Urbanisation And Municipal Solid Waste Management A Case Study - PowerPoint

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					 Urbanisation And Municipal Solid
Waste Management: A Case Study Of
             Mumbai

            Sarika Kansal
           IGIDR, Mumbai
             Different types of Solid Waste

Municipal Solid Waste


Industrial Solid Waste



Hazardous Solid Waste
Present Scenario of Solid Waste Management
                  in India

•   100-500 grams per capita waste
•   Dirty streets and cities
•   Unhygienic conditions
•   Loss of reusable / recyclable material
•   Pollution due to burning of waste
•   Local as well as global air pollution
    Municipal Solid Waste Management in
                  Mumbai

• MCGB
• Bombay Municipal Corporation (B.M.C.) Act
  1888.
• 6256 tones per day waste generated in Mumbai.
• Per capita waste generated is 0.450 kg, highest in
  Indian cities
• One of the best waste management systems in
  India.
Map Showing Different wards
(24) of Mumbai
            Waste Disposal Options

•   Sanitary Land-filling (Open Dump) method
•   Composting and Vermi-composting
•   Incineration
•   Pelletization
•   Gasification / Pyrolysis
•   Anaerobic treatment of solid waste
•   Conversion to biogas
Landfill sites (Open dumps) in Mumbai


 Location    Area(Hectar Quantity
             es)         received in
                         TPD
 Deonar      111         3140
 Mulund      25.20       275
 Chincholi   19.22       1163
 Gorai       14.5        424
        Formal and Informal sector in SWM

•   Formal sector: Municipality
•   Staff – 39,845
•   Collection efficiency – 90% (Municipal Data)
•   Informal sector: Rag pickers
•   1,00,000 rag pickers
•   Collect 25 % (excluding debris)
•   Sell reusable of value Rs. 900 million every year
•   No coordination between two sectors
  Composition of MSW in Mumbai

            10.55%              0.75%
                          15%
                                 0.80%
                                         Paper and cardboard
                                 0.40%
                                         Plastics
                                         Metals (ferrous)
                                         Glass
                                         Sand & fine earth
   37.50%
                                         Compostable matter
                                35%      Others


Composition of Municipal solid waste in Mumbai
              Budget Provision for Solid Waste
              Management Services in Mumbai


            500                                       400
            400                               350
                                        314
Rs. crore




            300    250     247
            200
            100
              0
                  1996-97 1997-98 1998-99     1999-   2000-
                                              2000    2001
                                 Year
     Problems of MSW Management in
                 Mumbai
• Overflowing Community Bins
• Waste littering in many places
• Waste Management services not satisfactory
                     Reasons
• Institutional deficiencies (Problem of Governance)
   – Lack of coordination between different departments for
     MSW management services.
   – Low Productivity of solid waste management staff
• Lack of public participation
 Possible Environmental Impact of Waste

• Open dumping:
      • Degradation of land resources
      • Health Impacts
      • Contamination of surface and groundwater supplies

• Open burning: Urban air pollution

• Decomposition of organic wastes: release of
  methane which contributes to greenhouse effect.
        Impact of SWM on Environmental
                   Resources
Environmenta   Activities connected to SWM
l Resources
               Collection + Dum     Bur      Sorting
               Transport    ping    ning
Land                        -ve     +ve      +ve

Air            -ve           -ve    -ve      +ve

Water                        -ve             +ve
       Future Research Direction

• Estimation of health impact on Waste pickers and
  general public
• How to encourage Community Participation
  (Economic instruments, Legislations, Force)?
• Estimation of contribution of waste on global
  environment
• How to promote efficient municipal government?