The Body’s Defenses Against Germs Mark your correct answers with a star or a smiley or a “c”. Write in the corrections for any incorrect answers. You must you a RED pen to receive credit for corrections. 1. What is an infectious disease? An infectious disease is any disease caused by an agent or pathogen that invades the body; a disease that you can “catch”. 2. What are ways that are infections normally spread between people? Infections are normally spread between people by touching or by sharing foods/drinks. They may also be spread when germ filled droplets (from a cough or sneeze) are inhaled by another person (ooh, yucky!) 3. What does an antibiotic do? An antibiotic is a drug that kills bacteria or slows the growth of bacteria. 4. What are viruses? Viruses are tiny, disease-causing particles that consist of genetic material and a protein coat. They can invade a healthy cell and instruct that cell to make more viruses. 5. List some symptoms of a viral infection. Some symptoms of a viral infection are nasal congestion, a sore throat, body aches, and fever. 6. List 6 physical barriers that your body’s defense system uses to keep germs from getting into your body. 6 physical barriers in our immune system are: skin, hairs, tears, mucus, saliva and stomach acid. 7. What are three symptoms of a sinus infection? Symptoms of a sinus infection are congestion, runny nose, fever, or headache. 8. How can you protect yourself from getting infections? You can protect yourself from getting infections by staying away from people who have a contagious disease, by washing your hands regularly with soap and warm water, by not sharing drinks/food, by keeping your immune system strong through eating a balanced diet, exercizing and getting enough sleep. 9. How can you protect others from getting infections? You can protect others from infection by washing hands regularly, by covering your mouth and nose when sneezing using your elbow, and by staying away from others when you are sick. 10. Identify five of the early childhood vaccinations currently available. Early childhood vaccinations currently available are hepatitis, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, diptheria, tetanus, pertussis and chickenpox. 11. Why do you think a person might get a slight fever or rash after receiving a vaccination? When a person receives a vaccine, she/he is getting a weakened germ, so her/his body responds to this by producing antibodies that will fight off this germ in the future. The body’s response can also be a fever or a rash (to a much lesser degree than a true infection would cause!) 12. Define; a. Immunity is a body’s ability to resist an infection or to easily fight off an infection. b. Barrier is a blockage to invading organisms. c. Mucus is the sticky liquid substance in your nose, throat and other similar membranes in your body. It traps germs, and contains enzymes that attack and destroy germs. d. The immune system is a combination of the physical and chemical defenses that your body has to fight infection; the tissues, organs and cells that fight pathogens. e. Macrophage means “big eater”, this is a large white blood cell that engulfs viruses, bacteria and infected cells. f. Fever is an elevated body temperature, which, in response to an infection, may kill the organisms that are causing the infection. Fever may increase the rate at which your body fights infection. g. Lymphocytes are special white blood cells (B and T cells). h. B-cells are white blood cells that produce antibodies to destroy germs. i. T-cells are white blood cells that can directly destroy infected cells and that trigger B cells to produce antibodies. j. Antibody is a substance produced by B cells that destroy germs, and signal other cells to destroy viruses. k. Vaccine is a substance that is used to make a person immune to a certain disease. 13. If you are infected with chicken pox virus (varicella) and then get the chicken pox vaccine, will this help you? Explain. If you are infected with chicken pox virus and THEN get the chicken pox vaccine, it will not help you. The vaccine stimulates the same response in your body that the real infection does. You must receive a vaccine BEFORE being infected with the pathogen if it is to help your body fight the infection. 14. Define for Extra credit (not in your book - look these up in an outside source): Interferon is a substance made by cells when they are invaded by viruses, it can help the body fight cancer cells. An Antigen is a foreign substance that causes the body to have an immune response. A booster shot is an additional dose of vaccine to ensure that the body maintains immunity to the disease.
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