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Writing to Argue, Persuade and Advise
Writing to Argue, Persuade and Advise
PAPER ONE SECTION B: WRITING TO ARGUE, PERSUADE AND ADVISE You will: - Select ONE question from four options - Write for 45 minutes - Plan, write and then edit your writing carefully The whole point of this section of the paper is to see if you can make the right decisions when writing. The examiner expects you to be able to respond in a way that will serve your purpose and in a way that your audience will understand and appreciate. You are also expected to understand what decisions to make for the format they suggest. Audience The people who will be reading your piece of writing 1. In the table below is a list of people who it is common for the exam board to ask you to write for. Complete the table, explaining the decisions you would make about the language you would use. Audience Decisions you would make Teacher Head teacher Friend Parent 2. The mark scheme demands that you write in a sophisticated way, making clever language choices. One type of audience can cause you problems here. Which audience would you have to think carefully about and what decisions would you make? Purpose What you are meant to achieve by completing your writing. 3. Draw a line to match up each type of writing with what you are trying to achieve. To Argue To force people to think or behave in a certain way To Persuade To explore different points of view To Advise To suggest what somebody should do Format The form the writing will take e.g. newspaper article, leaflet, letter or report. 4. When writing you do not just select the type of writing but also the way the writing will appear. This will also change the decisions you will make. Here is a list of things you have to consider. Choose which of these features you would include in each of the formats mentioned below. You can do this by writing the decision in the relevant column of the table. You can use the same feature for more than one format. • Headings • Subtitles • Date • Pictures • Addresses • Interviews • Salutations • Paragraphs • Topic sentences • Columns Newspaper Leaflet Letter Report Speech Article 5. The examination board want you to prove that you can use language well. Therefore, although certain formats of writing mean you make certain decisions, the exam board also gives the following advice. • Don’t draw pictures: • Don’t write in columns: • Don’t worry about writing the addresses out in full: • Always write in paragraphs You are expected to understand that to argue you need to present different points of view. The most important thing to consider when arguing is the organisation of your ideas. There are two types of argument: balanced and persuasive. Balanced argument When you explore the different points of view equally Yes or No to Television? 1. When writing a balanced argument it is important to use connectives. Many people have strong views about whether television is good for children or not. It has been Circle the connectives in this a debate that has raged since television was first extract. popular in the 1950s. Television does help people to learn far more 2. Some connectives indicate that you quickly, as it involves using both pictures and are offering an alternative opinion. sound. This has been proven to be the case with programmes such as Sesame Street and Colour these connectives in red. Balamory, which has taught children to read and to make things. 3. Some connectives work to extend a However, the Teletubbies was actually criticised point with extra information. Colour because it stopped children’s speech from developing appropriately. Parents were finding these connectives in blue. that their children were mimicking the speech of the characters rather than using correct words. Therefore, television can sometimes do more 4. When writing a balanced argument it harm than good to the education of children. is important to introduce the topic of each paragraph at the beginning. Furthermore, television has been directly linked to the increase in violence in society. 14% of all What is this sentence called? violent crime has been linked to people who have been inspired to commit crime because of something they have seen on the television. One such case was the kidnapping and murder 5. When writing a balanced argument it of Jamie Bulger, where the boys who committed the crime were acting out a scene from Childs’ is also important to support ideas Play. with evidence. Underline the Yet, television does play an important part in evidence used in this extract. Can keeping us informed about what is going on in you notice the difference between the world. For example, many people listen to the news to help them understand better who fact and opinion? they should vote for. The news also allows them to appreciate what is going on in their local area. 6. When writing a balanced argument it In conclusion, although television has been is important to write a clear linked to violence in society, it also has many concluding statement. What does benefits. It seems to be up to people to make sure their children watch the correct things in this statement achieve? order to get the most benefit. Persuasive argument When you explore both points of view but support one side of the argument. 1. There are a number of sections of a persuasive argument. These are presented in the boxes below. However, in which order do you think you would write them in your essay? Number each of the boxes. A counter A powerfully argument persuasive concluding statement Evidence An opening statement supporting the Refute, or argue explaining the issues against, the idea you believe and what you believe in counter argument 2. The statements below are topic sentences which begin each of the sections of a persuasive argument: Is nuclear power a good thing? The topic sentences respond to the sections that are mentioned in Point 1 above. Write down which section each topic sentence would be introducing. a. In conclusion, it is clear that nuclear power is a scourge on our future and must be removed from British society. b. However, nuclear power has been seen to reduce Britain’s reliance on dirtier fossil fuel. c. Nuclear Power has been discussed for many years with people arguing that it is more dangerous than the fuels it serves to replace. d. It is clearly a false argument to suggest that fossil fuels are more dangerous than nuclear power. e. Over 3 miles of land surrounding each power station is contaminated with twice the accepted levels of radiation. You will need to understand that to persuade you need to force people to think or behave in a certain way. The most important thing to consider when persuading somebody is the language that you use. Rhetorical Devices These are the techniques you use to persuade people 1. In the box are definitions of six rhetorical devices. Can you match each definition to the correct rhetorical device? a. Words which are full of emotion such as “horrific” and “shocking” b. A question with an obvious answer that allows the reader to realise what they are meant to believe c. Over the top use of language d. When things are written in a list of three that works to give the writing a rhythm e. The use of numbers to support an idea Write the letter of each definition next to the correct rhetorical device. • Rhetorical question • Pattern of three • Repetition • Exaggeration • Emotive language • Statistics 2. Here is a piece of persuasive writing. The writer has used a number of persuasive techniques. Underline and label as many of these techniques as you can. Smoking: The Killer! Write your labels here. Try commenting on the effect of the Have you ever coughed so much that your lungs feel like they are being dragged into your techniques. How do they persuade? throat? Have you ever staggered yards from your door and been forced to sink breathless onto a seat? Smoking is the biggest killer of modern times. It eradicates your innards, beginning with your lungs, viciously attacking your heart and spreading the possibility of cancer wherever the smoke touches. It will take away your dignity and then it will take you, leaving your family to grieve your loss. When writing to advise you will need to understand that you are expected to suggest what someone should do. The most important thing to think about here is the tone of your piece of writing. Advice is very similar to giving instructions, except you have to modify your tone of voice. Imperatives These are verbs, usually used at the beginning of sentences, that tell a person what to do. In writing to advise you use these to indicate what someone should do. 1. Write the instructions for making a cup of tea. At the beginning of each instruction you should have used imperative verbs such as “Pour.” Circle the imperative verbs, or command words, you have used in your instructions. Modal Verbs Words like “should” “could” and “maybe” that modify a command into a suggestion. These words prevent advice from sounding too much like instructions and therefore too harsh. 2. Below is a note written to a friend offering them some advice. Dear Julie Dump him. Tell him that he is being foolish. Say firmly that you don’t want to see him anymore. Walk away quickly. Look straight ahead, avoid turning around. Your friend Louise These instructions are clearly too harsh. Correct the note, adding some modal verbs to help modify the tone. Give yourself 45 minutes to complete these pieces The process of writing an answer Circle the Mind map Sift out four or Draft your piece, key words in the key five ideas to editing as you go the title. idea from expand upon along. Leave at least Identify the and sort them five minutes at the end format, question. into an for one final check audience appropriate through for accuracy and purpose order. and effectiveness. Argue 1. The world would be a happier and better place if tobacco / television / computers, etc. (you choose a topic) had never existed. Write the text of a speech to your year group in which you argue either for or against this proposition. 2. Write an article for your school magazine in which you argue that schools should spend more money on... e.g. computer equipment and the Internet (you choose your topic). 3. Write an article for a magazine aimed at parents. Argue the case for or against teenage children being allowed to have a television in their bedroom to watch whatever they like, whenever they like. Persuade 1. We have all seen 'disaster' holidays on the TV. Write a letter to a travel company in which you try to persuade them that your holiday was not up to standard and that you deserve compensation. 2. Your best friend is going through a bad time at home and is thinking of leaving home to live in London. Write a letter to your friend in which you try to persuade him or her not to leave. 3. Your head-teacher has decided to stop all access to the Internet at school. Write a letter in which you try to persuade him or her to change this decision. Advise 1. Write an advice sheet for a 16 year old on how to live a healthier life. 2. Write an advice sheet about road safety for pedestrians, motorists and other road users. 3. Write a letter to your MP advising him about the opinions of teenagers regarding a change that they plan to make in your local area. Communication and Organisation Sentence structure, punctuation and spelling U Communicates some meaning Some sentences, some accuracy in spelling of simple words, random punctuation. Some simple sequencing G Communicates some meaning with occasional sense of In sentences audience and purpose Generally accurate basic spelling Ideas are sequenced simply but generally appropriate F Clear communication of ideas with more sense of audience Evidence of conscious punctuation and purpose. Uses some organisation devices appropriately with occasional selection of words E Sustained awareness of audience and purpose Uses a range of securely demarcated sentence structures More conscious attempt to organise sentences into paragraphs with some attempt to use vocabulary for effect Some accurate spelling of more complex words D Conscious attempt to suit the needs of purpose and Starts to use a range of punctuation audience and begins to engage reader’s responses Clear, if mechanical, paragraphing with more conscious awareness of vocabulary for effect C Clear identification with purpose and audience; begins to Uses sentence forms for effect sustain readers’ responses Generally secure in spelling Evidence of structure with usually coherent paragraphs and clear selection of vocabulary for effect B Form, content and style are generally matched to audience Generally secure in punctuation which clarifies and purpose meaning and purpose Well structured, starting to use paragraphs to enhance meaning and with increasing sophistication in vocabulary choice A Form, content and style are consistently matched to Uses full range of appropriate sentence audience and purpose structures Coherently structured with fluently linked sentences Achieves a high level of technical accuracy in structures and paragraphs and evidence of conscious spelling crafting A* Form, content and style are assuredly matched to audience Achieves a high level of technical accuracy in and purpose; distinctive and consistently effective punctuation Controlled and sustained crafting with highly effective and delightful vocabulary 1. Circle the important words in the mark scheme. What are you being marked on? 2. Explain simply what the differences between a C and a D are. Grades and targets 3. Read the two extracts below. Say what grade would you would give each of them and why they deserve these grades. Then, suggest one thing that would help each extract to get the next grade up and set this as a target. What is the grade you would give this Argue for the protection of animals to your year piece and why would you award that group. mark? Animals were on the earth long before we were and they deserve to be not only left alone but looked after by us. There is lots of evidence to suggest that we need to look after animals, as lots and lots of species are becoming extinct each year. But it is not even a matter of making sure the animals don’t disappear it is also about the need to stop people hurting the animals that they want to have in their house. People do horrible things to cats, dogs, rabbits, etc every day. However, some people argue that animals are lesser than us and that they can be used in order to stop What would you suggest as a target to people from becoming ill. Also they suggest that there are other more important things that we need to be doing help get the next grade? before we protect animals, like getting rid of cancer. Overall, animals are an important part of our lives but maybe there are more important things we should be spending our time worrying about. Persuade your teachers to give you a common room. What is the grade you would give When you sit in the middle of a playground and cringe at the passing abused fired at me you become aware of the this piece and why would you award reason why students need a place to escape. When you that mark? cower from a blow, dodge a push or merely walk away from the words “ugly cow” you become aware of the reason students need a place to escape. Of course, you can take your needs first if you would like. With a room of our own wouldn’t it be easier for us to study through our lunch hours? Wouldn’t we feel more inclined to stay behind after school and use one of the computers provided for us? Clearly this would make success in examinations much easier. You would feel the flush of success that comes from realising that you have What would you suggest as a target made that small difference that has allowed us to excel, to help get the next grade? allowed us to reach our potential. It would be a room of our own; a space of our own. You could provide us with chairs where we could sit and chat reasonably to each other. You could provide us with music that would help us concentrate and help us relax. You could decorate the walls with stimulating posters that would waken our senses just before we came to your lessons. A room of our own: Is it too much to ask?
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