REVIEW: DNA, RNA/Protein Synthesis What part of the cell cycle does DNA replication take place in? DNA RNA =Protein synthesis Components of DNA/ RNA nucleotides Compare and Contrast DNA/RNA Double helix Structural formulas for both DNA/RNA (see color sheets/study sheets): ladder/rungs/uprights, etc DNA replication DNA base pairing/ Name bases in DNA RNA base pairing/ Name bases in RNA Difference between purine / pyrimidines Which bases are purines:______________________________________ Which bases are pyrimidines __________________________________ Know enzymes involved: helicase DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase What did these men/women contribute? Describe each of their experiments and results: Griffith Avery/Mcloud Watson/Crick Franklin & Wilkins Hershey & Chase What are Chargaff=s Rules? Applies to DNA. A = T; C = G; purine = pyrimidine which means A + G = T + C. Define and tell where do these processes take place. Be able to recognize processes from diagrams. Replication Transformation Transcription Translation Protein synthesis Know the 3 types of RNA , what they look like, and their function Define: codon, anticodon ,termination codon, start codon Amino Acids, proteins Be able to make DNA/RNA sequences (DNA replication) AAT TTA DNA (transcription) AAT UUA DNA (translation) AAT UUA AAU Be able to read the Amino Acid Chart Define mutations: gene, (Point mutations=substitutions, insertion, deletion = framshift mutations) chromosomal, (duplication, inversion, deletion, translocation) Polyploidy (How about those giant strawberries dipped in white chocolate with a little coffee from Star Bucks!) Gene regulation and Differentiation KNOW MATERIALS: Starting materials: enzymes/ structures involved function in process, end product of DNA replication, translation, transcription, protein synthesis REVIEW LABS and COLOR SHEETS and Study Sheets. Transcription & Translation Thinking Questions 1. Draw a DNA nucleotide & an RNA nucleotide. 2. What are the differences between DNA & RNA? a) b) c) d) 3. What is the point of replication? ________________________________ 4. When & where does replication occur?_____________________________ 5. What is the point of transcription?_______________________________ 6. Where does it occur?_________________________________________ 7. Make sure you can describe the steps of transcription. 8. What is “the catch” in transcription? 9. Transcribe the following DNA sequence: AGT CAA TTG GTC AGA CCT 10. What are three nucleotides together called on mRNA? (ie: ACA)__________ 11. The codons can be used in a chart to find: _______________________ 12. This is because: the codons on ____________ determine the sequence of the _________ _______ which will link to result in a specific _________________. 13. What molecule contains an anti-codon?_____________________________ 14. Why is this (answer to #13) molecule so important? 15. Translation takes place in the ______________ on a ________________. 16. Be able to describe the actual steps of translation. 17. Translate the following dna strand to mRNA strand and then tRNA. AGT CAA TTG GTC AGA CCT mRNA:______________________________________ tRNA: ______________________________________ 18. What is the point of translation? 19. Transcription and translation together is the process of ________ _______. 20. What is another name for gene mutation? _________________________ 21. What are the types of gene mutations? Give examples of each. a) b) c) 22. Which one of these is more destructive? Why? 23. What is the difference between a gene mutation & a chromosome mutation? 24. What are the types of chromosome mutations? Give examples of each a. b. c. d. 25. Are mutations always bad? Explain your answer.