Slide 1 - University of Notre Da by shimeiyan

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									Hans van Meegeren




     On Trial
 Hans van Meegeren

•Born in Deventer, The Netherlands in 1889
•An architect at first, but turns to art in 1913
when he wins first prize for a drawing of the
interior of a church
•He began to research for the forgery of a
Vermeer in 1932 and had begun by 1936
•Arrested for conspiring with the enemy in
1945; his confession that he forged the
paintings saved him from this charge
•Found guilty of forgery; died in prison of a
heart attack less than a year later
                                               Why Forge?
                                         •Not very successful on his own

                                         •Bitterness toward the art
                                         world because of this
                       “The defendant’s character leads to
                                            •Mental condition
                          sensitiveness to criticism, fed by
                       a revenge complex which explains his
                       anti-social tendencies (i.e. – crime)”
                                            •Financial gain
                                   – van der Horst




Van Meegeren’s Best Known Work
                              Why Vermeer?
•Fairly unknown during his lifetime

•Small body of works
•Not an “heirloom” painter (vs.
Rembrandt)




                   Girl with a Pearl Earring
Christ in the House of Martha and Mary
Caravaggio- Supper at Emmaus
The Technique




                Christ at Emmaus
        Woman in Blue
Tests




        Woman with a Lute
Pigments




   Ultramarine    White Lead    Vermillion




   Yellow Ochre   Green Earth     Indigo
Crack Lines




              Girl with a Pearl Earring
Crack Lines




              Christ at Emmaus
Crack Lines
Phenolformaldehyde resin
Examining Christ
The Last Supper
I Have Summoned up the Depths
          Girl with a Pearl Earring



The Last Supper
Physics
             Radiograph Analysis




   Christ at Emmaus       Washing of the Feet
                    Radiograph
Sketch at Trial
                  Christ at Emmaus
Physics
             Radiograph Analysis




   Christ at Emmaus       Washing of the Feet
    Radiograph
Washing of the Feet
                    XRF Analysis


Examination of
Christ’s Robe




                 Woman Taken in Adultery
              Na8-10Al6Si6O24S2-4


Ultramarine
Characteristic X-Ray Transitions


                Ex = (Z-1)2 · 13.6 [eV] · (1- 1/ni2)




                      Na = 1.02 keV
                      Al = 1.47 keV
                      Si = 1.72 keV
                      S = 2.295 keV
         Sample XRF Analysis- Ultramarine

         4000


         3000       Na
Counts




                           Al
         2000
                                Si
                                              S
         1000


           0
                1   1.25 1.5 1.75    2   2.25 2.5
                         Energy (keV)
         Sample XRF Analysis- Woman taken
                    in Adultery

         4000
                    Na                               ?
Counts



         3000
                     Al
         2000         Al Si
                              S
         1000

           0
                1        2    3    4    5    6   7
                              Energy (keV)
                            Na8-10Al6Si6O24S2-4


Ultramarine



                            CoO · Al2O3

              Cobalt Blue
Ex = (Z-1)2 · 13.6 [eV] · (1- 1/ni2)




        Co = 6.895 keV



               !
         Sample XRF Analysis- Woman taken
                    in Adultery

         4000
                    Na                           Co
Counts



         3000
                     Al
         2000         Al Si
                              S
         1000

           0
                1        2    3    4    5    6   7
                              Energy (keV)
Cobalt Blue



          •Discovered in 1802 by Thénard

          •Vermeer died in 1675
   XRF Analysis




Woman Taken in Adultery
Physics 2 – Van Meegeren 0


                    Iron Smelting




                        White Lead
       Iron Smelting         Ra-226
                             Pb-210
           Ore




Slag                   White Lead
Half-life Pb- 210: 22 years




Half-Life Ra- 226: 1600 years
Sample Calculations

     Measuring activity over a periods of 300 years (the time when
     Vermeer would have smelted) and 50 years (the time when Van
     Meegeren would have smelted)



               Ra- 226: constant- k
                    •Since both these times are relatively
                    short compared to the half-life of
                    radium, the activity will remain
                    approximately constant
Sample Calculations

     Measuring activity over a periods of 50 years (the time when
     Van Meegeren would have smelted) and 300 years (the time
     when Vermeer would have smelted)

                             Pb-110:

       1g sample @ 50 years
       A = λN
       N0 (Pb-110) = 5.48 x 1021 atoms
       N (Pb-110) = 5.13 x 1020 atoms
       A (Pb-110) = 5.25 x 1011 decays/second
Sample Calculations

     Measuring activity over a periods of 50 years (the time when
     Van Meegeren would have smelted) and 300 years (the time
     when Vermeer would have smelted)

                             Pb-110:

       1g sample @ 300 years
       A = λN
       N0 (Pb-110) = 5.48 x 1021 atoms
       N (Pb-110) = 4.3 x 1017 atoms
       A (Pb-110) = 3.15 x 107 decays/second
          Pb-110/ Ra-226 Ratio

3.15 x 107 decays/second   5.25 x 1011 decays/second

          k                          k
     @ 300 years              @ 50 years


                   60% difference!
Hans van Meegeren




     On Trial

								
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