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netherlands Powered By Docstoc
					Capital              Amsterdam 52°21′N 04°52′E
Official languages   Dutch
Queen                Beatrix
Prime Minister       Jan Peter Balkenende
Independence         Eighty Years' War
Declared             July 26, 1581
Recognised           January 30, 1648 (by Spain)
Accession to EU      March 25, 1957
Total area           41,526 km² (16,033 sq mi)
Water (%)            18.41
Population (2006)    16,336,346
Density              395/km² (1,023/sq mi)
GDP total (2006)     $625,271 billion
GDP per capita       $38,618
HDI (2004)           0.947
Currency             Euro (€)(EUR)
Time zone            CET (UTC+1)
Capital           Amsterdam              Water (%)          18.41
                  52°21′N 04°52′E        Population (2006) 16,336,346
Official languages Dutch                 Density            395/km² (1,023/sq mi)
Queen             Beatrix                GDP total (2006)   $625,271 billion
Prime Minister    Jan Peter Balkenende   GDP per capita     $38,618
Independence      Eighty Years' War      HDI (2004)         0.947
Declared          July 26, 1581          Currency           Euro (€)(EUR)
Recognised        January 30, 1648       Time zone          CET (UTC+1)
                  (by Spain)
Accession to EU   March 25, 1957
Total area        41,526 km²
                  (16,033 sq mi)
Many world famous Artist were dutch. One of the most famous earlier artists was
Hieronymus Bosch. In the golden age of the republic in the 17th century there
emerged great artists such as Rembrandt van Rijn, Johannes Vermeer, Frans
Hals, Carel Fabritius, Gerard Dou, Paulus Potter, Jacob Izaaksoon van Ruisdael
or Jan Steen. Famous artists of later eras were Vincent van Gogh and Piet
Mondriaan. M. C. Escher is a famous graphic designer.

Dutch architects gave important impulses for the architecture of the 20th century.
Hendrik Petrus Berlage and the architects of the De Stijl-group (Robert van't
Hoff, J.J.P. Oud, Gerrit Rietveld) are some highlights. Johannes Duiker was a
representative of the „Neues Bauen“ movement. The so-called Amsterdam-
school (Michael de Klerk) made a remarkable contribution to expressionist
architecture.
After the World War II new, innovative dutch architects emerged. Aldo van Eyck
and Herman Hertzberger made a huge impression on structuralism. Piet Blom
became famous because of his tree-houses.
The durch musical scene wasn’t on the same level as the rest of Europe in the regime of classical music.
Only at the end of the 19th century did a professionalisation take place, resulting in the formation of
many an orchestra and ensembles.

Important dutch composers around 1800 were for example the german Johann Willhelm Wilms or
Carolus Antonius Fodor. During the 19th century german romanticism dominated the currents of the
music scene; one such example is Richard Hol. Bernard Zweers tried to develop a specific dutch national
music later on. Julius Röntgen and Alphons Diepenbrock followed his experiments, with which dutch
music found ist entrance into the international development. Important composers of the 20th century are
Willem Pijper, Mathijs Vermeulen, Louis Andriessen, Otto Ketting, Ton de Leeuw, Theo Loevendie, Misha
Mengelberg, Tristan Keuris und Klaas de Vries. (List of dutch composers of classical music)
The most famous rock band Golden Earring had its greatest hit in the 1970s with “Radar Love”. Also well
known in the 1970s were the classic rock band Ekseption with Rick van der Linden and Shocking Blue
with their hit “Venus”.

The Netherlands have a vibrant music scene of a high level. There are countless event localities and the
artists are given alot of freedom in the media. Internationally famous musicians are for example Anouk
Teeuwe or the groups Within Temptation and The Gathering (Band).
The yearly held North Sea Jazz Festival in The Hague belongs to the most important Jazz events
worldwide.
During the Golden Age (De Gouden Eeuw) not only Art flourished, but also
literature with such fine examples as Joost van den Vondel and P. C. Hooft. During
the german occupation (1940-1945) Anne Frank composed her world famous diary
in Amsterdam. Important writers of the 20th century are Harry Mulisch, Jan
Wolkers, Simon Vestdijk and Theun de Vries.
Erasmus von Rotterdam, Baruch Spinoza and Christiaan Huygens all come from
the Netherlands. René Descartes spent much time in the Netherlands. During the
modern times alot of scientists found refuge and possibilites to work. Modern
Socialism was founded by the dutch S. Rudolf Steinmetz.

				
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