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RESEARCH METHODS

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RESEARCH METHODS Powered By Docstoc
					      SESI 1:
 INTRODUCTION TO
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
TOPICS DISCUSSED
   Introduction to Research (Chp 1)
   Scientific Investigation (Chp 2 )
INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH
   What is Research ?
   Definition of Research
   Types of Research
   Why Managers Should Know About
    Research
WHAT IS RESEARCH ?
     RESEARCH AND DECISION
     MAKING PROCESS
               Research


            Decision Making   Experience
Authority
                Process


               Intuition
DEFINITION OF RESEARCH
   SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH :
    is systematic, controlled, emperical,
    and critical investigation of
    hypothetical propositon about the
    presumed relations among phenomena
DEFINITION …………………
   BUSINESS RESEARCH :
    is systematic, controlled, empirical,
    and critical investigation of phenomena
    of interest to managerial decision
    makers
TYPES OF RESEARCH
According to :
 Methodology
 Applicability
 Level of Scientific Research Endeavor
RESEARCH METHODS
     Quantitatif Methods
     Qualitatif Methods
The Philosophy of Research Design

                 Positivist paradigm Phenomenological
                                     paradigm

Basic belief :   The  world is      The  world is
                 external and        socially
                 objective           constructed and
                 Observer is        subjective
                 independent         Observer is part
                 Science is value   of what observed
                 free                Science is driven
                                     by human interest
  The Philosophy of Research Design
             Positivist paradigm Phenomenological
                                 paradigm


Researcher    Focus on fact        Focus on
should        Look for            meaning
             causality &            Try to understand
             fundamental law       what is happening
              Reduce               Look at totality of
             phenomena to          each situation
             simplest element      Develop ideas
              Formulate hypo-     through induction
             These and test them   from data
 The Philosophy of Research Design
                   Positivist Paradigm    Phenomenological
                                          paradigm
Preferred methods  Operationalising       Using multiple
include :         concepts so that they   methods to
                  can be measured         establish different
                   Taking large          views of
                  samples                 phenomena
                                           Small samples
                                          investigated in
                                          depth or over time
QUANTITATIVE METHOD
Strengths :
1.  Can provide wide coverage of the range of
    situations
2.  Can be fast
3.  Can be economical
Weakness :
1.  Tend to be rather inflexible and artificial
2.  Are not very effective in understanding
    processes or the significance that people
    attach to actions
QUALITATIVE METHOD
Strengths :
 Able to look at change processes over time
 Able to understand people’s meaning
 Adjust to new issues and ideas as they
   emerge
 provide a way of gathering-data which is
   seen as natural rather than artificial
QUALITATIVE METHOD
Weakness :
 Data collection can take a great deal of time
  and resources
 Analysis and interpretation of data may be
  very difficult
 Often feel very untidy because it is harder to
  control their pace, progress and end points
 Many people may give low credibility to
  studies based on qualitative methods
TYPES OF RESEARCH
According to Applicability :
 Basic Research
 Applied Research
LEVEL OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
         ENDEAVOR
                          Highest



           Control
                        Degree of
          Explanation   Understanding

         Prediction

         Description

         Reporting
                          Lowest
WHY MANAGER SHOULD
KNOW ABOUT RESEARCH
   Identify and Solve Small Problems in the Work
    Setting
   Know How to Discriminate Good from bad Research
   Appreciate and Constantly Remember the Multiple
    Influences and Multiple Effects of Factors Impinging
    on a Situation
   Take Calculated Risks in Decision Making, Know
    Fully Well the Probabilities Attached to the Different
    Possible Outcomes
   Prevent Possible Vested Interest from Operating in a
    Situation
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION
THE HALLMARKS OF
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
   Purposive
   Rigor
   Testability
   Replicability
   Precision and Confidence
   Generalizability
   Parsimony
    SOME OBSTACLES TO CONDUCTING
      SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN THE
          MANAGEMENT AREA
   Difficulties in the measurement and
    collection of data in the subjective areas of
    feeling, emotions, attitudes, and
    perceptions
   Difficulties in obtaining a representative
    sample, restricting the generalizability of
    the finding
THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF
SCIENCE IN RESEARCH
       Deduction
       Induction
THE SEVEN-STEP PROCESS IN THE
HYPOTHETICO-DEDUCTIVE METHOD
1.   Observation
2.   Preliminary Information Gathering
3.   Theory Formulation
4.   Hypothesizing
5.   Further Scientific Data Collection
6.   Data Analysis
7.   Deduction

				
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