An Object Code Compression Approac h toEmbedded Processors by sdfsb346f

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									       An Object Code Compression Approac h to Embedded Processors
                                      sh
                           Yukihiro Yo ida,                        o
                                                                 Ba -Y u So          k
                                                                           ng, Hiro yui                             ua ,
                                                                                                                  Ok hta

                                               k o n
                                             Ta a O o                   n
                                                                   ye, a d         Is o
                                                                                     a       h k
                                                                                            Sira                awa

                                    s
             Dept. Information System                                          gi eeri n
                                                                             En n       g,                              i
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ABSTRACT                                                                                      ar b                t       - l                     v
                                                                                       t u r e s e a s eodni n r ah ic p eevlpowe rs a i n gTh i me a n s  . s
                                                                                                                       ns h o
                                                                                       t h a t h e rs et i rl el ma i mu c r o mf o r e d u c ipowe rc o n -ng
          owe         o         r h              i e                 b
A low- p rp r ce ss oar c ite c t ur sde s c re idd e d i c a t e d l y u mp t i t h r o u g h s t el m evl powe r s a i n g e c a n i s ms ,
                                                                                       s             on          sy           e                  v      m h
        be          d                t i n by
fo r e m d d e a p p l i c a p r o gr a ms me a n s fa n o bje c t  o                  s u h a sr e d u c t o fen t e r n a lmo r y i ze ,l wi n g own o f
                                                                                           c                    i o x          me           s       s o d
   d                        on                                    c
c o e c o mp r e s s ai p p r oha. c Th i sa p p r oha u n i edsu p l i - d r ie v p e d o r / O n e r f a c e s ,.
                                                                                              s e f I i t                        etc
                              o s t nt              be            d
c a t e idn s t r u c teixi n s ii n g h ee m d d e p r o g r aam d                n                     l l y be            d                t i on us s
                                                                                           Ge n e r a a ne m d d e a p p l i c a p r o g r a m e a s u b -
          ac                 se e d                   c                          An
a s s i g n so mp r e s o bj d ccto et os u h a ni n s t r u c t i o n . s e t f t h ei n s t r u c s e t n v i d e by a p r c e s s oars ,c a n
                                                                                            o                        ti orop              d           o
                 t                 i sc                s oa d
i n s t r u cd ei coonmp r e s s oorn s t r u c t est og e n e r a tne            a    be o f t eon s e er di nCI S C Co mp l e x s t r u c S e t Co m-
                                                                                                     b         v           (              In                t i osn
            d          e c                      se e d
o bj e ccto ef r o ma h c o mp r e s o bj d ccto e( p s e u c o e )          do d               pr o                we l                   (              ed
                                                                                       p u t e r ) c e s s oarss l a s i nRI S C Re d u c I n s t r u c t i o n
            .             i i                t         f
i n p u tA s i n g lh e -p cmp l e meant i o nt h i d e c o mp r e s s o r e t Co mp u t e p r) c e s s o He n c e ,nt h i psa p r a n e wa p -
                                                                   s                   S s                    r o             rs. i                    e ,
              wi a          o         co c                           y
t o g e t h e rt h p r c e s s o r r e a ne e c te il vr e d u ct eh e                p r o a ci sd e v i s fe o r h es y s t el mevll o - p we rc o n s u mp -
                                                                                              h                   dt                    e      w o
                                 t              t            To d
b a n d wi drt ehqu i r feodr h eI/O i n e r f a c e . e mo n s t r a t et i o n , i h i st or e d u ct eh eb a n d wi d ( ih . t h eme mo r y
                                                                                              wh c                                                t      e.
     p                abi p              p d                  c e
t h e r a c t i c y o ft lhietr oo s e a p p r oha,e x p r i me sa r e       t n                     i ne
                                                                                                       e                                        t t  o
                                                                                       a c c e s s s p g da n d / otr h ei n s t r u c b i wi nd t hr)e q u i r e d
               d       be          d o           or               ,
a p p l i te oa n e m d d e p r c e s s ARM6 1 0 wh i h a t t a i n s f o r h eI / Oi n e r f aby eme a n s f c o mp r e s s ti h eo bj e c t
                                                                         c                  t             t           c             o                         ng
         %d                        i on           e
6 2 . 5 c o ec o mp r e s s a n dh,e n c42 . 3% ft h e     o          powe rc o n -    c o e sf o r p c i  c be d d e a p p l i c a p r o g r a ms .es y s -
                                                                                          d         s e        em             d                t i on         Th
               on                 t on c
s u mp t i o fi n s t r u c mei mo r y a nbe r e d u c e d .                                                     v      i               h        d
                                                                                       t e ml eevl powe r s a i n g st obe a c i ee v by r e d u c i tnhge
                                                                                                      powe                          me
                                                                                       d i s s i p a t e dro ft h ee x t e r n a lmo r. yI na d d i t i soene, -
                                                                                            t      t       be         d o           or                    ty
                                                                                       i n g h a a ne m d d e p r c e s s c a nbe e a s i il n e g r a ti e d         n
1 INTRODUCTI ON                                                                                   l i wi h u o                    c             ci
                                                                                       a s i n gch e p t t h e s e fs u h a d d - o n r c u t h e ,bj e c ti ts o
Re c et n t h e a r e to fe m d d e p r c e s s o rs sr wi n g a p i , l y o p lc io c a p reos gs ri aornbenoeneem t d daepdp lc iets oseom s d d e d
          l y m k                  be          d o            i g o r                d cp e
                                                                                       a
                                                                                          d        mp r
                                                                                                       t i o n ms
                                                                                                                 ca n
                                                                                                                      u
                                                                                                                               c ei v
                                                                                                                                  be
                                                                                                                                        l y
                                                                                                                                               pr o
                                                                                                                                                        e d be
                                                                                                                                                               r .
               i n h       n         a e         de              f r
a c c o r d a st g e ri e c r e d is  e rt e n ma n d so t h e i r p l i - ap
             omo         o                ng,         e
c a t i ot n s b i lc e mp u t i c o n s u me lr e c t r o e ti c [1 ,]. n cs     2
               g , ,                  i           c e s h ve
Al t h o u4 -h8 - a n d1 6 - bmit c r o p r o s o ras d o mi n a t e d 2 OBJECT CODE COMPRE S S I ON
    n t              t h ee be              d o          ma k
c o ve n i o n a l l y m d d e p r c e s s o r r e t ,t h e s aed -
           d                              re         m h                   pe
va n c e a p p l i c a tri eoqnusi n o to n l y u c h i g h e r r f o r - Th e ove r v i e w h ee m d d e p r c e s s t obe d i s c u s is s d
                                                                                                          o ft        be          d o            or                    e
         b            o e                    i r         i l i
ma n c e u ta l s mo r e x t e nes ve v s a ty. I natd d i t i wi nt, h         o                  i nFi .                 e e        f               uni s ,
                                                                                       o u t l i n e d g 1 , wh e r s p c i  cu n c t i o n a lt o n -hci p
              ea a          o                              icno
t h er e c t n d v n c e f t h ef a b r i c a t e h n o l o, gayn o f          y                     et . ,i t                   og         wi t h o
                                                                                       me mo r i e s ,c a r e n e g r a t e d e t h e r a p r c e s s c o r e      or
                               o                        o
ARM a n dSPARC p r c e s s ocrasnbe s o n r e p l a cby d n -                e a       i n oa s i n gch e pI. ts h o u lbe s t r e s t h a t h e r c e s s io s
                                                                                         t              l i                    d              s e dt p o               r
                          ar             l                       t o n wh c
o t h eorn et h r o u g h e n eawo f f a b r i c a p ri c e s s , i h o                u s u a l al cyc o mp a n wi t h h ee x t e r n a lmo r y oc o t a i n
                                                                                                                    i e dt                     me          t       n
                                      t          et                    f un
h a ss p a ceen o u gthoa d mi a va r i y o fa d d i t i o n a lc t i o n s . bj e ccto e a n dd a t a .
                                                                                       o           d
              w owe                             on
    Th el o - p rc o n s u mp t ii so n eo ft h e i n u b e c t s ma s j
                be        p o                               f
f o rt h ee m d d e d r c e s s otr osbe u s e d o rpo r t a bpee-               l
               al c a
                   s                   e
r i p h e r s u h , s PDAs ( P r s o nDil g i tAsl s i s t s ) n d
                                                  a            a           t aa n                                  Embedded Processor
           e           a                   Sys          esp    ,
PHS s( P r s o nHal n d y - p h o n e t e ms ) e c i a l l ye r ms       i nt
                     he a                e T               l o owe
o fe n h a n c it n g ib r t t e lr iyvs . hu s t h e w- p rd e s i g n                                                                          Add−on
                                                                                              External Memory




                                                                                                                    Processor Core
                 t ke                   r r be           d
h a sbe c o me h e yf a c t fo o e m d d e a p p l i c a t a n da s ,         i on                                          Instruction          Circuits
                           c               h a e be p
nu mbe ro fVLS Ia r h i t e c t u rve s e n r oo s e d [4 3 , ,6 ,p           ,5                                            Decoder              DCT/IDCT
       ,        t ma f c                         w                y
7 ,8 ] wi t h h e i n o u sp u to nl o s u p p lvo l t a g e ,a n s -       tr
                                                                                                                      Cache




    r         s,         o ,           .
f e g a t e g a t ecdl ck s e t cHowe v r mo s t ft h e saer h i t e c -
                                               e ,         o                 c                                               Registers
                                                                                                                                                     MAC

                                                                                                                              ALU   MPY   PE-array



                                                                                            :           o f w owe                 dbe     d
                                                                                  Fi g u r1 e Ove r v i e wl o - p re n h a n c e m d d e p r o -
                                                                                  ces s or .
                                  ed   t
    The approach to be descr ib her ei n endst o r educet he
                    fr               t               o
power cons umpt i on omt he vi ewpoi n of t he f oll wi ng f ac-                                             Inst
                                                                                                                                       Embedded Processor
t or sof embedded pr oces s or s .                                                                            Inst
                                                                                                              Inst                                        Processor Core
          ai                                          pt
    The m n i s s uei s t o r educet he power cons um i on
                                                                                                              Inst
                                                                                                                                        Address                         Instruction
                                             p
        of t he t ot als ys t emwhi ch i scom os edof t he ext er nal                                                                   Convertor                       Decoder




                                                                                                                                                          Cache
         em           t         et
        m or y , i n er f aces , c.




                                                                                                             External Memory
                                                                                                                                                                        Registers
    The s i zeof each pr ogr amwhi ch r uns on t he pr oces s or
                                                                                                                                      Instruction
                   el      al
        i sr el at i v ys m l .                                                                                                       Decompressor
                                                                                                                                                                    ALU       MPY

                 ci      can            yt          i t
    Addi t i onal r cui t s be eas i l i n egr at edn oa chi p.                                                               log n−bit             m−bit
                                                                                                                                                                  MAC     DCT/IDCT
                  t
Taki ngaccoun of t hes ef act or st,he power cons um i onofpt
                m or                       as      par
t he ext er nal em y can be r egar ded com abl et o t hat                                               (a) organization with narrow width external memory
                                 ,                        o
of t he embedded pr oces s or t hat i s ,t he r educt i on f power
          pt                     m or               a
cons um i onof t he ext er nal em y gr eat l y ect st he s ys -                    Inst                     Inst
                                                                                                                                      Embedded Processor
          el
t eml ev power s avi ngof t he t ot als ys t em  .                                  Inst                     Inst

                               ar
    Now, i t s houl dbe r em ked t hat a pr ogr amgener al l y                      Inst                     Inst                                         Processor Core
                                                                                    Inst                     Inst
                   al                             s et
us es onl y a s m l par t of t he i ns t r uct i on pr ovi dedby                                                                       Address                          Instruction
                   ,      or
t he pr oces s or a nd m eover t her ear e much dupl i cat i on    of                                                                  Convertor                        Decoder




                                                                                                                                                          Cache
                i nt            .
i ns t r uct i ons he pr ogr am In ot herwor ds ,a s etof much




                                                                                           External Memory
          i              m a                            r        f
s hor t er ns t r uct i ons y execut et he f unct i ons equi r ed or                                                                                                    Registers

                .                 decom es s or ss ynt hes i zedo
t he pr ogr am An i ns t r uct i on     pr       i                 s                                                                 Instruction                    ALU       MPY
as t o gener at e                                      i
                   object codes f r oms uch s hor t er ns t r uct i ons ,                                                            Decompressor         m−bit
                         yt        i t
whi ch can be eas i l i n egr at ed n o t he embeddedpr oces s or .                                                                           log n−bit
                                          an              pr
    Bas ed on t hes econs i der at i ons , obj ectcom es s i on                                                                       Prefetch Buffer
        e                   a          b w
s chem i scons t r uct eds out l i ned el o .                                                                                  2 log n−bit
                                                                                                                                                                  MAC    DCT/IDCT


  1 Gi v an embedded pr ogr amof m- bi wi dt h, t r acei t
          en                                   t                                                      (b) organization with low speed external memory
     t o get a s et G (:= fiji = 1; 2; :::;ng) of i ns t r uct i ons
     wi t houtdupl i cat i on.                                                           v       of wp
                                                                            Fi gur e2: O er vi ew l o ower enhancedembedded pr o-
                                                                           ces s or s .
                                            i             of
  2 As s i gna number i t o each di s t i nctns t r uct i on G as
    a l ogn- bi tcode.
  3 Cons t r ucta t abl et o t r ans f or m
                                           each ps eudo code t o            3    FULLCODE/SUBCODE
                      i              and pl ent
     an m- bi t - wi dens t r uct i on, i m em i ti nt he i n-
     s t r uct i on
                  decom es s or .
                        pr                                                       COMPRESSION
     I n t hi sway, t he I /O bandwi dt h between t he pr oces s or         Let us denot e by t he fullcode co essio s chem t he one
                                                                                                                   mpr       n           e
and t heext er nal em y i sr educed.I ft heext er nal em y
                      m or                                       m or       s t at edabove, whi ch i sper f or m  edby a s er i es f s t eps1, 2,
                                                                                                                                 o
cont ai nst he ps eudo code i t s el f , i l l us t r at i n Fi g.2( a) ,
                                            as              ed              and 3.
          w
t he bi t i dt h acces s i ng o t he m or y can be r educedt o
                                  t        em                                                                             f or at
                                                                                 Cons i dert hat i n t he i ns t r uct i on m , r egi s t erand s
( l og ) /m. I f a f ewps eudocodes ar e gr ouped i n o an m- bi t
      n                                                      t                                   t                       and
                                                                            
ags ar e as s i gned o xed pos i t i ons , l etus now i n r o-   t
code, as i ndi cat ed n Fi g. 2( b) ,a s l o s peed m or y can
                           i                      w           em                                                             e,
                                                                            duce anot her su cod cop essio s chem i nwhi ch oper a-
                                                                                              b    e m   r       n
be em oyed. I n ei t her e,t he power cons um i onof t he
        pl                        cas                        pt                                       pr             i        wi
                                                                            t i oncodes can be com es s eds i m l ar,l y t h t he codes f or
           can
s ys t em be gr eat l y educed. r                                                      and                    di           y
                                                                            r egi s t er s 
ags bypas s i ng r ect l t o t he pr oces s orcor e,
     The t r ans f or mabl eof addr es s /i ns t r uct i on be eas i l y
                         t                                  can             as s hown i nFi g. 4.
im m                                M
    pl enet edby us i ngRO as s hown i nFi g.3. Wi t ht her e-
cent advance of t he f abl i cat i t ec              ,       em
                                         on hnol ogy t he m or y uni t
can be i n agr at ed a pr oces s ordi e[9,10, 11], and hence
             t           on                                                                                                           Transform Table
                    t                        p         t
t he t r ans f or mabl ecan be i ncor o r at edi n o t he embedded                                                                    Inst 1
pr oces s or .                                                                                                                        Inst 2
                      Th                       s et f
     The s o- cal l ed umb i ns t r uct i on [ 12]oran ARM pr o-                                                                      Inst 3
                                                                                                                                                                                m−bit
         c
ces s or or ecan r educet he I /Obandwi dt hf orembeddedap-                        log n−bit
                                                                                                                                Pseudo                    Object
             pr         s                e,
pl i cat i on ogr am .Thi s s chem however ,i n r o       t ducesa new                                                          Code                      Code
                s etcom os edof 36 16- bi t per at i on odes dr awn
i ns t r uct i on        p                      o           c
                         32- A                         s et
f r omt he s t andar d bi t RM i ns t r uct i on ,f orwhi ch ad-
            s t                       c pi       ,      bl l e
di t i onalof war et ool s( i . e. om l er a s s em er , i nkr ,et c. )                                                               Inst n
                        ed. n                      y
s houl dbe devel op O t he cont r ar , our appr oac neces -      h                                                               log n−bit                 m−bit
          o           pl          t                         of
s i t at es nl y s i m es of war e t ool sf or t r aci ng pr ogr am ,  s
                  uni          and                of
and s or t i ng, f yi ng, number i ng i ns t r uct i ons .         Even-    Fi gur e3: I ns t r uct i on
                                                                                                      decom es s or orf ul l co com es s i on.
                                                                                                           pr     f          de    pr
                          h
t ual l,your appr oac need nei t herdevi s ea new i ns t r uct i on
                             or        t
s etnor devel opel ab at es of war e t ool s .
                                                                                G                                      of    em
                                                                                  ener al l,yt he power di s s i pat i on a m or y uni t de-
                                                                                                                .
                                                                            pends on t he ar eaoccupancy Hence,t he power r educt i on
                                                                                                                m em                   de
                                                                            r at i o f=o of t he i ns t r uct i on or y by t he f ul l co com
                                                                                    P                                                        -
                         Transform Table                                                embedded             instruction
                            Inst 1                                                      program              format
                            Inst 2
            log n’−bit                                     m−bit
                         Pseudo            Object
                         Code              Code                                             instruction
                                                                                            trace
                           Inst n’
           3l−bit        log n’−bit       (m−3l)−bit                                               bit assignment
                                                                                                   analysis
                                                                                 fullcode            subcode
                                                  pres-
Figure 4: Instruction decompressor for sub code com                              compression         compression
sion.                                                                                      pseudo code
                                                                                           numbering

pression can be dened by                                                            VLSI implementation
                              N dlog ne + knm                                        of Instruction decompressor
                  Pf=o = 1 0                  ;              (1)            ROM                                VHDL
                                    Nm                                      compiler                           synthesizer
where N , m, and n indicate the num ber of instrcutions for                                              Logic
                 ,
original program the bitw    idth of original instruction, the                          ROM              Cells
num ber of com  pressed instructions, respectively. In addi-
tion, k indicates the power dissipation ratio of the on-c hip
m ory to the external m ory , and actually k is in the
 em                          em                                           F          ro                           pression.
                                                                           igure 5: P cess 
o w of ob ject code com
range of 0:5  k  0:7.
              e anner w this, the power reduction ratio
    In the sam m           ith
Psi =o of the instruction m ory by the sub code com
                            em                           pres-
sion, in w h i register op erands are passed directly to the
          hic                                                                     Program Name: dhrystone
pro cessor core, can be dened by                                                 Total # Table Entries: 3,637

                     N (dlog n e + i l) + kn (m 0 i l)
                                      0                0                           object code       times        rate
         Psi =o = 1 0                                  ;     (2)
                                   Nm                                             0xE1A0F00E           88        (1.29%)
where, l and n indicate the bitw
                0
                                idth of eac h register op erands                  0xE3300000           82        (1.20%)
and the num ber of com pressed instructions, respectively.

4 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS                                                            0xE1320003             1       (0.01%)
                                                                                  0xE2421001             1       (0.01%)
The prop osed com                    e
                   pression schem has been applied to an
                              ig.
ARM610 pro cessor core. F 5 outlines the pro cess 
ow of
our ob ject code com                    . he
                     pression system T existing software                  Figure 6: Instruction tracing result for Dhrystone.
dev elopm t kit (ARMsdt) is em yed for tracing instruc-
         en                         plo
tions, and the Peal for the data pro cessing. In the fullcode
compression, only ob ject codes are input to this system         ,
whereas in the sub code com   pression, in addition to the ob-        bitwidth from 32 to 12 is 62.5%, and the power reduction
ject codes, the instruction form    ats are also input to this                                  em             .
                                                                      ratio of the instruction m ory is 42.3% Table 3 indicates
       ,
system as indicated in F 5. T system outputs either
                            ig.       his                                     plem
                                                                      the im en tation results of instruction decom     pressor for
ROM generated by m ory com
                       em          piler of COMPASS Design            IT O. It should be rem able that the logic cells gener-
                                                                          R N                    ark
Navi gatoror logic cells generated by VHDL syn thesizer.              ation is especially eective in the case of sub code com pres-
    Several exp erim ts ha ve been attam
                     en                        pted by using a        sion.
num ber of embedded program suc h as the so-called D
                                s,                           hrys-          he    p
                                                                          T im ortan t benet is that the system can be con-
tone benc hm ark (dhrystone) and an PDA op erating system                         ith
                                                                      structed w the use of only one 16-bit external m ory    em
IT O (uitron), in order to observ e the practicabilit y of
    R N                                                                         o                           em
                                                                      chip. N w that only 8- or 16-bit m ory chips are avail-
the prop osed schem e.                                                able, in order to feed 32-bit instructions to the pro cessor
                 s
    Table 1 sho w a part of exp erim tal results of the full-
                                        en                                                          em
                                                                      directly from the external m ory , it should be necessary
code and sub code com                   s     m
                        pressions. A sumarized in F 6,       ig.                         em                            em
                                                                      to use four 8-bit m ory chips or two 16-bit m ory chips,
the instruction trace outputs ob ject codes, frequencies of           even though a single chip could su cien tly supply the m -em
their app earance together w percen tage. F 7 illustrates
                              ith                  ig.                ory capacit y.
the transform table from the pseudo code to the AM in-     R
             he
struction. T power reduction ratio determ          ined by equa-      5   CONCL US I ON
                           m
tions (1) and (2) are sumarized in Table 2, w          here the co-
ecient k is set to 0.7.                                               his                          -p
                                                                      T pap er has describ ed a low ower consum   ption schem  e
    A for the P A op erating system  IT O, the num ber
     s          D                              R N                    dedicated to embedded pro cessors by ob ject code compres-
of instructions by the fullcode com     pression is 4,026, eac h      sion. A dopting pseudo instructions in ob ject codes of em-
assigned by 12-bit pseudo code. T com   he      pression ratio of                    s
                                                                      bedded program and add-on circuits, system level power
                 Table 1: Experimental resul ts.                                                                                em
                                                                            Tabl e 2: Power reducti on rati o of i nstructi onm ory .
      Program       Ori gi nal Ful l code     Sub code                             P rogram   Ful l code          Sub code
                      Si ze               i=2 i=3                                                Pf=o        Ps2 =o       Ps3 =o
    dhrystone          6,733       3, 637 1, 992 1, 449                           dhrystone     0. 2470     0. 2509      0. 1871
    ui tron           13, 970      4, 026 1, 430 1, 140                           ui tron       0. 4233     0. 3525      0. 2455
    arm asm           41, 506    14, 563 6, 269 4, 544                            arm asm       0. 3169     0. 2645      0. 1709
    arm cc           117, 549    37, 095 14, 505     9, 591                       arm cc        0. 2791     0. 2477      0. 1518
        l
    arm i b            9, 136      4, 852 2, 667 1, 957                           arm i b
                                                                                      l         0. 2220     0. 2217      0. 1875
        l
    arm i nk          29, 050    12, 111 5, 844 4, 206                            arm i nk
                                                                                      l         0. 2707     0. 2381      0. 1554
        m
    arm ak e          10, 405      5, 326 2, 940 2, 117                           arm ak e
                                                                                      m         0. 2354     0. 2267      0. 1610
    arm sd            93, 092    28, 572 11, 377     7, 494                       arm sd        0. 3164     0. 2483      0. 1835
    armtool s(*) 300, 738        68, 418 23, 166 14, 384                          tool s        0. 3095     0. 2408      0. 1666
    runi m age       124, 442    31, 587 9, 157 5, 337                            runi m age    0. 3536     0. 2739      0. 2000
    awrender          13, 500      6, 985 3, 562 2, 602                           aw render     0. 2316     0. 2365      0. 1657
    im ageext          4, 038      2, 295 1, 528 1, 208                           im ageext     0. 2272     0. 2076      0. 1504
    fontdraw           2, 783      1, 831 1, 160       941                        f ontdraw     0. 1957     0. 1874      0. 1646
      (*) arm , arm arm i b, arm i nk, arm ak e, arm
               asm      cc,    l        l        m          sd                    f ontdraw     0. 1957     0. 1874      0. 1646


0000 0000 0000   1110 0001 1010 0000 1111 0000 0000 1110 #(0xE1A0F00E)
0000 0000 0001   1110 0011 0011 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 #(0xE3300000)
                                                                                     pl en
                                                                         Tabl e 3: Im em tati onresul tsof i nstructi ondecom pressor
                                                                         f or IT O .
                                                                                 R N
1110 0011 0100   1110 0010 0100 0010 0001 0000 0000 0001 #(0xE2421001)                          Ful l code Sub code (mm2 )
 pseudo code                  object code                                                           m
                                                                                                 (m 2 )    i=2          i=3
                                                                                 RO M            0. 983    0. 364      0. 270
Fi gure 7: Transf orm tabl e f rom pseudo code to ARM i n-                       Logi c cel l s  1. 442    0. 268      0. 190
structi on.                                                                               m MS
                                                                                    0. 35 C O tri pl e-m technol ogy
                                                                                                           etal


      pti                          p
consum on i s saved f rom the vi ew oi nt of processors and                [ 7] S. Shi gem   atsu, S. M       utoh, and Y M   . atsuy a: \Power
          em
external m ory .                                                                m         en
                                                                                  anagem t techni que f or 1-V LSIs usi ng embedded
                                                                                processor", i n Pr oc. I EEE Cus t om I nt e e Ci rcui t s
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
                                                                                                                                     grat d
                                                                                C                                  a
                                                                                  onf erence, pp. 111-114, M y 1996.

                                                                                  . . ardari l l i , M Sal m , A Sal sano, and O Si -
                                                                           [ 8] G C C                       .      eri .                        .
 he                               .              r.
T authors are gratef ul to Dr. T Kawata and D N. K o,   ub                      m l i : \B archi tecture f or l ow ower V
                                                                                  onel         us                             -p           LSI di gi tal
    R
SHA P Corporati on, f or thei r i nval uabl e and conti nuous                   ci rcui ts",i n Pr oc. I EEE I nt 'l Sym Ci rcui t sand Sys -
                                                                                                                              p.
              he                         r. .
supp orts. T authors al so thank to M T Brow A M    n, R                                                       a
                                                                                t em , pp. 4. 21{4. 24, M y 1996.
                                                                                     s
                         R
Ltd. , f or provi di ng A M program data.
                                                                                                 .        i
                                                                           [ 9] S. Iwata, T Shi m zu, J. K atu, K D   orem           . osak a, H       .
                                                                                  sub                .
                                                                                T ota, and K Sai toh: \Porf orm                 ance eval uati on of
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