producers from the U.S.A., U.K., Germany, and France. Also as
can be seen in the brochure we have a range of products for water clarifiers (de-
oilers),Paraffin Inhibitors, Water Treatment Chemicals and other specialty chemicals
associated with the production of oil and gas. We pride ourselves in our field engineers
who are trained out in the field in a practical way and are then put through the theory in
a Laboratory.

‘CONTACT US WITH YOUR INQUIRIES AND YOUR PROBLEMS WILL BE SOLVED’




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                                    PRODUCT LIST

                                 PRODUCTION OF OIL


DEMULSIFIERS

PRODUCTION CHEMICAL D SERIES - PC supplies a full range of PC intermediates
based on -

        - propylene oxide/ethylene oxide polyadducts

        - Oxyalkylated substituted phenols

       - aliphatic polyesters

       - Oxyalkylated resinous materials

       - sulphonates

The final formulation of a demulsifier for optimum treatment can only be selected after
extensive tests.


Anti Foaming Agent

  PC DF 30 + DF 300 - Suitable for gas-oil separators and
                 refinery vacuum units

Scale Inhibitors

  PC S.I.3404 -           A sodium polyacrylate, suitable for
                          the inhibiting the formation of
                           carbonate and sulphate scales.

  PC S.I.3403 -            A diethylenetriamine pentamethylene
                           phosphonic acid hepta sodium salt,
                           suitable for the inhibiting the
                           formation of carbonate and sulphate
                          scales.

  PC S.I.3405 -             A diethylenetriamine pentamethylene
                           phosphonic acid hepta sodium salt,
                           suitable for the inhibiting the
                           formation of carbonate and sulphate
                          scales.

PC does have other scale inhibitors for specific problems. Certain waters respond to
different inhibitors and sometimes water analyses and laboratory testing are required
before recommending the most effective inhibitor.

CORROSION INHIBITORS

   PC C.I.2800            - Water soluble, oil dispersible,
                          filming type.

    PC C.I.2101           - Dispersible in both water and oil,
                          filming type.

   PC C.I.2116            - Oil Soluble, water dispersible,
                          filming type.

   PC C.I.2111            - Water soluble, biocidal properties

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                          filming type amine.

   PC C.I.2108            - Water soluble, biocidal properties
                          filming type amine.

   PC C.I.2110            - Water soluble, oil dispersible,
                           oxygen scavenger cocktail, filming
                          type amine.

   PC C.I.2151            - Oil soluble, water dispersible,
                          filming type.

    PC C.I.2152           - Oil soluble, water dispersible,
                          filming type.

   PC C.I.2190            - Oil and water dispersible, biocidal
                          properties, filming type.

    PC C.I.2195           - Removal of acid gases, hydrogen
                          sulphide from natural gases,
                           synthesis gas,refinery gases.)

    PC C.I.2302           - Oxygen Scavenger for the removal of
                          oxygen.


There are other corrosion inhibitors in our product list which have not been mentioned. If
there is any situation which requires specific treatment we will investigate and supply. For
example we have a corrosion inhibitor for closed circulating systems in engines and we
were requested to combine a scale inhibitor which we developed and supplied.


PARAFFIN INHIBITORS/FLOW IMPROVERS.

  PC P.I.4505             - Synthetic copolymer formulation.

  PC P.I.4506             - Synthetic copolymer formulation.

  PC P.I. 4508            - Synthetic copolymer formulation.

Flow improvers, crystal modifiers are also in our product list. Depending on the problem PC
Engineers will test the appropriate chemicals before recommending a treatment.

POUR POINT DEPRESSANTS.

  PC PPD 4508               - Synthetic copolymer formulation.

  PC PPD 45658              - Synthetic copolymer formulation.

  PC PPD 45658G                 - Synthetic copolymer formulation.

  PC PPD 4512              - Synthetic copolymer formulation.

We can develop specific to a problem.




BIOCIDES

   PC B 1100              - Nitrogen Carbon Compound.

  PC B 1101               - Triazine based.- Biodegradable


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   PC B 1101 E            - Triazine/Isothiazolone mixture – Biodegradable.

   PC B 1106              - Quaternary Ammonium Compound

  PC B 1108               - Quaternary Ammonium Compound

  PC B 1115               - Glutaraldehyde

  PC B 1500             - iIothiazolones


There are other biocides in the PC product list and would be recommended if thought
applicable.


PRODUCTION OF GAS

Gas Drying

  PC DF 200               - aqueous silicone emulsion.
                             (antifoaming agent)

   PC CI 2146             - N-methyldiethanolamine(pH control)

  PC CI 2147              - aqueous solution of sodium
                           mercaptobenzothiazole (pH control)




Gas Sweetening

  PC DF 250               - silicone antifoaming agent.
                          (sulfinol process)

  PC PR 2204               - diisopropanolamine (DIPA)

   PC PR 2205              - diisopropanolamine
                           (90% DIPA and 10% water)

   PC PR 2207              - N-methyldiethanolamine


Corrosion Inhibitor

  PC C.I.2117             - oil soluble, water dispersible,
                           filming type.



WATER FLOOD AND ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY (EOR)

Water Flooding – we have a lot of experience in this field and supply the complete range
of
chemicals to efficiently treat, seawater floods, fresh water floods and any of the EOR
systems.




Oxygen Scavengers

  PC C.I.2304             - hydrazine hydrate, activated.

  PC C.I.2305             - sodium bisulphite, 40% aqueous

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                                                                                                                      20
                          solution.

  PC C.I.2302             - ammonium bisulphite


Biocides

As mentioned above there are biocides we market that are in aqueous state or solid
state. Supplied to customers demands. Biocides are to be tested on the bacteria before
recommendation can be made.


Scale Inhibitors

As mentioned above.


Corrosion Inhibitors

As mentioned above. PC will perform laboratory tests to recommend the best corrosion
inhibitor for a particular system.




                                         PRODUCT DATA SHEET.

                          PRODUCTION CHEMICAL P.I./P.P.D. SERIES
                      PARAFFIN SOLVENTS/PARAFFIN DISPERSANTS

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          PARAFFIN CRYSTAL MODIFIERS, POUR POINT DEPRESSANTS


=====================================================================

GENERAL INFORMATION

PC P.I. SERIES is the trade name for the paraffin control chemicals marketed by
Production Chemical Group under the prefix of PC. The product line composes of three
types of products:

1. PARAFFIN SOLVENTS
2. PARAFFIN DISPERSANTS
3. PARAFFIN CRYSTAL MODIFIERS
4. POUR POINT DEPRESSANTS

The product used depends on the application and the economic circumstances.

PARAFFIN SOLVENTS:- When a well becomes plugged by paraffin forming in the
tubing or on the sucker rods, or when the flowlines are plugged with paraffin, it is
necessary to clean out the lines before starting a prevention programme with
dispersants or crystal modifiers. PC paraffin solvents maybe used in concentrated
form or mixed with oil to dissolve and remove already formed deposits. Solvents work
by reducing the deposit to a soft mush, which can be flushed from the system by the
produced fluid. If paraffin is a complicating factor in oil/water emulsion breakers they
can generally be improved by diluting them with PC paraffin solvents. The PC paraffin
dispersants and crystal modifiers are formulated in paraffin solvents to increase their
functionality.

PARAFFIN DISPERSANTS :- The PC paraffin dispersants are used to prevent or
retard the deposition of paraffin crystals, both downhole and in surface equipment.
PC paraffin dispersants coat the small paraffin crystals as they come out of solution,
thus preventing the crystals forming larger bodies or sticking to pipe surfaces. When
used in concentrated batch treatments, PC paraffin dispersants can dissolve and
remove existing paraffin deposits. Continuous injection can be used to prevent
paraffin deposition . Emulsion breakers performance can often be improved by using
them with PC paraffin dispersants where paraffin tank bottoms are prevalent.

PARAFFIN CRYSTAL MODIFIERS :- After existing paraffin deposits have been
removed by solvents and/or dispersants, PC paraffin crystal modifiers can be used
as a preventative treatment. The crystal modifiers are polymeric materials which work
by co-crystalizing with the wax crystals. This causes the wax crystals to be less
likely to agglomerate and adhere to pipe surfaces. This in turn reduces or eliminates
paraffin deposition and sometimes can lower the pour point temperature. PC paraffin
crystal modifiers can be injected continuously or used in batch treatments. They work
better and are more economical when injected into the system before paraffin
formation begins. This usually occurs when the oil cools in the production tubing near
the surface and gets more cooling in the flowlines. Sometimes the paraffin crystallizes
downhole.


POUR POINT DEPRESSANTS – these products are used to reduce the pour points of
crude. Usually used for obtaining pour points preventing solidification of crude at
certain temperatures along the production process – including the shipping in tankers.
They are very specific and extensive testing is required to obtain the most effective
product. Treatment ranges can vary from 200ppm – 1000ppm.


FACTORS INFLUENCING TREATING

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The following factors largely determine the feasibility and method of using PC P.I.
SERIES paraffin control chemicals.

1. Type of well completion.
2. Depth of well.
3. Fluid level of well
4. Bottom hole temperature.
5. Surface temperature.
6. Downhole and surface location of paraffin deposition.
7. Extent or severity of paraffin deposition.
8. Water/oil ratio.
9. Total fluid volume of system.
10.Surface area of affected system(tubing, lines, vessels etc.)


TREATING APPLICATIONS AND METHODS :-

Many factors affect the performance of paraffin control chemicals, therefore it is
important to have the right application. A specific treating recommendation should be
made only after a complete evaluation of the system has been made. PC field
engineers are qualified by field experience and laboratory training to recommend and
service all PC products. Research chemists are available to help solve unusual or
special treating problems.

PACKAGING

PC P.I./PPD SERIES are packaged in 200 litre drums.


AVAILABILITY

PC P.I./PPD SERIES are available from PRODUCTION CHEMICAL GROUP, 1 Belle
Vue     Close,  Staines,     TW18     2HY  -   United   Kingdom     -   email
prodchemwat@compuserve.com - Tel 44-1784-453477 --- Fax 44-1784-466320.


STORAGE AND HANDLING

Care should be taken in handling the PC P.I./PPD SERIES around open flames or
sparks. Keep container closed. Use with adequate ventilation.

Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing. Wash thoroughly after handling. In case of
contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Call a
physician. Flush skin with water. Wash clothing before reuse




                                   PRODUCT DATA SHEET.


                            PRODUCTION CHEMICAL CI SERIES
                               CORROSION INHIBITORS

=====================================================================
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GENERAL INFORMATION

The C.I. SERIES are specially formulated compounds. Their primary organic bases
are 1. Nitrogenous compounds 2. Sulphur compounds 3. Fatty alkyl phosphate esters
4. Oils. The main group that makes up Oilfield Corrosion Inhibitors are the
NITROGENOUS GROUP.

Nitrogenous Compounds

1.   Salts of nitrogenous compounds with carboxylic acids.
2.   Amides and Imidazolines.
3.   Quaternary ammonium compounds.
4.   Ethoxylated amines/amides/imidazolines
5.   Nitrogen heterocyclics.


CORROSION INHIBITOR AND THE DIFFERENT TYPES

The six categories PRODUCTION CHEMICAL identify corrosion Inhibitors and these
are:-

Type of Corrosion Inhibitor                                                            Environment to treat
Identified by Solubility

1.   Water Soluble                                                                               Sweet
2.   Oil Soluble – Water Dispersible                                                             Sweet
3.   Oil Soluble                                                                              Sweet
4.   Water Soluble                                                                                  Sour
5.   Oil Soluble – Water Dispersible                                                                Sour
6.   Oil Soluble                                                                                    Sour

Corrosion Inhibitors are usually selected on the basis of solubility or dispersibility in the
fluids which are to be inhibited. Frequently in a hydrocarbon system, a corrosion
inhibitor which is soluble in hydrocarbon is used. In water systems, water soluble
corrosion inhibitors are used. Oil soluble – water dispersible corrosion inhibitors are
frequently used in systems composed of both hydrocarbon and water.

Each of these methods of administering corrosion inhibitors has been used with
success. However, in considering various situations which could exist, these
methods of treating are not always adequate to mitigate corrosion.

The most obvious example of such a situation is that which exists in many pipelines
and flowlines. The fluids within the line are predominately hydrocarbon with a small
quantity of water. Often, the water carried by the hydrocarbon is separated in the line
as the hydrocarbons are transported. At each low point in the pipeline or flowline,
water accumulates, creating a potentially corrosive environment.

The selection of a corrosion inhibitor for use in a pipeline carrying crude oil and water
is very important. The corrosion inhibitor selected can be either oil soluble, oil soluble-
water dispersible or water soluble.

Selection of oil soluble corrosion inhibitors for use in pipelines which are designed to
transport crude oil, is frequently made simply because crude oil is in the pipeline. While
this is a logical premise, it may prove to be a costly procedure at some latter date. For
instance, most pipelines and flowlines carry small volumes of water and large
quantities of oil fail from corrosion on the bottom portion of the pipe rather than the top.
Usually the upper portion of the pipe is found to be well protected due to the oil soluble
inhibitor.
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The use of an oil soluble-water dispersible corrosion inhibitors is widespread in
systems handling both oil and water. This type of inhibitor may do a good job
protecting oil wells, or small diameter flowlines due to high velocity and or turbulent
flow which promotes mixing of the inhibitor and produced fluids. However, it may not
provide the desired protection in larger flowlines or pipelines carrying these same
fluids due to reduction in velocity and or turbulence.

Water soluble corrosion inhibitors are also widely used in the oil field, especially in
waterfloods and salt water disposal systems. Because of the relative short film life
and persistence of water soluble corrosion inhibitors , they are continuously injected.

One might assume a water soluble inhibitor is the answer to treating a pipeline
carrying crude oil and water, since water on the bottom of the pipe is the primary
source of corrosion problem. However, there is another problem which must be
considered. The portion of pipe which is occupied by the oil and water emulsion is
also a corrosive environment. Under such conditions, a water soluble would probably
not provide adequate protection. However, it has been proven that a portion of most
water soluble corrosion inhibitors dissolve into the oil, which will give some protect ion
in the oil phase.

To summarise, small diameter flowlines and pipelines which transport fluids at high
velocities can be successfully treated with oil soluble or oil soluble-water dispersible
inhibitors, due to the frequent contact of oil with the wall of the pipe. Just the
chemistry alone and the fact that these inhibitors are oil soluble means they do work
and protect the walls better than water soluble. If you can get away with treating with
oil soluble or oil soluble-water dispersible this is desirable. On the other hand large
diameter pipes which are plagued with low spots, or dips creating ‘dead’ areas and
the flow tending to be laminar flow, allows water to settle and corrosion to occur.
This is when a water soluble inhibitor should be recommended.

Gas pipelines have also a unique problems and the corrosion inhibitors have to be
formulated to protect the gas phase, water phase and oil phase. We can formulate a
volatile amine to take care of the gas phase, water soluble so as to take care of the
water phase and finally the oil portion which takes care of the oil phase in a cocktail.
On the other hand we have performed numerous laboratory and field tests and have
data to show that a oil soluble-water dispersible/water soluble can successful treat a
gas line – the main reason is the turbulent flow will cause the inhibitor to aspirate and
coat every inch of the pipeline/flowline walls.

PRODUCTION CHEMICAL recommend a corrosion inhibitor programme and                                                    the
following are essential to its success :-

1. Details of corrosive gases are required – different products work differently in
   sour or sweet environments.
2. Flow characteristics in the pipeline.
3. Fluid the pipeline is carrying.
4. Temperatures.
5. Corrosion monitoring system is required.

THEREFORE TO CONCLUDE :- IT IS IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER EVERY PIPELINE
SITUATION IS UNIQUE AND SHOULD BE TREATED AS A NEW CORROSION PROBLEM.


                               TREATING APPLICATIONS AND METHODS :-

Many variables affect the performance of corrosion inhibitors therefore a large
number of special formulations are necessary. A specific treating recommendation
can be made only after a complete evaluation of the system has been made by PC

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sales engineers. Research chemists are available to help solve unusual or special
treating problems.

PC CI SERIES – are injected in different ways depending on the circumstances, the
process and the corrosive elements in the system. Inhibitors are continuously
injected, batch treatment,. and squeeze treatments. These are the main forms of
treatment.

CONTINUOUS INJECTION

Continuous treatment through an injection line is the preferred method of treatment to
give reliable corrosion control. Typical application:-

Oil Wells – 25-1000ppm based on water production.
Gas Wells – 25-2000ppm depending on water production.

In flowlines/pipelines/surface equipment it is desirable to apply continuously as far
upstream of the problem as possible. Initially it may be desirable to dose the inhibitor at
a concentration in excess of that normally required so as to establish a good film
coverage usually two or thee times the normal levels. Thereafter a rate of 2-100pm
would be necessary according to the corrosivity of the fluids.

BATCH TREATMENT

Batch treating of oil and gas wells involves the use of calculated volume of a
corrosion inhibitor either neat or as a solution/dispersion in solvent/water, plus
flushing liquid introduced into either the annulus or the tubing. In an oil well without a
packer, the inhibited fluid can be recirculated from the annulus through the tubing and
back to the annulus to ensure a good film thickness. In a gas well the inhibited fluid is
pumped into the tubing and allowed to flow under gravity to the bottom by shutting in
the well for up to 24 hours. Wells with standing columns of fluid may require
‘weighted’ inhibitors – Typical inhibitor applications:-

Oil Wells 500-5000 ppm, twice per week to once per month.
Gas Wells – 5-50% diluted, weekly to very 2 months.

In flowlines/piplelines/surface equipment batch can used when cost is essential and
where no injection facilities are available. This can used as an alternative to
continuous injection but the type of inhibitor is totally different as it must have a
considerably higher persistence characteristic than other inhibitors. It is usually
batched through the pig launcher in a diluted form diesel/kerosene. The normal
batches range from 80 litres/400 liters per week depending on size of pipeline and the
corrosivity of the fluids.




SQUEEZE TREATMENT

Squeeze treatments consists of injecting corrosion inhibitors/solvent mixtures into the
tubing with a high pressure pump, followed by several tubing volumes of overflush,
such that an inhibitor solution penetrates the formation face. After absorbing to the
surfaces of solids in the formation , the inhibitor is slowly produced back into the
wellbore with the produced fluids. Treatment lifetimes are much longer than batch
treatments. Again highly persistent inhibitors are required and highly cationic in nature.

With squeeze operations it is particularly important that the inhibitor does not ‘gunk’ in
the solvent as this would result in formation damage. There is also potential risk of
emulsion block formation. Squeezing of corrosion inhibitor can be carried out as a

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10% solution in diesel (for example) with a diesel overflush. A typical treatment would
require 80-100 drums of inhibitor to 500 drums of diesel overflush.

Squeezes are only relevant to downhole applications.


OTHER SYSTEMS

There are other systems Production Chemical supply inhibitors for – such as waterfloods,
steam systems, water treatment, boiler treatment and relevant information on any of these
systems can be emailed, faxed or posted.



PACKAGING

PC C.I. SERIES are packaged in 200 liter drums or small containers if requested.


AVAILABILITY

PC C.I. SERIES are available from PRODUCTION CHEMICAL GROUP, 1 Belle Vue
Close, Staines, TW18 2HY, U.K. – email prodchemwat@compuserve.com - Tel No.
01784-453477 – fax no 01784-466320.


STORAGE AND HANDLING

Care should be taken in handling the PC C.I. SERIES around open flames or sparks.
Keep container closed. Use with adequate ventilation.

Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing. Wash thoroughly after handling. In case of
contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Call a
physician. Flush skin with water. Wash clothing before reuse




                                           PRODUCT DATA SHEET.


                           PRODUCTION CHEMICAL D SERIES
                          EMULSION BREAKERS/DEMULSIFIERS

=====================================================================

GENERAL INFORMATION

PC DEMULSIFIERS are specially formulated compounds based on resins adducts,
sulphonates, esters, ethers and polymer chemistry


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                                                                                                                      27
EMULSION BREAKERS/DEMULSIFIERS/DESALTERS

Water from trace amounts to 99 percent of total production, is produced along with
most of the crude oil produced throughout the world each day. Virtually every well
produces excessive amounts of water at some time in its life.

When water and oil are produced together, a stable emulsion is sometimes formed
with oil as the continuous phase. Breaking this emulsion normally requires neutralizing
or destroying the natural emulsifying agent, allowing water droplets to coalesce, or
unite in larger drops. Eventually the water settles by gravitational force. Common
terms for this separation are demulsification or dehydration.

Demulsification can be accomplished by mechanical or chemical means, or by a
combination of these. The PC D SERIES are specialty chemicals designed to
favourably alter the forces that maintain a stable water-in-oil emulsions.


DESALTING COMPOUNDS

Desalting is the removal of sodium chloride and other salts from crude oils before they
are processed. Crude streams can carry up to 500 pounds salt per 1,000 bbls even
after field dehydration.
Desalting results in :-

1. Reduced corrosion resulting from hydrochloric acid formed from hydrolysis of alkali
chloride salts.

2. Reduced probability of fouling heat exchanger bundles and coils.

3. Increased heat transfer.

4. Reduced catalyst poisoning in reformers and fluid catalyst cracking units.

PC D SERIES desalting compounds efficiently demulsify the salt water and crude
mixture in conventional wash tanks and increase the efficiency of electrical desalting
equipment.


TREATING APPLICATIONS AND METHODS :-

Many variables affect the performance of emulsion breakers and desalting
compounds, therefore a large number of special formulations are necessary. A
specific treating recommendation can be made only after a complete evaluation of the
system has been made by PC sales engineers. Research chemists are available to
help solve unusual or special treating problems.

PC D SERIES are normally injected into the system on a continuous basis with
chemical feeder pumps or lubricators. Batch treatments can be by batching the
chemical directly into the stock or wash tanks.

PACKAGING

PC D SERIES are packaged in 55- gallon drums.

AVAILABILITY

PC D SERIES are available from PRODUCTION CHEMICAL GROUP, 1 Belle Vue
Close, Staines, TW18 2HY, U.K..

STORAGE AND HANDLING
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                                                       Virgin Islands.
                                                                                                                      28

Care should be taken in handling the PC D SERIES around open flames or sparks.
Keep container closed. Use with adequate ventilation.

Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing. Wash thoroughly after handling. In case of
contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Call a
physician. Flush skin with water. Wash clothing before reuse




                                          PRODUCT DATA SHEET.


                                PRODUCTION CHEMICAL S.I. SERIES
                                SCALE - REMOVERS/ INHIBITORS

=====================================================================

GENERAL INFORMATION

PC S.I. SERIES is the trade name for the scale, control chemicals marketed by
Production Chemical Group under the prefix of PC. Scale deposit formation is a natural
consequence of handling industrial waters and has been recognized since ancient
times. In the oil producing industry today it is theoretically possible to predict scale
deposition in advance using computer models. These computer predictions are not
absolute but indicate the likelihood of scale. Oilfield waters can be unpredictable due
to the vast complex systems, with new fields, new waters co-mingling and
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temperature changes happening all the time, scaling conditions can develop within
days and certainly before a preventative programme can be put in place. Production
Chemical have the computer modelling capabilities and can therefore predict the
possible areas of scale and the type of scale.

Production Chemical product line composes of three types of products:

1. SCALE INHIBITORS
2. SCALE DISPERSANTS
3. SCALE REMOVAL

The product used depends on the application and the economic circumstances.

1 & 2) SCALE INHIBITORS/DISPERSANTS:- Scale Inhibitors are broadly classified as

          a. Threshold inhibitors(crystal growth modifiers, nucleation inhibitors)
          b. Dispersants.
          c. Complexing Agents.

THRESHOLD INHIBITORS – relates to the effective use of extremely low sub-
stoichiometric concentrations of chemicals, typically 2-20ppm, to modify the kinetics of
scale forming process. It is observed that the performance of inhibitors increases
suddenly above a specific concentration in the scaling brine solution. It is essential to
determine this value as this represents the minimum concentration of an inhibitor that
will be effective (sometimes known as the minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC).
Threshold inhibitors work either by modifying crystal growth or by reducing the rate of
nucleation (kinetic effects).
DISPERSANTS – act to prevent particles from agglomerating and so reduce pipewall
deposition and especially sludge formation. Many polymeric inhibitors show good
dispersancy properties.
COMPLEXING AGENTS – bind the scaling cations in a thermodynamically stable water
soluble complex. They act stoichiometrically so relatively high dose levels are normally
required for complete protection.


SCALE INHIBITOR TYPES :-

There are two major chemistry types of threshold inhibitors and these are
              a. polycarboxylates
              b. phosphorous-containing compounds – phosphates, phosphate
                 esters and phosphonates.

A.) In general the polycaboxylates rarely provide optimum performance against
calcium carbonate. Some polymer inhibitors, particularly the higher molecular weight
acrylate base products are sensitive to soluble calcium, which in sufficient
concentration can precipitate the product as a calcium salt. On the other hand this
type of chemistry has proven itself on barium sulphate inhibition.

B.) There are numerous combinations and different chemistry on the phopshorous
group generally have good overall treatment – they are effective against most scale
formations. As mentioned above in some cases the polycarboxylate groups are suited
and perform better in certain circumstances.

The polymeric and phosphorous type scale inhibitors are effective in brines having pH
values between 5.0-8.5. Either side of this range their effectiveness decreases. This
does not mean they will not work outside these pH ranges but will not be quite as cost
effective.
                     1.) DISPERSANTS – these can actually be grouped with the
              polymer groups above. Polymers are good dispersants. They are
              usually used where the injection point is after the point of
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                    crystallization and inhibitors will not work once precipitation has taken
                    place. Therefore in certain circumstances dispersants are necessary
                    to keep the crystals from agglomerating and this is when dispersants
                    are essential.

                            2.) COMPLEXING AGENTS – EDTA, NTA, DTPA and their
                    simple salts are complexing agents and have been widely used for
                    sale control in water treatment industries: however these complexants
                    show no threshold effects and combine 1: 1 stoichiometric proportion
                    with divalent cations. The complexes ate thermodynamically stable but
                    to achieve scale prevention performance, high concentrations would
                    be needed for most oilfield applications. They are use alot in stimulation
                    and workover applications.

                           3.) SCALE REMOVAL. - Scale dissolver treaments have been
                    developed and are suitable for all common oilfield scales. Processes
                    are available to treat mineral hardness scales (carbonates and
                    sulphate minerals), mill scales, (iron oxides, hydroxides), some
                    sulphides and mixed scales containing organic matter such as w a x
                    and asphalt.

                    PRODUCTION CHEMICAL have a complete range of scale removal
                    products.

                            In order to plan a scale removal treatment package it is essential
                    to have the maximum information about the type, position and
                    accessibility of the deposit. An estimate of the amount of scale to be
                    removed will enable calculation of chemical volumes. Samples of scale
                    will enable pre-testing of recommended processes.

                           When removing scale usually a three stage treatment is
                    necessary – hydrocarbon can form around a scale and give it an
                    almost perfect protection against the water soluble acids. Therefore a
                    degreaser is needed first to remove this hydrocarbon layer.

                               Therefore the three stages are:-
                               … pre-treatment to remove surface dirt, oil etc
                               … main treatment to remove bulk deposit
                               … post treatment to minimize risk of corrosion or
                                  refouling of surface.

                    Production Chemical have a series of products that are available for
                    the removal of scale deposits. We tailor make the formulations specific
                    to the problems after the analysis of the sample. Also we can add
                    inhibitors to protect the metal surface during the actuAlly removal
                    process. Also if acids have been used to remove carbonate scale or
                    mill scale from steelwork then it is advisable to perform a flushing
                    operation to protect the steel from corrosion/scaling. Any acid left in
                    contact with the steel surface is likely to very corrosive. One common
                    treatment is to use buffered citric acid or ammonia solution to
                    completely flush the system to a pH of 9.5, followed by passivation
                    with sodium nitrite or hydrogen pyroxide. This type of passivation is
                    temporary. More permanent corrosion protection can be provided by
                    various mineral oils which may contain corrosion inhibitors. Passivation
                    will not have any significant effect of subsequent scaling. To prevent
                    scaling, it is advisable to use scale inhibitors.

TREATING APPLICATIONS AND METHODS :-


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Many factors affect the performance of scale control chemicals and dissolvers,
therefore it is important to have the right application. A specific treating
recommendation should be made only after a complete evaluation of the system has
been made. PC field engineers are qualified by field experience and laboratory training
to recommend and service all PC products. Research chemists are available to help
solve unusual or special treating problems. Scale Inhibitors injection range can
between 2-100ppm depending on temperatures, scale tendencies, severity, and type
of scale. Dissolvers are purely dependent on amount of scale, type of scale before
treatment commences. PC engineers can put a scale removal package together and
engineering supplied.

PACKAGING

PC S.I. SERIES are packaged in 200 litre drums or small containers if required.

AVAILABILITY

PC S.I. SERIES are available from PRODUCTION CHEMICAL GROUP, 1 Belle Vue
Close,    Staines,      TW18      2HY  -   United  Kingdom     -    email
prodchemwat@compuserve.com - Tel 44-1784-453477 --- Fax 44-1784-
466320.

STORAGE AND HANDLING

Care should be taken in handling the PC S.I. SERIES around open flames or sparks.
Keep container closed. Use with adequate ventilation and keep away from alkaline
products.

Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing. Wash thoroughly after handling. In case of
contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Call a
physician. Flush skin with water. Wash clothing before reuse.




                                Product Data Sheet.

                      PRODUCTION CHEMICAL W.C.SERIES
                         WATER CLARIFIERS/DEOILERS

====================================================

GENERAL INFORMATION

PC W.C. SERIES is the trade name for water clarifiers and deoilers which assist in the
separation of oil and solids from produced waters. PC W.C. SERIES composes of
polymer type products at different molecular weights added to different solutions
which enhance the separation process.

This product line resolves oil-in-water(reverse) emulsions, coalesces oil particle, and
agglomerates suspended solids. Treatment with PC W.C. SERIES reduces the need for
expensive clarification equipment and provides more efficient performance from
existing equipment. Effluent water standards are generally met for oil content of
discharge.
Registered in the British Virgin Islands No.151095. Registration Office:-Craigmuir Chambers , Road Town, Tortola, British
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PC is also involved in the Hydrocyclone technology and provide specific de-oilers for
this process. The chemicals concerned are normally lower molecular weight polymers
so as to produce a slightly larger floc which will not break-up through the separation
process inside the hydrocyclone. Also other clarifiers/deoilers are supplied for
conventional static tank separation and also floatation cells. Clarifiers are normally
water soluble but with recent technology emulsions, colloidal and oil soluble products
have been marketed.


TREATING APPLICATIONS AND RATES

Generally 5 to 20 ppm of clarifiers is continuously added to the water dumplines on
the process equipment. The chemical is usually administered by chemical injection
pump. It is sometimes necessary to cut back on the clarifier as sometimes as little as
2ppm can be effective. The chemical may be fed directly from the drum or may be
diluted with water before application. The chemical injection pump should be located
upstream of equipment designed to remove the oil and solids from the water, Also, the
chemical should be injected where rapid and efficient mixing will occur. A specific
treating recommendation should be made only after a complete evaluation of the
system has been made. PC field engineers are qualified by field experience and
laboratory training to recommend and service all PC products. Research chemists are
available to help solve unusual or special treating problems.

PC has special knowledge associated with hydrocyclone technology.


PACKAGING

PC W.C. SERIES are packaged in 200 litre drums.




AVAILABILITY

PC P.I. SERIES are available from PRODUCTION CHEMICAL GROUP, 1 Belle Vue
Close,     Staines,     TW18      2HY   -   United    Kingdom      -    email
prodchemwat@compuserve.com - Tel 44-1784-453477 --- Fax 44-1784-466320.



STORAGE AND HANDLING

The same normal precautions should be taken in handling the PC W.C. SERIES as acid
solutions. Safety measures such as rubber gloves and goggles should be used.

Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing. Wash thoroughly after handling. In case of
contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Call a
physician. Flush skin with water. Wash clothing before reuse.




Registered in the British Virgin Islands No.151095. Registration Office:-Craigmuir Chambers , Road Town, Tortola, British
                                                       Virgin Islands.
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              Company Safety Policy


Registered in the British Virgin Islands No.151095. Registration Office:-Craigmuir Chambers , Road Town, Tortola, British
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POLICY GUIDELINE
It is our philosophy in the Production Chemical Group, accidents, injuries, damage to
equipment, and the environment are factors which by themselves, or in conjunction
with other complex variables, are unsafe acts resulting in lost time, and slow down
business aspirations. Accidents can be controlled and prevented - management and
employees should be involved in the constant effort to maintain acceptable standards
of health and safety at work at all times. IT IS A TEAM EFFORT.

Safety is specific to the type of business - certain safety regulations are more
important in some industries than others - we deal in specialty chemicals associated
with the oil industry and some of these products can be hazardous - Toxic, Corrosive,
Flammable, or a combination and we as a group must be aware of the environmental
and personal effects these chemicals can have on our lives.

It is the duty of Management to provide adequate resources and to delegate
responsibilities to supervisory staff for proper implementation of safety rules and
regulations by their subordinates.

Proper precautions will be taken to prevent environmental degradation, proper
precautions to create a healthy and conducive working environment, proper
precautions to impede, predict and thus prevent accidents on the road, in the work
place, and other possible areas, proper precautions when dealing with chemicals -
proper safety apparatus and Personal Protective Equipment, foresee potential areas
of accidents and report them.- Keep Supervisors and Management aware of your
Registered in the British Virgin Islands No.151095. Registration Office:-Craigmuir Chambers , Road Town, Tortola, British
                                                       Virgin Islands.
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ideas on safety, and report any accidents however small and KEEP MANAGEMENT
AWARE.

All employees will have a copy of this safety and environmental booklet and all will
read it, as occasionally Management will ask questions specific to the safety
regulations of our Companies.




Signed .......................................................
          Group Managing Director.




  SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY FOR PRODUCTION CHEMICAL GROUP.

TO ALL STAFF


ACCIDENT PREVENTION PLAN

It is our objective to keep accidents down by forward planning and exhaustive hazard
identification for each phase of work. These are to be carried out by
supervisors/senior engineers and a detailed list of identified hazards used for review
during monthly safety meetings.

      INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION

      The areas to be covered are:-

      a) To prevent accidental and traumatic injuries arising from contact with energy
      sources, unguarded rotating equipment, horseplay or faulty equipment, exposure
      to gases, fumes and other sources of toxic/harmful emissions.

      b) To train employees to be able to perform simple first aid, fight fires with
      portable fire extinguishers. This training will form part of in-house prevention
      measures.

      c) Train all personnel in how to swim. Staff will be swim-tested or trained in
      swimming proficiency to the level of personal survival before being deployed to
      work in a marine environment. While in such environment, the employee
      irrespective of level in the company must wear personal floatation device.

      d) Train all employees on the hazardous labels, handling of chemicals, the
      protective clothing necessary to handle chemicals safely, the storage of

Registered in the British Virgin Islands No.151095. Registration Office:-Craigmuir Chambers , Road Town, Tortola, British
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     chemicals and the detrimental effects certain chemicals have on the environment
     and on humans.

     e) Reduce the hazards of transportation especially on the highway and striking
     injuries during lifting operations and as part of company regulations, drivers of
     company vehicles must be fit and possess a valid driving license. When driver
     training opportunities arise, drivers will be nominated to attend defensive driving
     school.

     For mechanical lifting - cranes, forklifts, approved and certified equipment shall be
     used. Offshore, on land, in a yard it is the duty of all employees involved in lifting
     operations to stay clear of the hoisting area and wear head, hand and foot
     protection equipment.


PROTECTION STRATEGY

In order to keep accidents to a minimum a level of protection is required. The provision
of such protective equipment shall be the duty of Management. However,
Management through supervisory staff will ensure compliance. All staff will wear
protective equipment and if seen without the proper equipment the relevant party will
be reprimanded - regular offenders be warned, the company has a right to dismiss
any staff if PPE is not worn or is misused.

     -    Personal Protective Equipment

     Hard hats, coveralls, safety boots, hand gloves, and goggles are to be provided
     for use. These items are intended to minimize individual’s exposure to injury and
     adverse effects. Particular attention must be given to the nature of hazard and the
     exposure of the individual during selection. Extremes of cold and heat, chemical
     contacts, slippery surfaces, punctures, and heavy or sharp objects, are some
     such hazards. For effectiveness the user must have a knowledge and a basic
     understanding of the hazards concerned. Adequate instructions to the user on
     the equipment limitations is of immense importance.

     When handling chemicals additional PPE must be worn such as aprons, full facial
     masks, breathing apparatus (filters), gloves which are able to prevent penetration
     of the chemicals into the skin, be it the hand or any part of the body. Certain
     aromatic solvents are carcinogenic and therefore should not touch any part of the
     skin - protective measures to prevent this should be implemented and appropriate
     wears should be provided to give this protection.

     -    Environmental Protection.

     It is our policy to ensure a clean environment - maintain this in the work place,
     offshore and at our houses and surrounding areas.

     Disposing of chemicals must be done in an environmentally friendly manner and in
     accordance with local regulations. Any discharge of hazardous material must be
     reported to the local authorities. Empty used drums must be disposed of in an
     environmental acceptable manner. All drums received back from our clients are
     recycled back or if badly damaged will be destroyed - metal drums can be cut up
     and sold to the local market in Africa. Plastic drums can be cut up and melted
     down.

- Equipment Protection

Integrity of equipment used for work, plays a vital role in accident prevention
measures - DEFECTIVE EQUIPMENT IS NOT ONLY UNSAFE AND DANGEROUS TO
LIFE, BUT ALSO REDUCES EFFICIENCY, QUALITY, AND GIVES THE COMPANY A
Registered in the British Virgin Islands No.151095. Registration Office:-Craigmuir Chambers , Road Town, Tortola, British
                                                       Virgin Islands.
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POOR IMAGE. To this end , preventative and scheduled maintenance should be
carried out for all pieces of equipment and such a report be ready for inspection at
any time.

- Health Plan

Management must demonstrate a visible premium on the standards of its staff working
environment. Towards achieving this, a conducive environment for work such as
illumination, ventilation, amenable offices, sanitary facilities and appropriate tools to
maintain the above.
- First Aid.
For minor ailments, both on site and office, a first aid box ; with drugs provided and
administered by a trained pharmacist. Training in first aid should be continuous and
efforts should be made to train chosen members of staff.

The kit should have a list of pharmaceuticals and records to show its administration.
Records of first aid treatments are forwarded to the company consultant pharmacist.




Registered in the British Virgin Islands No.151095. Registration Office:-Craigmuir Chambers , Road Town, Tortola, British
                                                       Virgin Islands.

				
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