Chapter 12 DNA and RNA_1_ by hcj


									                                            Chapter 12 DNA and RNA

What is DNA?

Every new cell that develops in your body needs an exact copy of the _____ from the ________. All organisms
must be able to pass copies of their DNA on to their offspring in order to _________________. The structure
of DNA is related to ______ primary functions:

   1) ____________________________________________

   2) _________________________________________

DNA Structure

DNA and RNA are __________ (repeating subunits) of _________. DNA is
made of two long strands, in the shape of a _______________________
or twisted ladder, of a chain of nucleotides.

Each nucleotide is made of _______ parts:

   1) ___________ (________________) (s)

   2) ______________________ (p)

   3) ____________________ (G, C, A, T)

The nitrogen base can be any one of the following four bases:

   1) Adenine        2) Guanine     3) Thymine     4) Cytosine

“A” Always goes with “___” (held together by ____________ bonds)

“G” always goes with “____” (held together by ____________ bonds)

Adenine and Guanine are Purines (_______________ rings of carbon)

Thymine and Cytosine are Pyrimidines (____________ ring of carbon)

In 1953 two scientists figured the shape of the DNA molecule was a double helix: ____________ (currently
participating in the ___________________ in CA) and __________. ______________________ also helped.

Replication = _____________________________, this happens in interphase

This is the process of DNA duplication. The strand ___________ along the ________________ bonds, then the
________________ nucleotide attaches to the missing part. Adenine can only bond with _____________,
while Cytosine can only bond with _____________________.
What would the complimentary strand look like?

C      G       A      T      T       A      C       G      T


What is RNA?

RNA or ______________________ has the primary function of ____________________________ and is
______ _______________________. It is __________________ from DNA in three ways:

    1) It has only ___________________________________ instead of two

    2) It has ___________________ as its sugar base instead of deoxyribose

    3) It has the nitrogen base _______________________ instead of Thymine

There are 3 types of RNA

1) ______________ or mRNA it serves as a template for the assembly of amino acids when proteins are made

2) _____________ or tRNA it is a folded back strand and can exist in 20 or more varieties,
   each bonding to only one specific amino acid

3) _____________ or rRNA is the glob-shaped form found on the ribosome. It assembles
   the amino acids in the correct order.

TRANSCRIPTION = ___________________________________

RNA is produced from DNA through this process. ____________ means “to write across”

A group of __sequential bases of mRNA is called a _________. A list of all 64 possible
amino acids codons can be found in your textbook.

TRANSLATION= ________________________

Translation takes place in the ______________. It is the process in which ______attaches
to a ___________; tRNA which carries a specific ____________attaches its ___________
to the correct mRNA __________building a chain of amino acids which codes for a _____________. A protein
may consist of hundreds or thousands of amino acids which codes for a specific protein, and all these amino
acids must be arranged in a particular sequence for _________________________________________

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