The Supervision of Psychological Assessment Toward Parsimony and by whitecheese


									                                                THE FORUM
                                                The 1DM is an integrated reconceptu-       proffered stage-appropriate supervision
                                             alization of two very well-known and          environments that provide the impetus
     The Supervision of                      long-standing developmental models of         for trainee movement through and
  Psychological Assessment:                  clinical supervision, the counselor com-      across the three developmental stages.
   Toward Parsimony and                      plexity model (CCM; Stoltenberg, 1981)        As well, Stoltenberg and associates
     Empirical Evidence                      and the model of supervision forwarded        have noted the effects of gender, race-
                                             by Loganbill, Hardy, and Delworth             ethnicity, and social psychological in-
      for Developmental                      (1982). Stoltenberg's early model has         fluences on the development of train-
     Supervision Theory                      been identified as the most heuristic         ees in supervision (e.g., Stoltenberg,
                                             model of supervision to date and has          McNeill, & Crethar, 1995) and, finally,
Loreto R. Prieto and Cal D. Stoltenberg      been supported by several studies that        have even outlined a general model pos-
         University of Oklahoma              secured empirical evidence for its theo-      iting the professional development of su-
                                             retical assertions and associated devel-      pervisors! Therefore, given the current
   Finkelstein and Tuckman's (1997) re-      opmental constructs (for reviews, see         proliferation of developmental models
cent essay regarding psychology train-       Bernard & Goodyear, 1992; Russell,            of supervision (at least 25-30 distinct
ees' development of skill and knowledge      Crimmings, & Lent, 1984; Stoltenberg,         models; cf. Watkins, 1996), many of
bases in psychological assessment draws      McNeill, & Crethar, 1994; andWorthing-        which reflect the basic constructs al-
attention to a generally underexplored       ton, 1987). The current form of Stolten-      ready established by the CCM and IDM,
area of training and supervision. In their   berg's model, the IBM, has also garnered      it appears more parsimonious, expedi-
article, the authors discussed an 8-stage    empirical support (e.g., McNeill, Stol-       ent, and heuristic to focus conceptual
model; within each of these proposed         tenberg, & Romans, 1992).                     and investigative efforts on an already
stages, they pointed out the main learn-        As aforementioned, the IDM has not         established and comprehensive model of
ing goals for trainees and noted how         only already established Finkelstein and      clinical supervision that has enjoyed
trainees will react toward supervision       TUckman's (1997) notions regarding            over 15 years of direct and indirect em-
of their assessment activities. In Fin-      trainees' developmental progression of        pirical support, as opposed to creating
kelstein and luckman's model, trainees       learning psychological assessment, but        and researching new models.
move from an initially anxious, self-fo-     it has also explicated the general profes-       In addition, Finkelstein and Tuckman
cused, and supervision-dependent posi-       sional development of trainees in a much      (1997) forwarded assertions in their
tion with respect to conducting psy-         more comprehensive yet parsimonious           model that are not quite in line with
chological assessments and completing        fashion than Finkelstein and Tuckman's        what is known empirically about the
written reports, to a point where they       model. The IDM outlines a continuous          way in which trainees learn to conduct
acquire a firm base of knowledge and         process of trainee growth and develop-        psychological assessments; the authors
experience in psychological assessment,      ment across three developmental stages        claimed instead that "little has been
develop a holistic awareness of the myr-     (rather than eight), along three develop-     written to formalize the process by
iad of factors influencing this activity,    mental structures (autonomy—train-            which novices gain experience and be-
and, finally, acquire a stable sense of      ee's sense of independence from the su-       come proficient in this valuable area of
confidence in performing assessments         pervisor; motivation—trainee's sense          professional practice" (p. 92). To illus-
without direct supervision. Unfortu-         of consistency, goodness-of-fit, and          trate one of the points where Finkelstein
nately, Finkelstein and Tuckman's pro-       identity in his or her professional duties;   and Tuckman's model is incongruent
posed model unwittingly essentially re-      and, self & other awareness—trainee's         with the rather voluminous extant re-
iterated conceptualizations found within     sense of the complex interaction among        search evidence, Slate and associates
an already established and empirically       self, client, and environment), and           have generated an impressive amount of
supported comprehensive developmental        across eight professional domains (pro-       empirical studies regarding the teaching
model of clinical supervision, the inte-     fessional ethics, treatment plans &           and training of graduate students to con-
grated developmental model (JDM;             goals, theoretical orientation, individual    duct intelligence tests (Patterson, Slate,
Stoltenberg & Delworth, 1987; Stol-          differences, client conceptualization,        Jones, & Steger, 1995; Slate & Jones,
tenberg, McNeill, & Del worth, in press).    interpersonal assessment, assessment          1989, 1990a, 1990b; Slate, Jones,
Furthermore, given some of the assertions    techniques, and intervention skills com-      Coulter, & Covert, 1992; Slate, Jones, &
present in Finkelstein and Tuckman's         petence). On the basis of Hunt's (1971)       Murray, 1991; Slate, Jones, Murray, &
model, they apparently have failed to ac-    conceptual matching model of educa-           Coulter, 1993; Whitten. Slate, Jones,
count for established research findings      tional environments (see Miller, 1981,        Shine, &. Raggio, 1994). Among the
in the areas of developmental supervi-       and Stoppard & Miller, 1985, for re-          many findings from this nearly decade-
sion and the teaching of psychological       views of conceptual systems theory),          long program of research are those that
assessment.                                  Stoltenberg and associates have also          indicate that even after trainees conduct
594                                                           THE FORUM

 as many as 10 or more practice adminis-         Finkelstein and Tuckman (1997) have                 Slate, J., & Jones, C. (I990a). Identifying stu-
 trations of intelligence tests (a number     made a positive contribution to the litera-              dents' errors in administering the WAIS-R.
of administrations, incidentally, that is     ture in presenting their ideas; their overall            Psychology in the Schools, 27, 83-87.
higher than what the typical intelligence     developmental perspective toward this                  Slate, J., & Jones, C. (1990b). Student error
 testing course offers; cf. Oakland &         topic dovetails well with the established                in administering the WISC-R: Identifying
                                                                                                       problem areas. Measurement and Evalua-
 Zimmerman, 1986), trainees still con-        Zeitgeist, and through their essay we are
                                                                                                       tion in Counseling and Development, 23,
 tinue to commit administration errors at     able to benefit from their considerable
 an astounding rate. Furthermore, the em-     experience as supervisors of psychologi-
                                                                                                     Slate, J., Jones, C., Coulter, C., & Covert, T
pirical evidence suggests that even well-     cal assessment activities. However, as ac-
                                                                                                       (1992). Practitioner's administration and
 seasoned clinicians (e.g., a sample with     ademicians and clinical supervisors, we
                                                                                                       scoring of the WISC-R: Evidence that we
an average of 8 years experience and          must be careful to proceed with our                      do err. Journal of School Psychology, 30,
 an average of 570 test administrations       teaching in a manner that is consistent                  77-82.
 already conducted) still make a remark-      with our empirical research and knowl-                 Slate, J., Jones, C., & Murray, R. (1991).
able number of errors when administer-        edge bases, and we must be sure to rely                  Teaching administration and scoring of the
ing and scoring intelligence tests. The       on established and validated models of                   Wechsler Adult     Intelligence   Scale—Re-
data and information provided by this         supervision to guide our training efforts.               vised: An empirical evaluation of practice
body of research evidence clearly imply                                                                administrations. Professional Psychology:
that we must take great care with how                                                                  Research and Practice, 22, 375-379.
we approach the teaching and training                                                                Slate, J., Jones, C., Murray, R., & Coulter, C.
of students in psychological assessment,      Bernard, J., & Goodyear, R. (1992). Funda-               (1993). Evidence that practitioners err in
making quite suspect Finkelstein and            mentals of clinical supervision. Boston: Al-           administering and scoring the WAIS-R.
                                                lyn & Bacon.                                           Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling
Tuckman's (1997) claim that in the ini-
                                              Finkelstein, H., & TUckman, A. (1997). Super-            and Development, 25, 156-161,
tial stage of learning the basics of test
                                                vision of psychological assessment: A devel-         Stoltenberg, C. (1981). Approaching supervi-
administration and scoring, "Much of
                                                opmental model Professional           Psychology:      sion from a developmental perspective: The
this is information that can probably be
                                                Research and Practice, 28, 92-95.                      counselor complexity model. Journal of
gleaned from test manuals . . . so the        Hunt, D. (1971). Matching models in educa-               Counseling Psychology, 28, 59-65.
professor serves as a benevolent tour           tion: The coordination of teaching methods           Stoltenberg, C., & Delworth, U. (1987). Su-
guide of sorts" (p. 92). In fact, what is       with student charcteristics. Toronto, On-              pervising counselors and therapists: A de-
most likely indicated at this initial stage     tario:   Ontario   Institute    For   Studies   in
                                                                                                       velopmental approach. San Francisco: Jos-
of development (and what is recom-              Education.
mended by IDM postulations) is a con-         Loganbill, C. Hardy, E., & Delworth, U.
                                                                                                     Stoltenberg, C., McNeill, B., & Crethar, H.
crete, directive, hands-on, structured ap-      (1982). Supervision: A conceptual model.
                                                                                                       (1994). Changes in supervision as counsel-
                                                Counseling Psychologist, 10, 3-42.
proach to helping novice trainees under-                                                               ors and therapists gain experience: A review.
                                              McNeill, B., Stoltenberg, C., & Romans, J. C.
stand the complex mechanics of test                                                                    Professional   Psychology:    Research   and
                                                (1992).    The     integrated     developmental
administration, which also serves to re-                                                               Practice, 25, 416-449.
                                                model of supervision: Scale development
duce their initial anxiety about adminis-       and validation procedures.  Professional             Stoltenberg, C., McNeill, B., & Crethar, H.
tering tests—an approach that is some-          Psychology:    Research and Practice, 23,              (1995). Persuasion and development in
what at odds with Finkelstein and Tuck-         504-508.                                               counselor supervision. The Counseling Psy-
man's (1997) suggestion to "emphasize         Miller, A. (1981). Conceptual matching mod-              chologist, 23, 633-648.
[to trainees] the invisibility of adminis-      els and interactional research in education.         Stoltenberg, C., McNeill, B., & Delworth, U.
tration errors in the hopes of reducing         Review of Educational Research, 51, 33-                (in press). Supervising counselors and ther-

that anxiety and thereby reducing the           84.                                                    apists:   A developmental    approach (2nd
                                              Oakland, T., & Zimmerman, S. (1986). The                 ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
likelihood of errors" (p. 93). Instead,
                                                course on individual mental assessment: A            Stoppard, J., & Miller, A. (1985, Spring).
the available empirical evidence sug-
                                                national survey of course instructors. Pro-            Conceptual level matching: A review. Cur-
gests that when it comes to training stu-
                                               fessional School Psychology, 1, 51-59.                  rent Psychological Research and Reviews,
dents in psychological assessment, it is      Patterson, M., Slate, J., Jones, C., & Steger,           4, 46-68.
thorough, relevant, and comprehensive           H. (1995). The effects of practice adminis-
                                                                                                     Watkins, E. (1996). Psychotherapy supervisor
practice that makes perfect, rather than        trations in learning to administer and score
                                                                                                       and supervisee: Developmental models and
a reformation of trainees' perceptions          the WAIS-R: A partial replication. Educa-
                                                                                                       research nine years later. Clinical Psychol-
regarding their errors; that is to say,         tional and Psychological Measurement, 55,
                                                                                                       ogy Review, 15, 647-677.
nothing ameliorates trainees' anxiety           32-37.
                                                                                                     Whitten, J., Slate, J., Jones, C., Shine, A., &
like a solid confidence in their ability      Russell, R., Crimmings, A., & Lent, R.
                                                                                                       Raggio, D. (1994). Examiner errors in ad-
                                                (1984). Counselor training and supervision:
to be accurate! These and other issues                                                                 ministering and scoring me WPPSI-R.
                                                Theory and research. In S. Brown & R. Lent
surrounding Finkelstein and TUckman's                                                                  Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment,
                                                (Eds.), Handbook of counseling psychology
model warrant some measure of concern                                                                  12, 49-54.
                                                (pp. 625-681). New York: Wiley.
regarding its ability to serve as a parsi-    Slate, J., & Jones, C. (1989). Can teaching of         Worthington, E. (1987). Changes in supervi-
monious and empirically sound explica-          the WISC-R be improved: Quasi-experi-                  sion as counselors and supervisors gain ex-
tion of the developmental supervision of        mental exploration. Professional Psychol-              perience: A review. Professional    Psychol-
psychological assessment.                       ogy: Research and Practice, 20, 408-410.               ogy: Research and Practice, 18, 189-208.

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