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Training Pack Kaizen PDCA ( Plan / Do / Check / Act ) Introductions • Name • Department • Current knowledge of Plan Do Check Act Aims & Objectives Target Audience : All! Purpose of Module : To train the delegates in the Continuous Improvement Cycle Aims & Objectives : • Understand the origins of Plan/Do/Check/Act (PDCA) • To define the 12 step PDCA approach • Understand when to apply PDCA Definition Plan Do Check Act (PDCA) is a framework that provides a methodical approach to problem solving and continuous improvement. It’s not just a 12 step cycle, it’s a way of thinking! Act Plan Check Do Standard Ops. CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT Why use PDCA? Human nature vs. Process Jump straight to solution mode Allow time to plan Fight the fires every time A structured approach to defining the problem No common understanding of the real problem Involve the right people No measure if the solution Test and monitor solutions is a real success to ensure goals are met The PDCA Cycle 12. Continuous 1. Select Project 2. Explain Improvement Reason 11. Monitor 3. Set Goals Solution ACT PLAN 10. Implement 4. Prepare Continuous Solution Improvement Action Plan Cycle CHECK DO 9. Ensure 5. Gather the Goals are data satisfied 8. Test 6. Analyse the Solutions facts 7. Develop Solutions 1. Select Project When selecting a project think about how you can identify that an area requires improvement. What inputs help you recognise if an area is not conforming to the required standard? 4 Hour FIT - Day 1 Brainstorming - What can we Team Name: improve?? Health & Safety Team Members: Low Cost Can be Done This Week 5 0.07 Low Cost Will Take Longer Than 0.06 a Week 4 High Cost 0.05 Others:- Area to be targeted: Long Term Improvements 3 0.04 Issues Encountered: 2 0.03 Priority Table - Prioritise ideas according to the ease, benefit & cost of 0.02 4 Hour FIT - Day 2 1 implementation Improvement to be tackled: 0.01 Current State Photos: Improvement Idea Ease Cost Impact Total Rank Who?? 0 Oct Dec Feb Apr Jun Aug Oct Dec 0 FMEA’s Priority Table Scoring: 1 = Hard to install/ High Cost/ Low Work Related Accidents Reportable Accidents Impact 5 = Easy to install/No Cost/High Impact Sickness Rate % 4 Hour FIT - Day 3 Gap Analysis Current Future Countermeasure How can we solve it? o n rm a u C u te e s re Action Plan W o S p o W e C m e ts h ? u p rt h n o mn Risk Assessments KPI’s 4 Hour FIT - Day 4 Customer Feedback No Wh at actio ns are REC OV ERY Su ccessfu l? No re quire d? PLAN Evaluation & Review Imp lem e nta tion Y es Su cce ssful? Was the improvement implemented? Yes Ho w can th e ch ange be PLAN TO SUSTA IN sustain ed? Action Who? Support When By Comments After Photo: (Int/Ext) New Actions Team Achievements: Focused Improvement Teams (FIT) IPT meetings 2. Explain Reason Achieve this by producing an agreed, clear problem statement, that uses facts, and does not mention any countermeasures. Example After Process X has finished, the operator on the machine is expected to inspect the product, and then certify in SAP that the process has been successfully completed. However the Team Leader on Process Y complains that half of the time, products arrive without having the correct certifications, which stops his team from doing their job. He has to spend, on average, 2 hours sorting the problem. He reckons that this has got worse since they changed the version of SAP used 6 months ago (he and his team still hasn’t been trained), and they have taken SAP access away some operators. Production has also risen recently, putting strain on resource. 2. Explain Reason 1. Everyone needs to be trained on SAP 2. More SAP certification access is required 3. More people are required on Process X Pre-empts countermeasures without understanding the problem – based on opinions not facts “In the last 6 months, 50% of products arriving at Process Y have arrived without the proper SAP certifications, causing on average 2 hours delay per occurrence”. States the facts, giving frequency, timescale, and impact. 3. Set Goals Using the previous example of Process X and Y: To identify and implement the requirements that will ensure that 75% of products arriving at Process Y have completed certifications within 6 months, rising to 100% by the end of this year. S.M.A.R.T.!!! 4. Action Plan Specific actions should be highlighted for completion. The key here is that plans should be time-bound and bought-off by the relevant owner. Why are we undertaking the project? What are we going to do? What data is required? Who is responsible for each task? Who should be involved? How must it be accomplished? How do we review? Where can we find relevant data and facts? When must a task be complete? ...do we need to give feedback? 5. Gather the Data Gathering data enables us to understand the current situation to discover the extent of a problem. Data provides the information required to analyse a problem. Data can be collected in a number of ways and forms, depending what you problem are trying to define: Interviewing Visit the shopfloor – “Go and See” Machine Histories Risk Assessments Customer Returns Data Scatter Diagrams, Checksheets - 7 Quality Tools 6. Analysing the Facts It is important to use the correct tools to define the problem. Only then can relevant data be collected in an appropriate form to allow solutions to be generated and their effectiveness reviewed. Checksheets Histograms Data Collection Scatter Diagrams Control Charts Data Collection & Analysis Flow Charts Cause and Effect Analysis Analysis Techniques Pareto Analysis Tool Deployment Situation Tool 1. Tracking OEE Scatter Diagram 2. Most frequent causes of Flowchart Downtime Histogram 3. Location of concessions on a Control Chart Panel Checksheet 4. Identifying possible reasons for poor delivery Pareto Analysis 5. Understanding process for Cause and Effect Analysis modifying tooling 6. Making sense of accident data Planning for Data Collection What question do we need to answer? What data analysis tools are we going to use and how to communicate the results? Who in the process can give us the data? What type of data do we need to answer the question? Where in the process can we get the data we need? How can we collect this data from the individuals with minimum effort and error? When is the data to be provided? How much will it cost to collect the data? What additional information do we need for future analysis? Develop Solutions Develop countermeasures by brainstorming all the potential root causes to the problem. Ask Why? Brainstorm Group Prioritise 5 TIMES! Remember:- the customer protection is a temporary fix that solves the problem today, the countermeasure is the permanent solution that prevents the problem re-appearing. 7. Develop Solutions Tips for Brainstorming: Have a clear and understood objective • Requires group participation • Quantity not Quality • No criticism is allowed – no idea is a bad idea • Do not work an idea during the session • One person to scribe the ideas onto a board or flipchart • Piggy back off other people’s ideas • Think “outside of the box” • Run a session for around 15 minutes • Have a break before analysing the ideas 5 Why’s Example 1 2 3 Q : WHY has machine stopped ? Q : WHY overload trip ? Q : WHY Insufficient oil ? A : Overload tripped out ! A : Insufficient oil on shaft ! A : Oil pump inefficient ! Root-cause 4 Q : WHY is pump not efficient ? 5 Q : WHY is this shaft worn ? A : Pump drive shaft worn ! A : Oil filter blocked with swarf ! 8. Test Solutions Once the countermeasures have been identified and prioritised, they have to be tested to assess the effectiveness. Think about how the success of potential solutions could be measured: Is a trial required? Who needs to know? How many communications sessions are needed? How will the issues from the trial be captured? Maybe more more data need to be collected? Health & Safety 5 0.07 0.06 Does this data coincide with that collected 4 0.05 3 0.04 to define the problem? 2 0.03 0.02 1 0.01 Is it a KPI, one of the 7 Quality Tools? 0 0 Oct Dec Feb Apr Jun Aug Oct Dec If so, will comparisons be possible to assess impact? Work Related Accidents Reportable Accidents Sickness Rate % 9. Ensure Goals are Satisfied Assess the success of the tested countermeasure by comparison with the goals set in Step 3 • If the goals have been met, the countermeasure can be implemented. • If the goals have not been met, then the following should be considered: 12. Continuous 1. Select Project 2. Explain Improvement Reason Develop the existing countermeasure 11. Monitor 3. Set Goals Solution Can additional countermeasures be developed? ACT PLAN 10. Implement 4. Prepare How appropriate are the goals? Solution Continuous Improvement Cycle Action Plan CHECK DO 9. Ensure Goals 5. Gather the are satisfied data Re-evaluating the goals means a return to Step 3!! 8. Test Solutions 6. Analyse the facts 7. Develop Solutions 10. Implement Coutermeasures Ensure everything is done to make a successful countermeasure become the new standard • If it meets the objective set, then it must become the standard way of working. • All relevant people informed, • Training needs to be identified and addressed • Necessary documentation updated • Use Standard Operating Sheets to document the new standard 11. Monitor Countermeasures Continuously gather the data and analyse the facts to monitor the effectiveness of implemented countermeasures • Repeat Steps 5 & 6 of the PDCA cycle to establish the before and after situation. • Individuals involved need constructive feedback after implementing countermeasures to help maintain continuous improvement. Celebrate success!!! 12. Continuous Improvement By definition the cycle of improving and ever raising the standards never stops! • Ongoing process control can be used to ensure the performance of the countermeasures consistently meet the objectives set • Improvement is infinite! Act Plan Check Do Standard Ops. CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT Aims & Objectives Target Audience : All! Purpose of Module : To train the delegates in the Continuous Improvement Cycle Aims & Objectives : • Understand the origins of Plan/Do/Check/Act (PDCA) • To define the 12 step PDCA approach • Understand when to apply PDCA ………..did we succeed?
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