Writing to Argue, Persuade and Advise - PDF by fdjerue7eeu

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									PAPER ONE SECTION B:
WRITING TO ARGUE,
PERSUADE AND ADVISE



You will:

  - Select ONE question from four options
  - Write for 45 minutes
  - Plan, write and then edit your writing
    carefully
   The whole point of this section of the paper is to see if you can make the right
   decisions when writing. The examiner expects you to be able to respond in a
   way that will serve your purpose and in a way that your audience will
   understand and appreciate. You are also expected to understand what
   decisions to make for the format they suggest.

Audience
The people who will be reading your piece of writing

   1.      In the table below is a list of people who it is common for the exam board to
           ask you to write for. Complete the table, explaining the decisions you would
           make about the language you would use.

    Audience                      Decisions you would make

    Teacher

    Head teacher

    Friend

    Parent

   2.      The mark scheme demands that you write in a sophisticated way, making
           clever language choices. One type of audience can cause you problems here.
           Which audience would you have to think carefully about and what decisions
           would you make?




Purpose
What you are meant to achieve by completing your writing.
   3.      Draw a line to match up each type of writing with what you are trying to
           achieve.

To Argue                        To force people to think or behave in a certain way

To Persuade                     To explore different points of view

To Advise                       To suggest what somebody should do
Format
The form the writing will take e.g. newspaper article, leaflet, letter or report.

   4.    When writing you do not just select the type of writing but also the way the
         writing will appear. This will also change the decisions you will make.

         Here is a list of things you have to consider. Choose which of these features
         you would include in each of the formats mentioned below. You can do this
         by writing the decision in the relevant column of the table. You can use the
         same feature for more than one format.
            • Headings
            • Subtitles
            • Date
            • Pictures
            • Addresses
            • Interviews
            • Salutations
            • Paragraphs
            • Topic sentences
            • Columns

Newspaper        Leaflet           Letter            Report            Speech
Article




   5.    The examination board want you to prove that you can use language well.
         Therefore, although certain formats of writing mean you make certain
         decisions, the exam board also gives the following advice.
            • Don’t draw pictures:


            •   Don’t write in columns:


            •   Don’t worry about writing the addresses out in full:


            •   Always write in paragraphs
                                      You are expected to understand that to argue you need to
                                      present different points of view. The most important thing to
                                      consider when arguing is the organisation of your ideas.

                                      There are two types of argument: balanced and persuasive.

Balanced argument When you explore the different points of view equally
              Yes or No to Television?               1. When writing a balanced argument it
                                                        is important to use connectives.
 Many people have strong views about whether
 television is good for children or not. It has been
                                                        Circle the connectives in this
 a debate that has raged since television was first     extract.
 popular in the 1950s.

 Television does help people to learn far more          2. Some connectives indicate that you
 quickly, as it involves using both pictures and           are offering an alternative opinion.
 sound. This has been proven to be the case with
 programmes such as Sesame Street and                      Colour these connectives in red.
 Balamory, which has taught children to read and
 to make things.
                                                        3. Some connectives work to extend a
 However, the Teletubbies was actually criticised          point with extra information. Colour
 because it stopped children’s speech from
 developing appropriately. Parents were finding            these connectives in blue.
 that their children were mimicking the speech of
 the characters rather than using correct words.
 Therefore, television can sometimes do more
                                                        4. When writing a balanced argument it
 harm than good to the education of children.              is important to introduce the topic
                                                           of each paragraph at the beginning.
 Furthermore, television has been directly linked
 to the increase in violence in society. 14% of all        What is this sentence called?
 violent crime has been linked to people who have
 been inspired to commit crime because of
 something they have seen on the television.
 One such case was the kidnapping and murder            5. When writing a balanced argument it
 of Jamie Bulger, where the boys who committed
 the crime were acting out a scene from Childs’            is also important to support ideas
 Play.                                                     with evidence. Underline the
 Yet, television does play an important part in            evidence used in this extract. Can
 keeping us informed about what is going on in             you notice the difference between
 the world. For example, many people listen to
 the news to help them understand better who
                                                           fact and opinion?
 they should vote for. The news also allows them
 to appreciate what is going on in their local area.    6. When writing a balanced argument it
 In conclusion, although television has been               is important to write a clear
 linked to violence in society, it also has many           concluding statement. What does
 benefits. It seems to be up to people to make
 sure their children watch the correct things in           this statement achieve?
 order to get the most benefit.
Persuasive argument
When you explore both points of view but support one side of the argument.

  1.     There are a number of sections of a persuasive argument. These are
         presented in the boxes below. However, in which order do you think you
         would write them in your essay? Number each of the boxes.
                                            A counter
          A powerfully                      argument
          persuasive
          concluding
          statement
                                                         Evidence
                              An opening statement       supporting the
        Refute, or argue      explaining the issues
        against, the                                     idea you believe
                              and what you believe       in
        counter
        argument



  2.    The statements below are topic sentences which begin each of the sections
        of a persuasive argument: Is nuclear power a good thing? The topic
        sentences respond to the sections that are mentioned in Point 1 above.
        Write down which section each topic sentence would be introducing.

  a. In conclusion, it is clear that nuclear power is a scourge on our future and must
     be removed from British society.



  b. However, nuclear power has been seen to reduce Britain’s reliance on dirtier
     fossil fuel.



  c. Nuclear Power has been discussed for many years with people arguing that it is
     more dangerous than the fuels it serves to replace.



  d. It is clearly a false argument to suggest that fossil fuels are more dangerous
     than nuclear power.



  e. Over 3 miles of land surrounding each power station is contaminated with twice
     the accepted levels of radiation.
                                     You will need to understand that to persuade you need to
                                     force people to think or behave in a certain way. The
                                     most important thing to consider when persuading
                                     somebody is the language that you use.



Rhetorical Devices
These are the techniques you use to persuade people

1. In the box are definitions of six rhetorical devices. Can you match each definition
   to the correct rhetorical device?

a.     Words which are full of emotion such as “horrific” and “shocking”
b.     A question with an obvious answer that allows the reader to realise what they are meant
       to believe
c.     Over the top use of language
d.     When things are written in a list of three that works to give the writing a rhythm
e.     The use of numbers to support an idea
Write the letter of each definition next to the correct rhetorical device.

      • Rhetorical question
      • Pattern of three
      • Repetition
      • Exaggeration
      • Emotive language
      • Statistics
2. Here is a piece of persuasive writing. The writer has used a number of persuasive
   techniques. Underline and label as many of these techniques as you can.
     Smoking: The Killer!                                Write your labels here. Try
                                                         commenting on the effect of the
     Have you ever coughed so much that your
     lungs feel like they are being dragged into your    techniques. How do they persuade?
     throat? Have you ever staggered yards from
     your door and been forced to sink breathless
     onto a seat?

     Smoking is the biggest killer of modern times.
     It eradicates your innards, beginning with your
     lungs, viciously attacking your heart and
     spreading the possibility of cancer wherever the
     smoke touches. It will take away your dignity
     and then it will take you, leaving your family to
     grieve your loss.
                               When writing to advise you will need to understand that
                               you are expected to suggest what someone should do.
                               The most important thing to think about here is the tone of
                               your piece of writing. Advice is very similar to giving
                               instructions, except you have to modify your tone of voice.
Imperatives
These are verbs, usually used at the beginning of sentences, that tell a person
what to do. In writing to advise you use these to indicate what someone should
do.

1. Write the instructions for making a cup of tea.




At the beginning of each instruction you should have used imperative verbs such as
“Pour.” Circle the imperative verbs, or command words, you have used in your
instructions.

Modal Verbs
Words like “should” “could” and “maybe” that modify a command into a suggestion.
These words prevent advice from sounding too much like instructions and
therefore too harsh.

2. Below is a note written to a friend offering them some advice.


Dear Julie
Dump him. Tell him that he is being foolish. Say firmly that you don’t want to see him
anymore. Walk away quickly. Look straight ahead, avoid turning around.
Your friend
Louise




These instructions are clearly too harsh. Correct the note, adding some modal verbs
to help modify the tone.
                               Give yourself 45 minutes to complete these pieces


The process of writing an answer


 Circle the                Mind map                Sift out four or             Draft your piece,
 key words in              the key                 five ideas to                editing as you go
 the title.                idea from               expand upon                  along. Leave at least
 Identify                  the                     and sort them                five minutes at the end
 format,                   question.               into an                      for one final check
 audience                                          appropriate                  through for accuracy
 and purpose                                       order.                       and effectiveness.

Argue

1. The world would be a happier and better place if tobacco / television / computers, etc. (you choose a
   topic) had never existed. Write the text of a speech to your year group in which you argue either for
   or against this proposition.

2. Write an article for your school magazine in which you argue that schools should spend more money
   on... e.g. computer equipment and the Internet (you choose your topic).

3. Write an article for a magazine aimed at parents. Argue the case for or against teenage children
   being allowed to have a television in their bedroom to watch whatever they like, whenever they like.

Persuade

1. We have all seen 'disaster' holidays on the TV. Write a letter to a travel company in which you try to
   persuade them that your holiday was not up to standard and that you deserve compensation.

2. Your best friend is going through a bad time at home and is thinking of leaving home to live in London.
   Write a letter to your friend in which you try to persuade him or her not to leave.

3. Your head-teacher has decided to stop all access to the Internet at school. Write a letter in which
   you try to persuade him or her to change this decision.

Advise

1. Write an advice sheet for a 16 year old on how to live a healthier life.

2. Write an advice sheet about road safety for pedestrians, motorists and other road users.

3. Write a letter to your MP advising him about the opinions of teenagers regarding a change that they
   plan to make in your local area.
     Communication and Organisation                                Sentence structure, punctuation and spelling
U    Communicates some meaning                                     Some sentences, some accuracy in spelling of
                                                                   simple words, random punctuation.
     Some simple sequencing

G    Communicates some meaning with occasional sense of            In sentences
     audience and purpose
                                                                   Generally accurate basic spelling
     Ideas are sequenced simply but generally appropriate
F    Clear communication of ideas with more sense of audience      Evidence of conscious punctuation
     and purpose.

     Uses some organisation devices appropriately with
     occasional selection of words
E    Sustained awareness of audience and purpose                   Uses a range of securely demarcated
                                                                   sentence structures
     More conscious attempt to organise sentences into
     paragraphs with some attempt to use vocabulary for effect     Some accurate spelling of more complex
                                                                   words
D    Conscious attempt to suit the needs of purpose and            Starts to use a range of punctuation
     audience and begins to engage reader’s responses

     Clear, if mechanical, paragraphing with more conscious
     awareness of vocabulary for effect
C    Clear identification with purpose and audience; begins to     Uses sentence forms for effect
     sustain readers’ responses
                                                                   Generally secure in spelling
     Evidence of structure with usually coherent paragraphs and
     clear selection of vocabulary for effect
B    Form, content and style are generally matched to audience     Generally secure in punctuation which clarifies
     and purpose                                                   meaning and purpose

     Well structured, starting to use paragraphs to enhance
     meaning and with increasing sophistication in vocabulary
     choice
A    Form, content and style are consistently matched to           Uses full range of appropriate sentence
     audience and purpose                                          structures

     Coherently structured with fluently linked sentences          Achieves a high level of technical accuracy in
     structures and paragraphs and evidence of conscious           spelling
     crafting
A*   Form, content and style are assuredly matched to audience     Achieves a high level of technical accuracy in
     and purpose; distinctive and consistently effective           punctuation

     Controlled and sustained crafting with highly effective and
     delightful vocabulary

      1. Circle the important words in the mark scheme. What are you being marked on?
      2. Explain simply what the differences between a C and a D are.
 Grades and targets

     3. Read the two extracts below. Say what grade would you would give each of
        them and why they deserve these grades. Then, suggest one thing that would
        help each extract to get the next grade up and set this as a target.

                                                               What is the grade you would give this
Argue for the protection of animals to your year               piece and why would you award that
group.
                                                               mark?
Animals were on the earth long before we were and they
deserve to be not only left alone but looked after by us.

There is lots of evidence to suggest that we need to look
after animals, as lots and lots of species are becoming
extinct each year. But it is not even a matter of making
sure the animals don’t disappear it is also about the
need to stop people hurting the animals that they want to
have in their house. People do horrible things to cats,
dogs, rabbits, etc every day.

However, some people argue that animals are lesser
than us and that they can be used in order to stop             What would you suggest as a target to
people from becoming ill. Also they suggest that there
are other more important things that we need to be doing       help get the next grade?
before we protect animals, like getting rid of cancer.

Overall, animals are an important part of our lives but
maybe there are more important things we should be
spending our time worrying about.


                                                     Persuade your teachers to give you a common room.

 What is the grade you would give                    When you sit in the middle of a playground and cringe at
                                                     the passing abused fired at me you become aware of the
 this piece and why would you award                  reason why students need a place to escape. When you
 that mark?                                          cower from a blow, dodge a push or merely walk away
                                                     from the words “ugly cow” you become aware of the
                                                     reason students need a place to escape.

                                                     Of course, you can take your needs first if you would like.
                                                     With a room of our own wouldn’t it be easier for us to
                                                     study through our lunch hours? Wouldn’t we feel more
                                                     inclined to stay behind after school and use one of the
                                                     computers provided for us? Clearly this would make
                                                     success in examinations much easier. You would feel the
                                                     flush of success that comes from realising that you have
 What would you suggest as a target                  made that small difference that has allowed us to excel,
 to help get the next grade?                         allowed us to reach our potential.

                                                     It would be a room of our own; a space of our own. You
                                                     could provide us with chairs where we could sit and chat
                                                     reasonably to each other. You could provide us with
                                                     music that would help us concentrate and help us relax.
                                                     You could decorate the walls with stimulating posters that
                                                     would waken our senses just before we came to your
                                                     lessons.

                                                     A room of our own: Is it too much to ask?

								
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