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					    Development & Research Project
Motivation and Models of Learning among
Primary School Students in the Subjects of
    Chinese, English and Mathematics


  The Chinese University of Hong Kong

                                             1
     Members of the Research Team
Principal Investigator: Prof. Wong Hin-wah
Chinese Subject
   Ms. Chui Ching-ying, Mr. Ng Mau-yuen, Eric,
   Prof. Tong Choi-wai, Mr. Yeung Chi-kwan
English Subject
   Prof. Man Yee-fun, Evelyn, Mr. Sze Man-man, Paul
Mathematics Subject
   Mr. Lau Ying-chuen, Mr. Law Huk-yuen
   Mr. Tang Kon-ming, Prof. Wong Ngai-ying
Researcher: Prof. Lee Chi-kin, John
Assistant School Development Officer: Ms. Chu Ka-wing, Julia
Project Assistant: Ms. Ho Bik-yu, Beatrice, Ms. Yu Wing-sze, Taina
                                                                     2
  Participating Schools

      LKWSFL Wong Yiu Nam Primary School


CUHKFAA Thomas Cheung School




                                           3
1. Foreword—(1)
 The focal point of this project is not only
 confined to the students’ academic
 achievements; we are more concerned about
 the students’ maintenance of their interest
 and engagement in learning, and the
 multiplicity of their learning models.



                                          4
1. Foreword—(2)
 The foci of the project centers round:
   Motivation and Models of learning

   Learning engagement

   Teacher empowerment

   Reflective teaching and Action research

   Professional development of teachers and

    curriculum leaders
   Collaborative Partnership


                                          5
2. Views on individual differences
Each student is an individual different from all
  other students;
Over emphasis on pencil-and-paper exam
  results may neglect students’ effort;
Catering for individual differences is not solely
  to reduce the differences in test or exam
  results. Rather it is to lead students to find
  personal meaning in learning and to learn
  how to learn.
                                                   6
3. Strategies in catering for individual
differences—(1)
Concept and Goals
Our starting points are not the school
 organizational system or the structure of the
 curriculum. Instead, we begin with the status
 quo, with reality.
We believe that to analyze thoroughly the
 teaching problems in schools and consider
 theories about student motivations in learning
 will develop school teachers’ sensitivity to
 individual differences among students.
                                             7
3. Strategies in catering for individual
differences—(2)
Strategy of development adopted:
T: Task
A: Authority
R: Recognition
G: Grouping
E: Evaluation
T: Time
                                   (Epstein, 1989)
We aim at changing the present learning model,
 performance-goal orientation, to one of
 mastery-goal orientation.
                                              8
      Operational Mode of strategies
                          Big Wheel



                        Collaborative Partnership



                             Enhancement of teachers’ motivation and models of teaching
Individual Difference
                             Maintenance of students’ learning motivation and models of
                                                       learning




                    Small Wheel
Operational Mode of strategies
                       Workshop on
                      TARGET model
           Curriculum & Instructional Leadership
      Teacher reflection & professional development
  Teacher empowerment & Improvement of school culture


                                    Big Wheel

               Collaborative Partnership:
                 Build up Mutual Trust
       Relationship among university, school & CDI
         Relationship between school & parents
            Improvement in teaching Models

                                                        10
                           Collaborative Partnership:
                             Build up Mutual Trust
                   Relationship among university, school & CDI
                     Relationship between school & parents
                        Improvement in teaching Models


                            Enhancement of teachers’ motivation and models of teaching
                            Maintenance of students’ learning motivation and models of
Individual Difference                                 learning


                            Small Wheel
               Subject Meetings/ Workshops on Subject Teaching
                Core Group (on teaching and learning) Meeting
                            Interview with Principals
                                Parents’ Meeting
                       Interview with Students & Parents
                           School-wide Dissemination
                     Consultants’ Meeting with CDI officers
5. Research Design
5 aspects of the study:
   Study   of   the   students
   Study   of   the   teachers (including PSM(CD)s)
   Study   of   the   principals
   Study   of   the   parents
   Study   of   the   researchers
Multiple channels and angles of observation to collect
  and analyze data (Table)


                                                       12
6. Improvement in learning and
teaching
Change in school culture
 Individual to collaborative culture
 Collective lesson planning, Peer lesson observation,
 etc. and the formation and development of the Core
 Group of Teaching and Learning
Improvement in subject teaching
 A wide range of various strategies are developed by
 teachers at two participating schools to enhance their
 teaching and learning.


                                                   13
7. Research findings: Changes taking
place in participants—Students(1)
Student questionnaire
                      (refer to ER-p.16, 7.1.1. & CR-p54, 7.1.1.)
Findings
Students’ self concept is generally high in the first year.
  Then it tends to get slightly lower in the second and
  third year.
When students get to a higher form, they will encounter
  more difficult subject content, and their interest and
  motivation in learning and learning motivation will
  likely be adversely affected.


                                                             14
  7. Research findings: Changes taking
  place in participants—Students(2)
Student interview
             (refer to ER-p.17, 7.1.2. & CR-p.58-7.1.2.)
The topics of the first two interviews focus on
   dimensions of students’ experiences and
   impression of school life: how they see
   “going to school”, “attending class”,
   “homework”, “dictation”, “teachers”,
   “classmates” and “school”.


                                                     15
7. Research findings: Changes taking
place in participants—Students(2)
The interview data is summarized from two
  dimensions:
(1) How the students view learning
           (refer to ER-p.17, 7.1.2.1. & CR-p.59, 7.1.2.1.1.)

(2) How the students view their teachers
             (refer to ER-p.18-7.1.2.2. & CR-63, 7.1.2.1.2.)




                                                          16
7. Research findings: Changes taking
place in participants—Teachers(1)
Observations by the university researchers
   Increase in taking the initiative in teaching
   Self-reflection
   Opening up the classroom and meeting challenges
   Using research to enhance teaching and
    professional development
                    (refer to ER-p.19, 7.2.1. & CR-p.64-7.2.1.)




                                                          17
    7. Research findings: Changes taking
    place in participants—Teachers(2)
Interviews with teachers: The “Changed” and the “Unchanged”
                             (refer to ER-p.20, 7.2.2. & CR-p.70, 7.2.2.)
Changes in teacher
    Changes in teaching model, beliefs, concepts about teaching
                               (refer to ER-p.24, 7.2.2.1. & CR-p.71, 7.2.2.1.)
    Views on collaborative lesson planning
                             (refer to ER-p.21, 7.2.2.1. & CR-p.77, 7.2.2.1. b)
    Views on collaboration among teachers
                             (refer to ER-p.22, 7.2.2.1. & CR-p.79, 7.2.2.1. c)
    Views on teacher empowerment, teacher autonomy
                             (refer to ER-p.23, 7.2.2.1. & CR-p.82, 7.2.2.1. d)
    Views on reflective teaching
                            (refer to ER-p.23, 7.2.2.1. & CR-p.84, 7.2.2.1. e )
    Views on co-operating with parents
                             (refer to ER-p.23, 7.2.2.1. & CR-p.84, 7.2.2.1. f)
                                                                          18
7. Research findings: Changes taking
place in participants—Teachers(3)
Reasons for the teachers’ changes
                   (refer to ER-p.24, 7.2.2.2. & CR-p.85, 7.2.2.2.)
   Students’ reactions and changes
   Collaboration among colleagues
   The leadership of subject leaders
   The support of university experts
   Identifying with the model TARGET
   The parents’ impetus
   The principals’ encouragement and support
   The mobilization of the whole school
   Some teachers are self-motivated
   To be answering the call of educational reform
                                                               19
7. Research findings: Changes taking
place in participants—Teachers(4)
Changes out of expectation
                 (refer to ER-p.24, 7.2.2.3. & CR-p.89, 7.2.2.3.)
   Teachers’ personal change and growth
   Materials-design with own efforts
   The project could reap quick returns
   Begin to realize that pressure can be minimized if
    teachers are able to collaborate nicely and to
    achieve professional growth in due course.



                                                            20
7. Research findings: Changes taking
place in participants—Teachers(5)
The Unchanged
              (refer to ER-p.25, 7.2.2.5. & CR-p.91, 7.2.2.4.)

   The curriculum content of some subjects is still
    packed;
   Some teachers in the schools still do not accept
    reform;
   Principals support the teachers strongly;
   Parents’ concern about their children.



                                                            21
7. Research findings: Changes taking
place in participants—Teachers(6)
Teachers’ personal growth
               (refer to ER-p.25, 7.2.2.5. & CR-p.93, 7.2.2.5.)
   Enhanced understanding of the curriculum
   Raised teachers’ sense of autonomy over the
    curriculum
   More active concern over students
   Increased team spirit
   More capable of designing learning activities
   More patient with students
   Increased confidence in teaching
                                                           22
7. Research findings: Changes taking
place in participants—Teachers(7)
Relationship between teachers’ personal growth
    and the development of the school: tightly
    interconnected
               (refer to ER-p.26, 7.2.2.6. & CR-p.96, 7.2.2.6.)
Relationship between the project and the
    development of the schools: to hasten the
    overall development of the schools
               (refer to ER-p.26, 7.2.2.7. & CR-p.97, 7.2.2.7.)




                                                           23
7. Research findings: Changes taking
place in participants—Teachers(7)
Problems and challenges faced by teachers
                 (refer to ER-p.26, 7.2.2.8. & CR-p.97, 7.2.2.8.)
 Not really know how best to help those students who
  are weak in learning ability or have great difficulties
  in learning learn with efficiency;
 Not enough manpower or time
 Some teachers in the schools are still skeptical about
  the efficiency of the project
 Really need help from “experts” in the relevant field


                                                            24
7. Research findings: Changes taking
place in participants—Principals(1)
Interview with principals
                             (refer to ER-p.27, 7.3. & CR-p.99, 7.3.)

Principal A
(refer to ER-p.27, 7.3.1. & CR-p.99, 7.3. A-E)
    Changes in the teachers perceived by the principal
    Recognized that students can change teachers
    Self reflection on the principal himself
    Continuation of the project in the school
    Problems and challenges


                                                                25
7. Research findings: Changes taking
place in participants—Principals(2)
Principal B
(refer to ER-p.28, 7.3.2. & CR-p.104, 7.3. A-C)
    Changes in the role of the principal
    Reflection on the principal’s role
    The Unchanged
    The attitude of the parents in co-operating with the
     school




                                                     26
7. Research findings: Changes taking
place in participants—Parents
Interview with parents
Parents’ perception of the teaching in the school and the students’
learning (refer to ER-p.29, 7.4. & CR-p.110, 7.4.)
     Reasons for changing schools
      (refer to ER-p.29, 7.4.1. & CR-p.111, 7.4.)
     Views on subject teaching
      (refer to ER-p.30, 7.4.2. & CR-p.112, 7.4.)
     Changes in students
      (refer to ER-p.30, 7.4.3. & CR-p.113, 7.4.)
     New understanding of students’ homework
      (refer to ER-p.30, 7.4.4. & CR-p.114, 7.4.)
     Change in views towards dictation
      (refer to ER-p.31, 7.4.5. & CR-p.114, 7.4.)
     The understanding of the relationship between reading
      and learning
      (refer to ER-p.31, 7.4.6. & CR-p.115, 7.4.)
                                                                      27
7. Research findings: Changes taking
place in participants—Researchers
Interview with researchers
                     (refer to ER-p.32, 7.5. & CR-p.129, 7.5.)
   The understanding of the conceptualization of the
    project
   The role of the project researchers
   The understanding of the entire project
   The experience gained in participating in the
    project and its relevance to teacher education




                                                         28
 8. The dissemination of the project
To disseminate the experience of the project with CDI
                        (refer to ER-p.34, 8.1. & CR-p.138. 8.1.)

Publication of monographs
                        (refer to ER-p.34, 7.2. & CR-p.141, 8.2.)
Application of one participating school to join the Seed
  Project for the sake of experience-dissemination
                        (refer to ER-p.34, 8.3. & CR-p.142, 8.3.)
Presentation in 3 regions conference on Curriculum
  Leadership & Evaluation
                                                            29
9. Conclusion—(1)
No educational problems can be solved by one
  party, so the concept of collaborative
  partnership becomes a bridge connecting
  educational theory and practice.
Teaching is an interactive process. This means
  not only that teachers and students interact.
  It also means interaction between school and
  family.
Learning by doing is a central tenet of the
  Project.

                                              30
9. Conclusion—(2)
Educational reform required time. Its effectiveness may
  not be measurable by quantification. On the long
  march to educational reform, wayfarers need to hold
  steady their educational principles, pay attention to
  students’ needs, be sympathetic to and have faith in
  teachers’ capacity. We need patience and
  persistence. It really requires the support and
  understanding of every stakeholder, indeed every
  citizen. That, too, is part of the true meaning of “No
  one is dispensable”.


                                                    31
       Theoretical consideration

   1. Zeichner and Gore(1990)suggest that
    interface between individual teachers and
    their schools reveals a critical gap in our
    understanding of change. (Richardson, ed.,
    2001, 4th Handbook of Research on
    Teaching, p.929)


                                            32
           Theoretical consideration
   2. Effects of Teacher Change on Students. Few
    studies of teacher change in either the individual or
    organizational literature move toward examining what
    happens to student learning when teachers change their
    practices. Within a community, student learning should
    be assessed longitudinally to determine the effects of
    teacher change on student learning over a number of
    years.(Richardson, ed., 2001,p.929)




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