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CH 11 Study Guide_ DNA_ RNA_ and Proteins

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					Study Guide: DNA, RNA, and Proteins--Answers

1. What is the structure of DNA called? Double Helix
2. Explain the contributions of the following scientists: Watson & Crick, Rosalind Franklin, &
   Chargaff.
   Watson & Crick- Structure of DNA
   Rosalind Franklin- Xray picture of DNA
   Chargaff- complementary base pair rules, A=T, C=G
3. What are the complementary base pairs in DNA? Write the 1 letter symbol & spell them out.
   Adenine (A)-Thymine (T) and Guanine (G)-Cytosine (C)
4. What are the complementary base pairs in RNA? Write the 1 letter symbol & spell them out.
   Adenine (A)-Uracil (U) and Guanine (G)-Cytosine (C)
5. Use a chart to compare and contrast RNA and DNA in terms of structure, sugars, and bases.
                       DNA                       RNA
            Structure 2 strands                  1 strand
            Sugar      Deoxyribose               Ribose
            Bases      A-T, C-G                  A-U, C-G

6. List the three types of RNA and explain the function of each.
    mRNA: carries the DNA message from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
    rRNA: combines with proteins to form the ribosome
    tRNA: carries amino acids to the ribosome so that proteins can be made
7. Who discovered the structure of DNA? Watson & Crick
8. IF a sequence of codons on a DNA strand is AAC TAG GGT, what is the corresponding sequence
    in a strand of mRNA? What tRNA sequence would pair up to this mRNA?
    mRNA: UUG AUC CCA tRNA: AAC UAG GGT
9. What is the process by which a DNA molecule is copied? DNA replication
10. What are the parts of a nucleotide? Sugar, nitrogenous bases, & phosphate group
11. What process forms messenger RNA? What process forms proteins? transcription; translation
12. What does structure III in the picture represent?
    Amino acid
13. What process is illustrated in the figure?
     translation
14. A DNA segment is changed from- AATTAG- to-
    AAATAG. What kind of mutation is this?
    point
15. What four things can cause a mutation?
o spontaneous mistakes in base pairings
o radiation
o chemicals
o high temperatures
16. Where does translation and transcription take place in the cell?
    Translation-cytoplasm; transcription-nucleus
17. What is the start codon? What amino acid does it code for? AUG; methionine
18. Which type of RNA is the anticodon? Which type is the codon? tRNA; mRNA

				
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