Bio-Telemetry for Fisheries and Marine Sciences What is by rma97348

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									                                                                             What is Bio-telemetry
        Bio-Telemetry for Fisheries
                                                                      An instrument is attached in sea animals (a tortoise,
           and Marine Sciences                                        a dolphin, a whale, penguin, etc.) or a fish.



                                                                       Using on method for land, this system come into
                 Yoshinori MIYAMOTO                                   popular use for the animals or a bird which examine the
                  (Tokyo University of Fisheries)                     ecology and the physiology.




        Biotelemetry necessity for                                        Biotelemetry necessity for
                biologist 1                                                       biologist 2

                                                                      l   Studies on behavior, ecology and physiology of
    l   The ocean animal and coexistence with fishery
        becomes a big key of fishery continuation.                        the animals under natural conditions are strongly
                                                                          restricted owing to limited techniques.
    l   The underwater world still remains remote with
                                                                      l   Biotelemetry (technology to do telemetry of the
        regard to free -ranging marine animals owing to
        difficulty in access to animals.                                  physiology habits of a creature and environment
                                                                          data) is utilized as technique of that purpose.




           Biotelemetry necessity                                            Biotelemetry necessity
                  for Fisheries 1                                                for Fisheries 2
l   A fishing with seat-of-the-pants.                             l   It is the amount investigation of resources of a food living
               •¨ Over hunting which disregarded the ecosystem.       thing .
l   Grasp of the ecology by action investigation of a fish.                •¨ Use is possible as an index of marine environment.
               •¨ It is not for exterminate catching              l   But, not attached for the small fish.
               •¨ Maintenance of the resources by grasp of a               •¨ Clarifying swimming action and diving action of
                               spawning ground place etc.                       the sea animal which is at the top of a food cycle
                                                                           •¨Index of change of marine environment, and
                                                                                  change of the amount of resources




                                                                                                                                     1
             How do you use                            Four kinds of Biotelemetry
              Biotelemerty?                                    techniques
l   There is nothing then “What is known? “
             •«                                               1. Ultrasonic telemetry

l What you want to know ?                                     2. Radio telemetry
l What was clarified?                                         3. Satellite telemetry
l It is necessary to choose the system which                  4. Micro-data logger
  can acquire required data




                                                       Basic system of Ultrasonic
         Ultrasonic telemetry                                  telemetry
l Ultrasonic is most used for underwater               l How to equip a fish etc. with an ultrasonic
  measurement etc. (Fish-finder,ADCP etc.)               transmitter( it called PINGER), attach a
l The frequency from 10kHz to about 1MHz                 receiver in a vessel, and pursue a fish by the
  is used for telemetry.                                 direction and intensity of the wave.
                                                       l Since a vessel is used, it is not fit for fine
                                                         action analysis.
                                                       l Moreover, expenses pile up.




     Progress for Ultrasonic                                  SBL(Short Base Line)
           telemetry
    Basically Underwater Biotelemetry Technique
                                                                          l Minimum of three
           Generally, Chasing target by Ship                                hydrophones are required
                           •«                                             l Three ranges/bearings are then
     The observation data are the target bearing and                        measured to the pinger to
                         depth                                              obtain a 3 -D position fix.
                  Need time and cost                                      l Distance between the
                       •«                                                   hydrophones is of the order of
    Get 3D underwater positioning using several                             5 – 20m
                  transducers
                                                                           “underwater acoustic positioning systems “ P.H.Milne




                                                                                                                                  2
     SSBL(Super-Short Base Line)                                                                          LBL(Long Base Line)

                                                                                                                                       l An array of transponders with
                                                                                                                                         a baseline often several
                                                                                                                                         kilometers long.
                                                                                                                                       l Position are seabed-oriented
                                                                                                                                         and hence can be related to a
                                                                                                                                         seabed or platform grid.
l Three sensors can be incorporated in a single                                                                                        l The seabed transponders reply
  hydrophone.                                                                                                                            on a different frequency.
l Rely on a phase difference or phase comparison at the
  sensors of the acoustic signal.
                               “underwater acoustic positioning systems “ P.H.Milne                                                           “underwater acoustic positioning systems “ P.H.Milne




Fish behavior using Ultrasonic                                                        Fish behavior using Ultrasonic
         telemetry 1                                                                           telemetry 2
 l   The system which receives an ultrasonic                                             l    Although there are SBL, SSBL, LBL and
     wave in two or more receiving stations                                                   various methods, there is nothing for
     fixed at sea, and calculates the position of                                             observation in not much vast area in nothing.
     PINGER from the receiving time lag or
     signal strength.




                                                                                        A New Ultrasonic Pinger
Fish behavior using Ultrasonic                                                        System Using Synchronizing
         telemetry 3                                                                   Method for Tracking Fish
 l   It is possible to be able to perform fine                                                  System
     action analysis and to see three-dimensional
     swimming action underwater.




                                                                                      Movements of the striped jack after release
                                                                                       The upper diagram is the plan view and the
                                                                                      lower diagram is the side view
                                                                                                                   Han et.al. (1995)




                                                                                                                                                                                                     3
     A New Ultrasonic Pinger                                                     Behavior of the Antarctic
   System Using Synchronizing                                                    Fish Beneath the Sea Ice
    Method for Tracking Fish                                                    Using Acoustic Biotelemetry
             Result                                                           System




Movements of the striped jack after release
 The upper diagram is the plan view and the
lower diagram is the side view
                             Han et.al. (1995)




          Behavior of the Antarctic
          Fish Beneath the Sea Ice                                                         Radio telemetry
         Using Acoustic Biotelemetry                                                                    lRadio transmitter for animal in
                                                                                                        many cases
                                                 Result
                                                                                                        lVHF(144MHz •`430MHz) is
                                                                                                        general use
                                                                                                        lOne antenna could be fined bearing
                                                                                                        and signal strength
                                                                                                        lTwo antenna set could be find the
                                                                                                        target position using the cross bearing
                                                                                                        (the geographical navigation)




              Fish belabor using Radio                                                  Satellite telemetry
                                                                          l   Worldwide coverage
                      telemetry                                           l   Applications
                                                                                 Oceanography
                                                                                 Monitoring fishing vessels
                                                                                 Wildlife research
                                                                                         Terrestrial animals
                                                                                         Marine animals
                                                 lSome example for used                             GEO:Gestational Orbit (36,000km)
                                                 "Freshwater fish"                                          INMARSAT (Communication&data)
                                                                                                    MEO:Medium Earth
                                                                                                    Orbit(3,000~20,000km)
                                                                                                            Argos system (data:two way)
A TELEVILT transmitter is attached                                                                  LEO:Low Earth Orbit (500~3,000km)
   to a Brown Trout Salmo trutta                                                                            ORBCOMM (data:two way)
   (photo: Bengt Evertsson)




                                                                                                                                                  4
                                                                                                 Result of fix point
          The ARGOS System
                                                                                                   observation
                                 l   Worldwide coverage
                                 l   Automatic centralized location
                                     system
                                 l   Applications
                                          Oceanography
                                          Monitoring fishing vessels
                                          Wildlife research
                                                 Terrestrial animals
                                                 Marine animals




                                                                                    The ORBCOMM System
               Tracking of Seal




                                                                              Satellites          Subscriber Links          Gateway Links
                                                                              (35 in 6 Orbital    Uplink         Downlink   Uplink        Downlink   Gateway Earth
                                                                              Planes)             VHF            VHF        VHF           VHF        Stations
                                                                                                  148-150 MHz 137-138 MHz   149 MHz       137 MHz    Notional Locations
                                  National Research Institute of Far Seas                         2,400 bps      4,800      56 Kbps       56 Kbps
                                  Fisheries




The ORBCOMM System Status                                                              The ORBCOMM Buoy
l   Basic satellite network completed in 1999
     – 35 satellites launched on 6 rockets
                                                                              •‚
                                                                               ƒ
                                                                            3‚S‚         in diameter
l   Ground network and distribution partners in place
     – 12 gateways installed on 5 continents
                                                                                   ‚
                                                                                   ‡‹
                                                                            Weight 6‚                    in air
     – 17 regional service providers covering over 190 countries
     – 47 countries now providing service                                                                  ORBCOMM antenna
     – Over 200 domestic and international VARs
l   Overall network performance is excellent                                                                  ORBCOMM
     – Currently performing above target levels                                                               terminal built-
     – 30 Operational satellites                                                                              in GPS receiver
     – Approximately 1,000,000 msgs/week in the US



                                                                                                                 GPS antenna




                                                                                                                                                                          5
 The ORBCOMM System                                   What is Micro-data Logger
   have possibilities
                                                               l   Digital data recording system
•Remote sensing techniques                                     l   Very small size
                                                               l   Mulch sensor
•Extensive research combine with                                       Depth
                                                                       Temperature
                      Ultrasonic telemetry                                      Water
                                                                                Core body
                                                                       Speed
                                                                       Heart rate
                                                                       Acceleration




 What Micro-data Logger                               Newly Type of Micro-data
        can do                                                Logger
     l   Free ranging measurement                 l   Time Depth and temperature
                                                  l   Mulch temperature
             Diving behavior
                                                  l   Stomach temperature
                   Depth                          l   Electrocardiograph
                   Speed                          l   Speed, depth and temp.
                                                  l   Depth, Light and
                   Bout
                                                                  Conductivity
             Body temperature
                                                  l   Speed, depth and
             Sea temperature                                2-axis Acceleration    NIPR(National Institute of Polar Research) have a right
                                                                                    of loggers and produced by Little Leonard Co.Ltd.
          Must be recovery                                                                                 Tokyo.




                                                      Type of Micro-data logger
Syowa Station at Antarctica                             using Adélie penguin
                                                       observation in JARE 37

                                                                                   ‡@ ‡A ‡B                      ‡C             ‡D




                                             ‡@ Depth and temperature
                                              Time
                                             ‡AStomach temperature
                                             ‡BDepth, Light and Conductivity
                                             ‡CVHF Radio Transmitter
                                             ‡DElectrocardiograph,Speed and
                                             depth




                                                                                                                                             6
    Behavior of Adélie penguin using             Behavior of Adélie penguin using
     Micro-data logger and Radio                  Micro-data logger and Radio
                tracking                                     tracking




    Ultra Small Fish Detecting                     DSL(Deep Sea Lock) Logger
             Logger                                   (Digital Camera Logger)
l   1 MHz Ultrasonic
l   with Depth sensor
l   8bit CPU(24MHz)
l   32Mbit Flash memory
l   Head block size
             t27 d22
      w52 •~ •~ mm
l   Cylinders size
        22 110
      ƒÓ •~ mm
l   Weight about 100g
             with dry cell




    Requirements of the micro-                    Subject of the micro-data
           data logger                                     logger
                                                              Subject after now
               Various loggers were described.           l    More miniaturization
                 Increase of Flash memory                            •«
                              •«                             To more more species
               Advancement of quality of study
                              •«                                 lRecovery
                       Need new sensor                               •«
                   (e.g.. physiology sensor)                  Abundantly attach
                                                               Price reduced




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                          Summary                                                    Effect of fish behavior to
l   Problem                                                                             attached equipment
    Ultrasonic telemetry •¨The observation area is limited
                              Difficult to get the physiology information   lDeviation from being really natural, and as or ?
    Radio telemetry        •¨Very limited use                                                    •«
    Satellite telemetry    •¨Cannot use fish                                Group action has the influence on a wearing
    Macro-data logger      •¨ The recovering method
                                                                              living thing.
                                •«
        Three methods are put together to solve these problems.             l   The burden of the wearing method or
          The device must be made light weight and small size.                  apparatus influences. (Generally 10% of
l   The habits of the marine organisms by the biotelemetry and                  weight is a limit )
    observation of physiology become more and more necessary in
    future.




                                                                                Find solutions to problems
    The problem for observation
                                                                                   for observation using
        using Biotelemetry
                                                                                        Biotelemetry
l There is a limit in individual investigation.
                                                                            l A project is started. (biologist, an engineer
l  There are problems, such as various apparatus
  and chartered ship.                                                         (apparatus development researcher), a supervisor
                                                                              (coordinator), sponsor)
l Moreover, the problem of ocean space arises
                                                                            l Large-size animals (especially whale etc.) need
  depending on an object living thing. (Shallow
                                                                              an international project.
  ocean space which cannot be entered in a ship)




        Problem for Developing
                                                                                     Problem for Developing
        Biotelemetry system ‚P
                                                                                     Biotelemetry system ‚Q
l Relation between ecology research and                                          l A handling person is an amateur.
  electronic technology. (The demand of a living
                                                                                 l The necessity for a coordinator.
  thing researcher, and prejudice of an electronic
  engineer)                                                                      l Development of apparatus and cost of
                                                                                   investigation.
l A prejudice of a biologist's demand engineers
  (accuracy of apparatus etc.) is equipment which
  can be operated as simply as possible since it is
  use in the self-satisfied outdoors.




                                                                                                                                 8
                                                       Project of WEOS
      Future for Biotelemetry                   (Whale Ecology Observe Satellite)
l   Using Internet                              By Chiba Institute of Technology
l   Microminiaturisation of Electronic device
    and sensors




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