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					History and Impact of Title
VI on Language Learning in
         the U.S.
                             Elaine Tarone
            CARLA, University of Minnesota
America needs more foreign language expertise
 Foreign language ability =„soft power‟                 (Armitage & Nye
  2008, Heyman 2008, Center for Strategic & International Studies: CSIS)

 Insistence on English is arrogant. Not all those we need
  to communicate with know English (Gates 2009). English is
  only one of several world languages (e.g. Spanish and

 Languages like Arabic, Persian, Russian and Korean are
  critical to our security

 Foreign language expertise continues to be as central to
  the national interest as math and reading.
CAL Surveys 1987, 1997, 2008
               (two Title VI-funded)
CAL Survey: Languages Studied
1997, 2008
We need increased foreign language
study in U.S. schools K-12

 Foreign languages are not tested in NCLB: lower priority
  (Nancy Rhodes, CAL)

 Recession increasing foreign language class cuts
  nationwide (Education Week, Mar 4 2009)

 Children learn foreign languages best in elementary
  schools, so these trends bode ill for the national
  capacity in the future
 History of Title VI and Language

1958 National Defense Education Act (NDEA)
1961 Fulbright-Hays Act
1980 Higher Education Act (HEA)
1992 HEA Reauthorization
Fifty years of foreign languages
studied and supported by Title VI
Between 150 and 200 languages have been taught and/or
  supported by new materials, assessments, and pedagogical
  tools, with funding from Title VI programs

>75,000 FLAS fellowships for individual study of languages

Less commonly taught language courses offered at post-
  secondary level through NRCs

Curricular materials and assessments developed through IRS and
  LRCs for use in teaching less commonly taught languages

K-16 teachers of many languages have been trained by LRCs in
  workshops, conferences and intensive summer institutes
Focus on Five Title VI Programs
 FLAS fellowships
 National Resource Centers (NRCs)
 International Business Education &
  Research (CIBER)
 International Research & Studies
 Language Resource Centers (LRCs)
FLAS Fellowship Languages
   In just the last 3 years, between 2005-2007, 5,927 FLAS
  fellowships have supported university students‟ study of
  125 languages in either academic-year or intensive
  summer programs (IRIS, 2009):

 *Akan, Albanian, Amharic, Arabic (incl Modern Standard, Egyptian,
Tunisian, Sudanese, Moroccan), Armenian, Aymara, Azerbaijani,
Bamana, Bambara, Bengali, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Burmese, Buryat,
Cakchiquel, Cantonese, Catalan, Chatino, Chinese (incl Mandarin),
Croatian, Czech, Dan, Danish, Dogon, Dutch, Estonian, Ewe, Finnish,
French, Fulfulde (Pulaar), Gaelic (Irish) , Ganda (Luganda), Garifuna,
Georgian, German, Greek, Gikuyu, Guarani, Gujarati, Haitian Creole
French, Hausa, Hebrew, Hindi, Hmong, Hungarian,
and more …
 Icelandic, Igbo, Indonesian, Inuktitut, Italian, Japanese,
 Javanese, Kashmiri, Kazakh, Khmer, Kongo, Korean, Kurdish,
 Kyrgyz, Lao, Lingala, Lithuanian, Macedonian, Malagasi,
 Malayalam, Mandinka, Maori, Marathi, Marshallese, Maya (incl
 Yucatec Maya, Mam Maya), Mbundu (incl Loana), Mixteco,
 Mongolian (Halh), Nahuatl, Nepali, Newari, Norwegian, Pali,
 Pashto, Persian (incl. Farsi), Polish, Portuguese (incl. Brazilian
 Portuguese), Punjabi (Lahnda), Quechua (incl Cuzco,
 Ayacucho), Quiche, Romanian, Russian, Rwanda, Samoan,
 Sanskrit, Scots Gaelic, Serbo-Croatian (Serbian), Shona,
 Sinhalese, Somali, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish, Sunda, Swahili
 (incl. Kiswahili), Swedish, Tagalog, Tahitian, Tai (Northern),
 Tajiki, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Tibetan, Turkish, Turkmen, Twi,
 Ukrainian, Urdu, Uygur, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Welsh, Wolof,
 Xhosa, Yiddish, Yoruba, Zapotec, Zulu
Most Frequently Studied FLAS
Languages, 1958-2009    (IRIS, 2009)
National Resource Centers (NRC)
Currently, 125 National Resource Centers, located at 50
  universities in 25 states and D.C.
In addition to educating students & K-12 teachers about
   world areas, they dramatically expand access to
   language instruction, supporting instruction in a total of
   more than 150 languages at their university campuses.
Many of the “much less commonly taught languages, such
  as Xhosa, Kazakh, and Maya, are not offered in any
  government institute but only at Title VI centers and
  their summer intensive language institutes.”
                                             (Wiley, 2001: 20)
National Resource Centers
Offer academic year classes and summer institutes at
  several proficiency levels in less commonly taught
  languages (LCTLs) like Pashto, Tagalog, Swahili, Urdu,
  Arabic, Persian, Korean, Kurdish and many more.

Leverage the universities‟ investment of their own
  resources (Wiley 2001). Because of them, universities:
   Co-fund NRC-supported LCTL courses, and
   Add institutional funding for LCTL courses, as these grow to
    meet minimum enrollments
  Example: U Minnesota‟s 3 NRCs
Fund all third-year LCTL courses whose enrollments fall below
  college minimum: currently, Turkish, Hindi, Urdu, Korean, Danish,
  Finnish, Swedish, Norwegian (with the U supporting first and
  second years of these languages).

Offer supplementary funds for teaching materials for all LCTL
  teachers, including those supported by UMN.

Offer summer language courses: in 2008, Vietnamese, Hmong (2
  levels), Chinese, Hindi, Japanese, Korean

Administer FLAS fellowships for LCTL study: 26 in last 4 yrs, >50% for
  study abroad, to enable students to move to more advanced levels
  of LCTL study than is possible at UMN.

International Program Learning Abroad Center: earn program credit
   for FL study abroad ( NAFSA‟s Paul Simon award for 2009).
Centers for International Business
Education and Research (CIBER)
Located in business schools on university campuses, to
  prepare students to do business in contexts where they
  MUST know the language to compete

Teach less-commonly-taught business languages: Arabic,
  Catalan, Farsi, Filipino, Hebrew, Hindi, Indonesian, Italian,
  Japanese, Korean, Mandarin, Polish, Portuguese, Russian,
  Swahili, Swedish, Thai, Turkish, Vietnamese, Wolof

Students taught:
   1989 to 1995: 16,522
   1989 to 2002: 108,817
   1989 to 2006: 181, 541
Is the language instruction good?
Have you ever had trouble learning a language
  because of poor instruction or poor materials?

Money spent for poorly taught, ineffective classes is
money poured down the drain.

The effectiveness of any language course depends
on the quality of its teaching materials &
assessments and the teaching methods used by its
      Supporting Effective Language
         Instruction: IRS and LRC

LRCs, often supplemented with IRSP funds, develop
  teaching resources and in-service teacher education to
  support the effectiveness of the language classes
  offered nationwide in schools and universities, through
  FLAS, by NRCs and CIBERs.

LRCs produce:
     Materials: books, audio-visual, computer resources
     Language proficiency assessment measures & procedures
     Inservices for language teachers on effective methods
     Research documenting what works
     A dissemination infrastructure to make materials, resources
      and information widely available to teachers & students
International Research and Studies
 Since 1959, IRSP has offered grants for the development
  of language teaching materials, and projects such as the
  development of language assessment measures, surveys
  and research studies.

 Projects: for example, CAL national K-12 foreign
  language surveys in 1995 and 2006; research on
  innovations in elementary school foreign language
International Research and Studies
 Materials: for example, instructional modules for
  Arabic, Persian and Turkish in the middle schools; online
  translation modules for Japanese and Arabic; Chinese
  literacy instructional materials; computer-adaptive
  tests in a variety of languages.
Language Resource Centers (LRC)
1990: LRC program established: 3 centers. Mission:
  improve the nation‟s capacity to teach and learn
  languages effectively.

2009: 15 LRCs, leading applied linguists and SLA
  researchers. Focused on effective materials,
  assessments and teacher preparation.

The LRCs hand out fish ...

… and teach to fish.
Locations of the LRCs
 Today, the LRC network provides teaching
  resources, workshops, and support for language
  teachers (both university-level and K-12), whose
  expertise sustains the effectiveness of the language
  classes offered by the nation‟s K-16 system.

 That infrastructure also disseminates resources and
  information to language teacher educators,
  program administrators, and language
Search the LRC website:
Material Series for Specific Languages
•   Handbooks for
    students of
    Middle Eastern


• Introduction of
  strategies and
  resources for
  studying Arabic,
  Hebrew, Persian,
 Materials for Specific Languages
 Learners‟ Reference
  Grammars, and the
  Let‟s Speak Series

 NALRC @ Madison

 Swahili, Amharic, Shona,
  Zulu, Asante-Twi, Kikongo,
  Somali, Akan, Hausa,
  Sesotho, & more
    Material Series for Specific Languages
•   Intermediate
    Reading & Listening
    Modules and

• CelCAR @ Indiana

• Mongolian, Pashto,
  Tajiki, Uyghur,
    Material Series for Specific Languages
•   Digital Media

• LARC @ San Diego
  State University

• Lesson at different
  levels include
  video, audio, and

• Arabic, Chinese,
  Farsi, German,
  Hindi, Italian,
  Japanese, Korean,
  Mayan, Portuguese,
Language Materials for K-12

 • Business Language
   Packets for High School
   Classrooms (French,
   German, Spanish)

 • CLEAR @ Michigan State

 • Downloadable PDFs
   that focus on business
Online Tools to Create Materials
•   Rich Internet

• CLEAR @ Michigan
  State University

• Online programs for
  recording, uploading,
  mixing, and
    Teacher/Instructor Guides
• The Essentials of
  Language Teaching

• NCLRC--George
  Washington University,
  Center for Applied
  Linguistics and
  Georgetown University

• An on-line guide to
  essential principles and
  methods of FL
  Teacher/Instructor Guides
 How does a teacher
  effectively respond to
  the diverse needs of
  the learner?

 National K-12 FL
  Resource Center @ Iowa

• How do teachers vary
  instruction and
  assessment in order to
  be responsive to the
  needs of all students?
Teacher/Instructor Guides
• Corpus Portal

• CALPER @ Penn State

• Provides quick and
  easy access to all
  materials developed
  by CALPER.
Teacher/Instructor Guides
•   Content-based Language
    Teaching through

•   CARLA--University of

•   CoBaLTT provides online
    resources that help
    foreign language and
    immersion teachers
    create content-based
    lessons/units using
    technology to enhance
    students' language
    proficiency and content or
    cultural knowledge.
  Language Materials & Assessments

• LinguaFolio

   K-12 assessment


  lessons in social
  sciences in
  French, Japanese
  and Spanish

• CASLS @ University
  of Oregon
  Directories of Resources
• The LCTL Database

• CARLA @ University
  of Minnesota

• A database of
  where Less
  Commonly Taught
  Languages are
  taught in North
  America. Includes
  over 12,500 listings
  for over 300
    Directories of Resources
•   Orient Yourself:
    Online Catalog of
    Study Abroad
    Opportunities in East

• NEALRC @ Ohio State

• For American
  students to access
  information about
  East Asian institutes
  and American
  institutes that offer
  study abroad
  programs in East
  Asia, as well as
  scholarships and
  financial aids for
  study abroad.
Journals and Newsletters
 American Council on Immersion Education Newsletter archives

• The Culture Club e-magazine

• Global Connections annual newsletter

• Heritage Language Journal online blind-refereed journal

• Intercom email service

• Language Documentation and Conservation peer-reviewed journal

• Language Learning and Technology online peer-reviewed journal

• The Language Resource monthly e-newsletter

• Reading in a Foreign Language online peer-reviewed journal

• South Asian Language Blog

• South Asian Language Pedagogy and Technology online peer-reviewed journal
Journals and Newsletters

• South Asian Language
  Pedagogy and

• SALRC-University of

• Online peer-reviewed
Journals and Newsletters
• Language Learning
  and Technology

• CLEAR @ Michigan
  State University &
  NFLRC @ University
  of Hawai‟i

• Online peer-
  reviewed journal
 Journals and Newsletters

• Heritage Language

  Consortium for
  Language Learning and

• Online peer-reviewed
Title VI programs, including FLAS fellowships, NRCs,
CIBERS, IRS & LRCs, have been fostering expertise in
foreign languages in the nation‟s schools &
universities, K-16, since 1959. And yet too few
Americans have been able to benefit from these
Programs like Title VI need more But Title and
Efficient use made of limited funding. funding VI
  support if they are to to have more
programs must be expandedtruly address the
widespread impact on the nation‟s foreign language
  nation‟s need for FL expertise in the 21st
expertise, building on its capacity in the K-16
school system.