THE FORUM The 1DM is an integrated reconceptu- proffered stage-appropriate supervision alization of two very well-known and environments that provide the impetus The Supervision of long-standing developmental models of for trainee movement through and Psychological Assessment: clinical supervision, the counselor com- across the three developmental stages. Toward Parsimony and plexity model (CCM; Stoltenberg, 1981) As well, Stoltenberg and associates Empirical Evidence and the model of supervision forwarded have noted the effects of gender, race- by Loganbill, Hardy, and Delworth ethnicity, and social psychological in- for Developmental (1982). Stoltenberg's early model has fluences on the development of train- Supervision Theory been identified as the most heuristic ees in supervision (e.g., Stoltenberg, model of supervision to date and has McNeill, & Crethar, 1995) and, finally, Loreto R. Prieto and Cal D. Stoltenberg been supported by several studies that have even outlined a general model pos- University of Oklahoma secured empirical evidence for its theo- iting the professional development of su- retical assertions and associated devel- pervisors! Therefore, given the current Finkelstein and Tuckman's (1997) re- opmental constructs (for reviews, see proliferation of developmental models cent essay regarding psychology train- Bernard & Goodyear, 1992; Russell, of supervision (at least 25-30 distinct ees' development of skill and knowledge Crimmings, & Lent, 1984; Stoltenberg, models; cf. Watkins, 1996), many of bases in psychological assessment draws McNeill, & Crethar, 1994; andWorthing- which reflect the basic constructs al- attention to a generally underexplored ton, 1987). The current form of Stolten- ready established by the CCM and IDM, area of training and supervision. In their berg's model, the IBM, has also garnered it appears more parsimonious, expedi- article, the authors discussed an 8-stage empirical support (e.g., McNeill, Stol- ent, and heuristic to focus conceptual model; within each of these proposed tenberg, & Romans, 1992). and investigative efforts on an already stages, they pointed out the main learn- As aforementioned, the IDM has not established and comprehensive model of ing goals for trainees and noted how only already established Finkelstein and clinical supervision that has enjoyed trainees will react toward supervision TUckman's (1997) notions regarding over 15 years of direct and indirect em- of their assessment activities. In Fin- trainees' developmental progression of pirical support, as opposed to creating kelstein and luckman's model, trainees learning psychological assessment, but and researching new models. move from an initially anxious, self-fo- it has also explicated the general profes- In addition, Finkelstein and Tuckman cused, and supervision-dependent posi- sional development of trainees in a much (1997) forwarded assertions in their tion with respect to conducting psy- more comprehensive yet parsimonious model that are not quite in line with chological assessments and completing fashion than Finkelstein and Tuckman's what is known empirically about the written reports, to a point where they model. The IDM outlines a continuous way in which trainees learn to conduct acquire a firm base of knowledge and process of trainee growth and develop- psychological assessments; the authors experience in psychological assessment, ment across three developmental stages claimed instead that "little has been develop a holistic awareness of the myr- (rather than eight), along three develop- written to formalize the process by iad of factors influencing this activity, mental structures (autonomy—train- which novices gain experience and be- and, finally, acquire a stable sense of ee's sense of independence from the su- come proficient in this valuable area of confidence in performing assessments pervisor; motivation—trainee's sense professional practice" (p. 92). To illus- without direct supervision. Unfortu- of consistency, goodness-of-fit, and trate one of the points where Finkelstein nately, Finkelstein and Tuckman's pro- identity in his or her professional duties; and Tuckman's model is incongruent posed model unwittingly essentially re- and, self & other awareness—trainee's with the rather voluminous extant re- iterated conceptualizations found within sense of the complex interaction among search evidence, Slate and associates an already established and empirically self, client, and environment), and have generated an impressive amount of supported comprehensive developmental across eight professional domains (pro- empirical studies regarding the teaching model of clinical supervision, the inte- fessional ethics, treatment plans & and training of graduate students to con- grated developmental model (JDM; goals, theoretical orientation, individual duct intelligence tests (Patterson, Slate, Stoltenberg & Delworth, 1987; Stol- differences, client conceptualization, Jones, & Steger, 1995; Slate & Jones, tenberg, McNeill, & Del worth, in press). interpersonal assessment, assessment 1989, 1990a, 1990b; Slate, Jones, Furthermore, given some of the assertions techniques, and intervention skills com- Coulter, & Covert, 1992; Slate, Jones, & present in Finkelstein and Tuckman's petence). On the basis of Hunt's (1971) Murray, 1991; Slate, Jones, Murray, & model, they apparently have failed to ac- conceptual matching model of educa- Coulter, 1993; Whitten. Slate, Jones, count for established research findings tional environments (see Miller, 1981, Shine, &. Raggio, 1994). Among the in the areas of developmental supervi- and Stoppard & Miller, 1985, for re- many findings from this nearly decade- sion and the teaching of psychological views of conceptual systems theory), long program of research are those that assessment. Stoltenberg and associates have also indicate that even after trainees conduct 593 594 THE FORUM as many as 10 or more practice adminis- Finkelstein and Tuckman (1997) have Slate, J., & Jones, C. (I990a). Identifying stu- trations of intelligence tests (a number made a positive contribution to the litera- dents' errors in administering the WAIS-R. of administrations, incidentally, that is ture in presenting their ideas; their overall Psychology in the Schools, 27, 83-87. higher than what the typical intelligence developmental perspective toward this Slate, J., & Jones, C. (1990b). Student error testing course offers; cf. Oakland & topic dovetails well with the established in administering the WISC-R: Identifying problem areas. Measurement and Evalua- Zimmerman, 1986), trainees still con- Zeitgeist, and through their essay we are tion in Counseling and Development, 23, tinue to commit administration errors at able to benefit from their considerable 137-139. an astounding rate. Furthermore, the em- experience as supervisors of psychologi- Slate, J., Jones, C., Coulter, C., & Covert, T pirical evidence suggests that even well- cal assessment activities. However, as ac- (1992). Practitioner's administration and seasoned clinicians (e.g., a sample with ademicians and clinical supervisors, we scoring of the WISC-R: Evidence that we an average of 8 years experience and must be careful to proceed with our do err. Journal of School Psychology, 30, an average of 570 test administrations teaching in a manner that is consistent 77-82. already conducted) still make a remark- with our empirical research and knowl- Slate, J., Jones, C., & Murray, R. (1991). able number of errors when administer- edge bases, and we must be sure to rely Teaching administration and scoring of the ing and scoring intelligence tests. The on established and validated models of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Re- data and information provided by this supervision to guide our training efforts. vised: An empirical evaluation of practice body of research evidence clearly imply administrations. Professional Psychology: that we must take great care with how Research and Practice, 22, 375-379. References we approach the teaching and training Slate, J., Jones, C., Murray, R., & Coulter, C. of students in psychological assessment, Bernard, J., & Goodyear, R. (1992). Funda- (1993). Evidence that practitioners err in making quite suspect Finkelstein and mentals of clinical supervision. Boston: Al- administering and scoring the WAIS-R. lyn & Bacon. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling Tuckman's (1997) claim that in the ini- Finkelstein, H., & TUckman, A. (1997). Super- and Development, 25, 156-161, tial stage of learning the basics of test vision of psychological assessment: A devel- Stoltenberg, C. (1981). Approaching supervi- administration and scoring, "Much of opmental model Professional Psychology: sion from a developmental perspective: The this is information that can probably be Research and Practice, 28, 92-95. counselor complexity model. Journal of gleaned from test manuals . . . so the Hunt, D. (1971). Matching models in educa- Counseling Psychology, 28, 59-65. professor serves as a benevolent tour tion: The coordination of teaching methods Stoltenberg, C., & Delworth, U. (1987). Su- guide of sorts" (p. 92). In fact, what is with student charcteristics. Toronto, On- pervising counselors and therapists: A de- most likely indicated at this initial stage tario: Ontario Institute For Studies in velopmental approach. San Francisco: Jos- of development (and what is recom- Education. sey-Bass. mended by IDM postulations) is a con- Loganbill, C. Hardy, E., & Delworth, U. Stoltenberg, C., McNeill, B., & Crethar, H. crete, directive, hands-on, structured ap- (1982). Supervision: A conceptual model. (1994). Changes in supervision as counsel- Counseling Psychologist, 10, 3-42. proach to helping novice trainees under- ors and therapists gain experience: A review. McNeill, B., Stoltenberg, C., & Romans, J. C. stand the complex mechanics of test Professional Psychology: Research and (1992). The integrated developmental administration, which also serves to re- Practice, 25, 416-449. model of supervision: Scale development duce their initial anxiety about adminis- and validation procedures. Professional Stoltenberg, C., McNeill, B., & Crethar, H. tering tests—an approach that is some- Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, (1995). Persuasion and development in what at odds with Finkelstein and Tuck- 504-508. counselor supervision. The Counseling Psy- man's (1997) suggestion to "emphasize Miller, A. (1981). Conceptual matching mod- chologist, 23, 633-648. [to trainees] the invisibility of adminis- els and interactional research in education. Stoltenberg, C., McNeill, B., & Delworth, U. tration errors in the hopes of reducing Review of Educational Research, 51, 33- (in press). Supervising counselors and ther- that anxiety and thereby reducing the 84. apists: A developmental approach (2nd Oakland, T., & Zimmerman, S. (1986). The ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. likelihood of errors" (p. 93). Instead, course on individual mental assessment: A Stoppard, J., & Miller, A. (1985, Spring). the available empirical evidence sug- national survey of course instructors. Pro- Conceptual level matching: A review. Cur- gests that when it comes to training stu- fessional School Psychology, 1, 51-59. rent Psychological Research and Reviews, dents in psychological assessment, it is Patterson, M., Slate, J., Jones, C., & Steger, 4, 46-68. thorough, relevant, and comprehensive H. (1995). The effects of practice adminis- Watkins, E. (1996). Psychotherapy supervisor practice that makes perfect, rather than trations in learning to administer and score and supervisee: Developmental models and a reformation of trainees' perceptions the WAIS-R: A partial replication. Educa- research nine years later. Clinical Psychol- regarding their errors; that is to say, tional and Psychological Measurement, 55, ogy Review, 15, 647-677. nothing ameliorates trainees' anxiety 32-37. Whitten, J., Slate, J., Jones, C., Shine, A., & like a solid confidence in their ability Russell, R., Crimmings, A., & Lent, R. Raggio, D. (1994). Examiner errors in ad- (1984). Counselor training and supervision: to be accurate! These and other issues ministering and scoring me WPPSI-R. Theory and research. In S. Brown & R. Lent surrounding Finkelstein and TUckman's Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, (Eds.), Handbook of counseling psychology model warrant some measure of concern 12, 49-54. (pp. 625-681). New York: Wiley. regarding its ability to serve as a parsi- Slate, J., & Jones, C. (1989). Can teaching of Worthington, E. (1987). Changes in supervi- monious and empirically sound explica- the WISC-R be improved: Quasi-experi- sion as counselors and supervisors gain ex- tion of the developmental supervision of mental exploration. Professional Psychol- perience: A review. Professional Psychol- psychological assessment. ogy: Research and Practice, 20, 408-410. ogy: Research and Practice, 18, 189-208.
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