MANURE STORAGE by fjhuangjun


									Appleton Tech Center                                                                  9-12-05

B - MANURE STORAGE                                                                    POOP SCOOP

       31-    313 and 634 STANDARDS – QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

These are questions from the training sessions held during the winter of 2005 in Eau Claire,
Waupaca, Richland Center, and Juneau. Answers have been discussed and provided by the
team. Some issues led to minor changes to the standards, specifications, and companion
documents. If you have further comments about any issues in standards 313 or 634 or the
associated specifications, feel free to ask team members at any time.


Waste from parlor or holding area flushing- (II) Is this wastewater? Yes, see definition in both

Runoff from animal lots, composting manure, or feed storage piles-(II) Is this waste? Yes,
but it can be handled in different ways. It can be stored or sent to a Wastewater Treatment Strip
or similar buffer. If it is stored, then it should be counted as part of the collected waste in relation
to the 300,000 cu ft limit. If the runoff can be effectively treated with practices like buffer strips,
then it would not be stored and would not count as part of the 300,000 cu ft limit.

Manure stacks- Where can manure stacks go? Manure stacked in the animal production area
(APA) must be completely contained- solid and liquids. Manure outside the APA may be stacked
with liquids and runoff released if the % solid content is at least 16% (Table 9). If solids are below
16%, all manure and associated leachate and/or runoff must be contained wherever the waste is

Digesters- Is a digester a 313 or a 634? Since manure passes through it, it is probably
appropriate to call it a 634. However, there is no difference in design because the structural
criteria is the same for both standards. Digesters will be designed by PE consultants. They will be
designed to meet the structural criteria in 313 or NR 213 as appropriate.

Digesters- May extra carbohydrates and fats be added to the waste stream and then stored? Yes
up to 10% or 25,000 gallons, whichever comes first. If the system goes over those limits, you will
need to deal with DNR since the storage facility may be considered an Industrial Waste Storage

                               Section V Criteria

V.A. General Criteria

Test Pits- (V.A.2.b (2) May test pits be done with bucket augers? Yes, if you can get deep
enough for the particular design being done.

Bedrock Type- (V.A.2.b.(6)) What is the significance of bedrock types? Knowing the bedrock
type can help a designer or reviewer. Different bedrock types have different seepage, structural
and other characteristics which may impact the facility design and maintenance or abandonment
in the future.

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Ground Water maps and Well Logs- (V.A.2.b.(7)) Where are “ground water maps” found? Some
counties have groundwater maps that have been compiled by the Wisconsin Geological and
Natural History Survey (WGNHS) (608-262-7430). They are based on well logs and other
pertinent geological studies. Well logs are available at WGNHS and at DNR.

Karst Bedrock- (V.A.2.c.) What makes Karst bedrock a pollution concern? Why don’t bedrock
separation distances vary by type of rock? Pollution concerns and other problems in Karst
landscape are discussed in Companion Document #19. The separation distances don’t vary
because there are significant pollution concerns with all types of bedrock.

Borrow Areas (V.A.2.d) How test borrow areas? Do enough test pits/borings to show how much
appropriate material is available in the borrow area. Tests will include fines and PI as needed to
show that soil meets criteria for storage facility. For clay borrow evaluations we suggest doing test
pits on a 100 foot grid.

Waste Storage Facility Spreadsheet (V.A.5.) Why doesn’t the spreadsheet include rainfall and
runoff for storage periods greater than 365 days? The spreadsheet has been modified.

Waste Storage Facility Spreadsheet (V.A.5.) May the default values for manure and milking
parlors in the spreadsheet be changed? Yes, the spreadsheet is a companion document, so it is a
design aid; it is not criteria. Use the best information you have for the manure and parlor data.

Permanent marker for Maximum Operating Level- (V.A.6 and 7) How should the permanent
marker be constructed? We intentionally didn’t specify how the permanent marker should be
constructed and installed. Any option which works is acceptable. They can be vertical or sloping.
A common method is to make indentations in concrete ramps. Steel pipes in concreted tires can
also work.

Saturation- (V.A.10.a.) If tile is used for drainage, can it be a pumped outlet? No, it must have a
free outlet.

Bedrock Excavation- (V.A.10.b.) Why the concern about blasted bedrock? Often limestone
bedrock has many crevices which, over time in the vicinity of barnyards, have been packed with
manure. Blasting can dislodge the manure and cause it to move quickly to ground water aquifers.
Standard 634 permits blasting for reception tanks and pipes.

Bedrock, Positive grade away from it- (V.A.10.b.) Why does 313 require a positive bedrock
grade away from the storage facility? There can be some minor leaking from waste storage
facilities. If bedrock is excavated in a ponded fashion, the bedrock may act like a funnel to direct
any leakage down into the bedrock. By requiring a positive grade away from the bottom of the
waste storage facility we avoid the ponding effect. Standard 634 permits excavation of bedrock
without requiring a positive grade away from the transfer structure or pipe because the relatively
small structures will be more liquid tight than the storage facilities.

Fencing – (V.A.11.a.)      What fence is required? The fence choice is up to the designer unless
existing local codes require a minimum fence.

Ventilation – (V.A.11.b.)     Who determines adequate ventilation? This determination must be
by the owner and operator of the tank. Tank O&M plans should warn owner/operators about the
necessity of adequate ventilation and the dangers of entering waste holding tanks.

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Contingency Plan – (V.A.14.)           Can the contingency plan be extra storage volume? No. No
matter how large the storage facility is, the M.O.L. can be reached and exceeded, so there must
be a contingency plan for when this happens.

V.B.   Specific Criteria

Table 1    Size- Why do we have categories for both “storage volume” and “waste produced at
           farm”? If the farm exceeds either one of these categories, the in-place earth waste
           storage facility must meet the criteria in column two or three. The concern was that
           large farms might build multiple facilities in order to avoid column two criteria.
       -   Column to use- When must the designer use column two or three? If any criteria in
           column one are not met- e.g. size, % solids, soils, or separation distances- then column
           two or three criteria is required.
       -   300,000 cu ft- How is the 300,000 amount determined? The term “waste” has been
           changed to “manure” in Tables 1 and 2.
       -   < 2% fines- What if the waste will have less than 2% fines? Then a constructed liner,
           as set forth in Tables 2 through 5, is required.
       -   % solids- Is % solids measured by weight or by volume? It is measured by weight.
           The Waste Storage Design spreadsheet also provides an estimate of expected solids
           content. See cell “I21”. Note that manure test results include % solids. The % solids
           could also come from university research and recent literature.
       -    Silt in embankment- Why do silty (PI < 7) soils require a wider embankment?
           Because they are more prone to erosion and potential embankment failure than
           cohesive soils. The flatter slopes are only required above the existing ground.
       -   Are lab tests required to establish PI? Yes.
       -   PI tests- How many PI tests are required by site? As many as necessary to
           characterize the soil(s). All PI tests should be done by a commercial testing facility or
           the NRCS soils lab.
       -   Lens patching- When must a sand lens be patched with a formal Table two liner?
           This is a difficult question and the answer depends on a number of factors such as the
           lens thickness, the lateral extent of the lens, the presence of seepage from the lens,
           the location of the lens in the storage facility, and the soils above and below the lens.
           The decision must be made by the designer and approver.
       -   Testing Fines- Can county offices continue testing % fines? Yes, but as farms get
           larger, it may benefit them to have the documentation from a commercial testing
       -   Concrete to protect liner- Do we have to use steel reinforcement in the concrete if
           the purpose is to protect the liner? No, in this case the concrete should be designed to
           withstand the anticipated loads on the concrete.
       -   150 foot column- What happened to the option for 150 feet from the well? It could
           only be used with a DNR variance, and we felt it wasn’t being used very often, so we
           took it out. If a storage facility is to be placed closer than 250’ from a well, this would
           have to be dealt with by a variance from both DNR and the NRCS State Conservation

Table 2    Liner protection for removal of sand bedding- What liner protection is required for
           sand bedding? Concrete paving is generally used. If a complete clay liner is under the
           concrete, then the concrete only has to protect the liner below it. If the concrete is part
           of the liner (counted as part of the liner thickness), then it must meet the criteria in
           Table 5.

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Table 3   May we use hip pocket vents? Yes, but only if the pond will overflow before getting
          up to them.
          Stones under liner- What should be done about gravel, pebbles, and stones in the
          base below HDPE? They must be removed, covered by fine grained material, or
       compacted into the subgrade with a smooth drum roller.

Table 5    Concrete Design- Any changes in concrete design? No, see Companion Documents
           11 and 12 for information about concrete joints.

Table 6    Slurrystores- Does the Slurrystore foundation have to follow the 2’ separation from
           bedrock? No, only the floor.
           Joint Spacing How should concrete slabs in storage facilities with walls be measured
           for joint spacing? Measure from the inside edge of the footing since it is the joint
           spacing for the 5” slab.
           Waterstops in T Walls- Are waterstops required at the base of T walls? No, see
           drawing number WI-503. For particularly critical sites, such as those close to bedrock,
           you may wish to use a waterstop or expanding sealant material in the joint for extra
           leakage protection.

V.C.   Specific Criteria for Temporary, Unconfined Stacks

Table 9
       -   Are the separation distances down-slope from the stack? Yes
       -   Is stacking in the WQMA prohibited? Yes, the separation distances are at least as
           conservative as the WQMA distances.
       -   Land slope- Is the land slope just at the stacking site. No, it applies to the land down-
           slope of the stacking site- not the stacking site.
       -   How should Stacking pads be constructed?- Any constructed waste storage facility
           pads built outside the Animal Production Area would no longer be “Temporary” stacks,
           so they would have to be designed according to Tables 1 through 5 with the liquids
           contained. Temporary, unconfined stacks would generally not be on constructed
           surfaces since the sites can only be used once every two or three years and then only
           for 8 months.
       -   Conservation BMP’s- What are these BMP’s? They are whatever BMP’s you feel are
           needed to divert runoff from above the stacking site and to handle runoff below the site.
           Typically the BMP’s would be diversions above the site and practices like contour
           cropping, contour strips, or buffers below the site.
       -   Contingency plan- Could these sites be used in the Contingency plan to handle waste
           when the M.O.L. is reached. Generally no since the contingency plan would generally
           be for liquid type manure.
       -   What type of manure might have 16% or more solids and how is % solids
           determined? Some examples are: heavily bedded stanchion manure, separated
           manure solids, poultry litter, composted/composting material, or bedded pack
           manure. The best way to determine solids is to take a sample of the material and have
           it tested for N, P, and K. The % solids are provided as an output of this test
       -   Are composting sites covered by Table 9? Yes, until there is a composting practice
           standard the composting materials must meet Table 9 assuming the site is outside the
           Animal production Area. Composting at the Animal Production Area will need a
           specific composting plan. The plan will need to show that both subsurface and surface

Appleton Tech Center                                                                 9-12-05

        water are being protected. This will generally mean a liquid tight surface on which to
        compost and collection and storage of leachate and appropriate handling of any runoff.
      - Stacking period and frequency- Does this mean 8 months per two years or 4 months
        per year? It means once for no more than 8 months in a two year period.
      - Buffering- Is the “buffering” mentioned in note 3 the same as the buffering in standard
        635 or 719? No, buffering as used here is a more generic term.

                       SPEC 300

Why have we gone to spec 300?- Spec 204 is a “method” spec written in 1998 which applied to
all sites. Spec 300 is a performance spec which requires considerable outside testing to verify the
performance. Why the change? We have required the use of spec 300 for large farms where
adverse environmental impacts can be greater and where the waste streams can be quite
variable. In some cases manure solids may be removed and % solids in the manure may be less
than 2%, so manure sealing of soil liners will be greatly reduced. Also, public scrutiny of large
farms has increased, so it has become more important to document performance. Spec 204 can
still be used for small farms; spec 300 can be used for all sized farms.

Permeability Tests- Are permeability tests required before and after liner construction? The
Spec only requires permeability tests after construction, but it may be prudent for the designer to
do permeability tests beforehand to make sure that the minimum permeability can be achieved
with the chosen borrow material.

Final certification- Who finally declares that the liner passes the Spec requirements? Whoever
       is responsible for approving cost sharing or issuing permits. The testing lab will issue a
       project testing report with test results and feld observations that demonstrate that the liner
       meets the specification requirements. This testing report should be used as a basis for
       accepting the liner.

                       STANDARD 634

Old Test Pits (V.A.2.)- May test pit logs from previous test pits be accepted as documentation
for a current project? Yes as long as they are within 100 feet of the facility footprint and as long as
the pertinent data has been recorded to show that the 634 and/or 313 criteria can be met.

Bedrock (V.B.1.f) Can bedrock be blasted for reception tanks? If so, how deep? Yes, blasting
is acceptable. No depth requirement except that Regional Water Table separation must be
maintained. A positive grade away from the blasted hole is not required.

Thrust Blocks (V.B.2.b.) Are thrust blocks required for pipes 4” and smaller? The 634 standard
has been changed to require thrust blocks only for pipes 4 inches or larger.

Gravity Transfer (V.B.4.(2) What if the top of the reception tank is lower than the barn cleaner
gutter? Then the M.O.L. must be 4 feet below the top of the reception tank. The idea is to have 4
feet of head before the manure backs up into the barn or before it runs away.

Schedule 80 Pipe (Table 2) Why is pressure pipe (D-1785, Schedule 80 or D-2241, SDR 21)
required for chopper pumps? Initially the thicker pipe was required to resist erosion of the pipe
wall from the sand and other grit being pumped at high velocities. More recently air pressure

Appleton Tech Center                                                            9-12-05

systems have been employed to blow out chopper pump transfer pipes. These systems develop
pressures of 150+ psi, so a high pressure pipe is needed to withstand rupture.
Notice in the 634 standard that a section in Table 2 has been added for pressure pumps which are
not chopper pumps.
Also, solid wall PE pipe has been added as an option for pressure and chopper pumps.

Are Channels greater than 2 feet deep with barn cleaners or scrapers in the bottom still covered
by the standard? Yes, all channels greater than 2 feet deep are covered.

Is pumping barnyard or feed storage waste as leachate or runoff covered by this standard?


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