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Ultracapacitor Distributed Model Equivalent Circuit For Power by vdr16883

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									                       Ultracapacitor Distributed
                      Model Equivalent Circuit for
                        Power Electronic Circuit
                              Simulation
                             John M. Miller                    Dragan Nebrigic   Michael Everett

                                                 Maxwell Technologies Inc.
                                                               San Diego, CA

                      Ansoft Leading Insights Workshop
                                                  Los Angles, CA 19 Oct. 2006
                                                  Southfield, MI 24 Oct. 2006

Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors                                       July 18, 2006
                                                               Outline
  • Introduction to Maxwell
          • Facilities and Business Units

  • Introduction to Ultracapacitors
          • The technology
          • Ultracapacitor model

  • Ultracapacitor Model Basics
          • Transmission line “moment matched” approach
          • Extending PWB circuit router nonlinear model to
            Ultracapacitor

  • Model Validation
          • Model parameter extraction and validation: MC2600 model
          • Simulation validation tests: D Cell model

  • Automotive Application – Engine Cold Cranking
Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors    Slide 2
                                                                Introduction
                  Founded in 1965
                  Manufacturing in Switzerland, USA & China –
                  capacity 20-25M cells per year
                  Worldwide distribution
                  Own electrode & electrolyte so technology and
                  quality is controlled in-house
                  Driving ultracapacitor costs down
                  Recognised by Frost & Sullivan as pioneer
                  manufacturer of ultracapacitors
                  16949 Certified
                  Wide range of cells and standard/bespoke modules

Ultracapacitors    Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors          Slide 3
                                                               Introduction
   •   Cells tested to highest specs possible – some to MIL standards
   •      Cells – mechanical shock & vibration
   •      Crush & penetration
   •      Temperature & humidity cycling
   •       Salt fog & ambient pressure
   •       Charge/discharge abuse
   •       Self discharge characterisation
   •       DC Life

   • Modules
      • Shock and Vibration
      • Thermal and Humidity
      • Pressure
      • Crash testing
      • Penetration
      • Fire Testing

   • Strong experience with traction/ buses/ coaches/ wind turbines/
   fork lift trucks/ Vehicles
Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors            Slide 4
                                                                      About Maxwell
                                                               Capacitor Manufacturer since 1965


                                                                Manufacturing facilities:
        Maxwell is a leading developer                            US, Europe, Asia
        and manufacturer of innovative,
         cost-effective energy storage
         and power delivery solutions.




                  Certifications:
                        ISO 9001:2000
                         ISO/TS 16949
                           ISO 9002




Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors                              Slide 5
                                                                                        Maxwell Products
                                                                        Ultracapacitor Business Unit




  Automotive                                                                           Consumer
                                                         Applications




Transportation                                                                           Industrial

Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors                               Slide 6
                                                                     Ultracapacitor Market

   • Applications are proliferating rapidly because manufacturing
     capability is now in place for ultracapacitors
   • Ultracapacitor markets to grow 300% and Lithium battery
     markets to grow 1500% by 2012 –Frost & Sullivan report

                                                              2005

                                                                                   2012




           Market growth
           UC’s by 300%
           Lithium by 1500%
   Frost & Sullivan Industry Outlook and Growth Strategies
   2006 Meeting Hyatt Hill Country, San Antonio, 24-27 Sept 2006,


Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics     High-Voltage Capacitors                      Slide 7
                                                                               Maxwell Products
                                                               Ultracapacitor Product Range


                             Range of Cell Products (30 and growing)
                             • From 2F to 10F (PC)
                             • From 150 – 350F (BC)
                             • From 650 – 3000F (MC)




Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors                      Slide 8
                                                                         Maxwell Products
                                                               Ultracapacitor Modules


                             15-50V Modules




Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors                Slide 9
                                                               Ultracapacitor Introduction

   • Double layer capacitor technology

   • Ultracapacitor equivalent circuit model




Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors                        Slide 10
                                                               Ultracapacitor Technology

   • The electrode is fundamental to ultracapacitor
     performance.




                                                                          Source: IEEE Spectrum, Jan 2005


Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors                              Slide 11
                                                                Ultracapacitor Model Basics

  • The ultracapacitor model commonly applied is that
    of the series combination of two DLC’s at the
    electrode - solvent compact layer.
                                                _                       Ionic Resistance
                                                                                                    _
                                                                 +      Separator + electrolyte
                                                                                                              +
                  Electrical
                  Resistance:                             Helmholtz layers   Helmholtz layers
                  Collector foil +                                     Separator
                                            _ _




                                                                                                    +
                  Foil to Carbon+
                                                                                            _       _       +  +
                                                           +
                  C-particle to
                                            _   _


                                                                          +
                  C-particle
                                                                                                       +    +
                                            _       _                                                       +
                                            _                                           +           _       +
                                            _ _
                                                                                                            +
                                                               + + ++


                                            _                             _                             +
                                                                                                          + +




                                                                                                +
                                            _     _
                                                                                                    _
                                            _     _                                                    +    +
                                                                                          _                 +
                                            _  _                                                     _
                                                                                                          + +
                                           Electrode                       Electrolyte                  Electrode
                                           Electric conductivity           Ionic conductivity       Electric conductivity

Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors                                                                Slide 12
                                                               Ultracapacitor Model Basics

   • Extreme capacitance is available from the
     carbon electrochemical double layer
     capacitor
           • Activated carbon has very high specific area (S)
           • The compact layer interface between the carbon
             particles and electrolyte ions, the Helmholtz
             layer, is on the order of 1 atom thickness.
                                     3ε 10 ( m2 )              3
                               εS              g
                           C=      =
                                d        10 −9
                           Scale * 1012     ( )
Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors                        Slide 13
                                                                    Ultracapacitor Model Basics

                                                                              1.            Non-purely resistive short term behaviors
                                                                                            during first few milliseconds PC10F




                                                                                       MC2600 -100 Amps Constant Current Charge - 0.03V Initial Voltage

                                                                              0.35

                                                                               0.3                                                                                                                                  Voltage 0V

                                                                              0.25
                                                               Vo ltag e (V
                                                                               0.2
 2. A varying slope of voltage respond                                        0.15
     during charge
 3. Phenomenon of energy redistribution                                        0.1

    after charge                                                              0.05
 4. Long term time constant
    (voltage dependent charge recovery)                                         0
                                                                                     10.0
                                                                                            60.0
                                                                                                   110.0
                                                                                                           160.0
                                                                                                                   210.0
                                                                                                                           260.0
                                                                                                                                   310.0
                                                                                                                                           360.0
                                                                                                                                                   410.0
                                                                                                                                                           460.0
                                                                                                                                                                   510.0
                                                                                                                                                                           560.0
                                                                                                                                                                                   610.0
                                                                                                                                                                                           660.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                   710.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                           760.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   810.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           860.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   910.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           960.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1010.0
 5. Significant inaccuracies can be observed
 since extraction conditions are different
 Especially initial states                                                                                                                             Time (100/sec)


Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors                                                                                                                                                           Slide 14
                                                    Electrode as Transmission Line
     • Simple RC model is therefore inadequate to describe the nonlinear
     DLC electrode behavior.
     •Complex network of voltage dependent capacitors connected by the
     distributed resistances




   •Supercapacitor theoretical model could be treated as a transmission line
   with the voltage dependent distributed capacitance
Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors                Slide 15
                                          3 L-section Moment Matched Model

  • Transfer function of any linear system respond on
    impulse function.




                                                               Three non-uniform L segment model
       Two uniform L segment model
                                                               13% more accurate:




         Moment Matching => Transfer function coefficients for the
         Linear system transmission line transfer function that reacts
         on impulse have corresponding polynomial coefficients identical to the second
         Coefficient of the non-uniform distributed RC line
Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors                             Slide 16
                                                                                          Ultracapacitor Model

   • Maxwell Technologies nonlinear, multiple time constant,
     equivalent circuit model derived from transmission line theory
           • Ultracapacitor electrode is a distributed RC network
           • Three nonlinear time constants are sufficient


                                             Power MC2600-Cell Transmission Model


                             R1                      Rtran1   0.3R               Rtran2       0.2R     Rtran3    0.5R

                        0.0008 Ohm
                                                0.4C(v)                     0.414C(v)                 0.16C(v)
                                                                     100
                                                              #                           #
                               +                                                                                    #
       -250 A
                       I1                                            C     XY_LINT2              C1                     C2
                                   V          XY_LINT1                                                XY_LINT3
                                                XY                          XY                          XY
                                       VM1




Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics       High-Voltage Capacitors                                                             Slide 17
                                                                   MC2600 Ultracapacitor Model

   • R’s and C’s are transmission line moment method
     derived parameters
   • C(U) is table lookup – increases with voltage

                                                Charge & Capacitance vs. Voltage
                                    1000
                                                 Q(Uc)
                  Capacitance (C)




                                     800
                   Coulomb (Q),




                                                 C(Uc)=Q(Uc)/Uc
                                     600

                                     400

                                     200

                                       0
                                       0.00        0.50         1.00       1.50       2.00   2.50   3.00
                                                                        Voltage (V)

Ultracapacitors      Microelectronics         High-Voltage Capacitors                                      Slide 18
                                                                        MC2600 Ultracapacitor Model

   • Validation test: constant current
           • Evaluate ESR and average capacitance, Co
           • Discharge to ~ ½ Umx
   • Ic =250A discharge for T=15s
           • 2.85V 2.765V 1.365V in 15s
           • ESR= δU/Ic= 340µΩ and <Co> = Ic/(Ucf-Uci) = 2665F

                             C urrentSourc                                             TerminalV o lts
             0
                                                                        2.85
       -25.000

       -50.000

       -75.000
                                                                        2.50
      -100.000

      -125.000                                               I1.I [A]

      -150.000

      -175.000                                                                                                           VM1...
      -200.000
                                                                        2.00
      -225.000
      -250.000
                 0   5.00   10.00    15.00   20.00   25.00




                                                                        1.50
                                                                        1.36
                                                                               0   10.00                 20.00   25.00


Ultracapacitors      Microelectronics        High-Voltage Capacitors                                                       Slide 19
                                                                        MC2600 Ultracapacitor Model

    • Validation test: constant current
                   • Evaluate ESR and average capacitance, Co
                   • Discharge to ~ ¼ Umx
    • Ic =250A discharge for T=20s
                   • 2.85   2.765V   0.844V in 20s
                   • ESR = δU/Ic = 340 µΩ and <Co> = Ic/(Ucf-Uci) = 2604F

                             C urrentSourc                                              TerminalV o lts
           0
     -25.000                                                               2.85
     -50.000

     -75.000

    -100.000

    -125.000                                                 I1.I [A]

    -150.000
                                                                           2.00
    -175.000
                                                                                                                          VM1...
    -200.000

    -225.000
    -250.000
               0     5.00   10.00    15.00   20.00   25.00




                                                                           1.00
                                                                        840.00 m
                                                                                   0   10.00              20.00   25.00


Ultracapacitors         Microelectronics      High-Voltage Capacitors                                                     Slide 20
                                                                               MC2600 Ultracapacitor Validation
   • Laboratory test and validation of MC2600
                                                                        MC-2600 Nonlinearity -100Amps Cons               ec
                                                                                                          tant Charge, 5s Charnge

                                           0.35
                                                       Voltage 0V-100Amps
                                                       Processed Voltage 0.5V-100Amps
                                            0.3        Processed Voltage 1V-100Amps
                                                       Processed Voltage 1.5V-100Amps
                                                       Processed Voltage 2V-100Amps
                                           0.25
                                                       Processed Voltage 2.5V-100Amps
                                                       Processed Voltage 2.7V-100Amps
                                                       Processed Voltage 3.0V-100Amps
                  MC-2600 Voltage Variat




                                            0.2



                                           0.15



                                            0.1



                                           0.05



                                              0
                                                   0            200                     400           600              800          1000   1200


                                           -0.05
                                                                                                 Time (sec*100)


         Plot shows nonlinear response of ultracapacitor due to initial state (state-of-c


Ultracapacitors                            Microelectronics     High-Voltage Capacitors                                                    Slide 21
                                                                    MC2600 Ultracapacitor Validation

   • Total transmission line capacitance (DLC) as
     function of voltage.
                                                                     MC-2600 Total Capacitance -Voltage Dependance


                                             3500


                                                                                                           y = -61.66x2 + 508.35x + 1946.4
                                             3000


                                                                                                                     Capacitance (V)
                                             2500                                                                    Poly. (Capacitance (V))
                  Variation in Capacitance




                                             2000




                                             1500




                                             1000



                                             500




                                               0
                                                    0   0.5          1             1.5                 2               2.5                     3   3.5
                                                                                         Voltage (V)




Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics                       High-Voltage Capacitors                                                                         Slide 22
                                                                 D Cell Model Performance Tests
  •     Summary of constant power tests
          • Evaluate at the following points: 0.1 Pml = 34W; 0.4 Pml = 135W; 1.0 Pml
            = 336W; and 1.6 Pml = 538W
              D Cell Module
              Pml = 5.6kW/kg or 336W per cell
              2.5V, 2.2mOhm, 60g                                        Power D-Cell Transmission Model

                                                           R1                  Rtran1       0.3R            Rtran2       0.2R        Rtran3       0.5R
                                  PSRC1
                                 -500 W                    0.0008 Ohm
                                            Power                          0.4C(v                      0.44C(v                     0.16C(v               Rsd

                                                     VM1                                                                                              560 Ohm
                                                             +                          #                            #

                                                                V                                 C   XY_LINT2              C1    XY_LINT3
                                                                                                                                              #
                                      AM1                               XY_LINT1                                                                      C2
                                             A                            XY                           XY                           XY




   Power loading             Load Watts             Voltage cut-off Uco,            Time to Uco              Useable Energy (J)       Delivered Energy           Energy Eff.
                                (W)                            (V)                      (s)                                                    (P*t)
        0.1 Pml =                34                             0.45                         31                      1260.6                   1054                  0.83

        0.4 Pml =               135                             0.9                         6.56                     1230.5                   885.6                 0.72

        1.0 Pml =               336                             1.42                        1.78                         1180                 598.1                 0.507

        1.6 Pml =               538                             1.8                         0.653                    1120.6                   351.3                 0.313

      Total stored energy at Uc = Umx is: 1295 J.
Ultracapacitors     Microelectronics        High-Voltage Capacitors                                                                                             Slide 23
                                                   D Cell Model Performance Tests
    • Cell cut-off voltage, Uco, is determined as follow
      under constant power conditions:

                                                    U c 0 = 2 ESR * P0
    •            D Cell model performance at Po = 34W and at 336W

                                             Load_Vand_                                                             Load_Vand_
                      81.00                                                                         400.00

                                                                                                    300.00




                                                                                      PSRC1.V [V]
                                                                                      PSRC1.I [A]
        PSRC1.V [V]
        PSRC1.I [A]




                      50.00
                                                                           -10.0...                                                     -10.0...
                                                                                                    200.00
                                                                           -1.00...                                                     -1.00...

                      25.00                                                                         100.00

                       4.00                                                                           8.00
                               0                     20.00       31.00                                       0            1.00   1.78




                      Initial current: 12.3A                                                                 122A


Ultracapacitors               Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors                                                           Slide 24
                                               D Cell Model Performance Tests

   • Model internal time constants and response:
     34W                    Probe1
                                                            2.76
                                                                              P robe3                                             P robe4
           2.76                                                                                                   2.76
           2.25                                             2.20
                                                                                                                  2.00
           1.75                                             1.80
                                             C.V [V]                                              C1.V ...                                          C2.V ...
                                                                                                                  1.60
           1.25                                             1.40
                                                                                                                  1.20
       560.00m                                             1.00
                                                       610.00m                                                630.00m
                  0 5.00    15.00    31.00
                               t                                   0 5.00     15.00      31.00                           0     10.00        31.00


        Voltage across the nonlinear capacitance branches in the model.


                           C_Amps                                           C1_Amps                                             C2_Amps
        -5.00                                          -3.55f                                                -4.93m


       -15.00                                          -10.00                                                 -4.00
                                                       -15.00                                                                                       C2.I [A]
       -20.00                                C.I [A]                                             C1.I [A]     -6.00
                                                       -20.00
       -25.00                                                                                                 -8.00
                                                       -25.00

       -35.40                                          -34.00                                                -11.55

                0 5.00     15.00     31.00                      0 5.00      15.00       31.00                         0 5.00    15.00       31.00


        Currents through the nonlinear capacitance branches in the model




Ultracapacitors      Microelectronics        High-Voltage Capacitors                                                                                       Slide 25
                                               D Cell Model Performance Tests

   • Internal time constant and response: 336W
                            Probe1                                           P robe3                                             P robe4
      2.76                                            2.76                                                  2.76

      2.40
                                                      2.40                                                  2.40
      2.20
                                            C.V [V]                                             C1.V ...                                          C2.V ...
      2.00                                            2.20
                                                                                                            2.20
                                                      2.00
      1.56                                                                                                  2.00
                                                      1.75                                                  1.84
             0 400.00m      1.00     1.78
                            t                                0 400.00m        1.00      1.78                        0 400.00m    1.00      1.78


      Voltage across each nonlinear branch capacitance in the model.



                            C_Amps                                          C1_Amps                                             C2_Amps
       -62.50                                          -1.78f                                              -4.92m

      -100.00                                          -40.00
                                                                                                           -15.00
      -120.00                                          -60.00
      -140.00                               C.I [A]                                            C1.I [A]                                           C2.I [A]
                                                       -80.00                                              -25.00
      -160.00                                         -100.00
      -180.00                                                                                              -35.00

      -211.00                                         -145.00                                              -45.00

                0 400.00m    1.00    1.78                       0 400.00m     1.00     1.78                         0 400.00m    1.00      1.78


      Currents through each nonlinear branch capacitance in the model.


Ultracapacitors      Microelectronics       High-Voltage Capacitors                                                                                    Slide 26
                                          D Cell Model Performance Tests
  • D Cell constant power experimental versus modeled
    response data @ Po=7.5W
            Measured                          Measured                            Model                           Model
   Initial time            0       Final time (s)          178.8   Initial time           0      Final time (s)              148.2

   Initial Current         2.72    Final Current (A)       38.25   Initial Current        2.72   Final Current (A)           36.4

   Initial Voltage         2.8     Final Voltage (V)       0.186   Initial Voltage        2.76   Final Voltage (V)           0.188



  • There appears to be some discrepancy in final time,
    tf:
          • Model contains an additional external resistance that lab test
            does not.         2
                           CU mx
                  P0 t f ≅
          • The final time at constant power discharge can be approximated
            as:             2
                                    2
                                CU mx 340(2.8) 2
                           tf =       =          = 177.7                                  Consistent with laboratory test
                                 2 P0   2(7.5)

Ultracapacitors      Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors                                                           Slide 27
                                                     Engine Cold Cranking Example

   • The ultracapacitor model is readily
     scaleable to arbitrary module size.
                                                                         Np
                                                               C mod =        C cell
                                                                         Ns
                                                                           Ns
                                                               ESRmod    =    ESRcell
                                                                           Np

   • The “diesel” engine is modeled as friction and
     inertia elements in Simplorer
   • The starter motor is modeled as a gyrator:
     cross coupled electro-mechanical system.

Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors                            Slide 28
                                                                               Engine Cold Cranking Example

  • Overall Simplorer model
                                                            Power MC2600-Cell in 6s x 2p Module                                                                             Rtran1 = 0.3R
                                                                                                                                                                            Rtran2 = 0.2R
                                                   L1         Rtran1      0.3R                Rtran2           0.2R          Rtran3     0.5R
                                                                                                                                                                            Rtran3 = 0.5R
           R_Cable12F
           0.611 mOhm
                                                  102 nH                                                                                                                    Ctran1=0.4*C(v)
                                                             0.4C(v)                    0.414C(v)                            0.16C(v)
                                      +                                    #
                                                                                 100
                                                                                                           #
                                                                                                                                                    Rleak
                                                                                                                                               1650 Ohm
                                                                                                                                                                            Ctran2=0.414*C(v)
                                                                                                                                           #

                  S1
                                VM1    V                      XY_LINT1           C     XY_LINT2                    C1       XY_LINT3
                                                                                                                                               C2                           Ctran3=0.16*C(v)
                                                               XY                        XY                                  XY

                                                                                                                                                                            C = C(v)
                                                                                                                                                                            R = 5mOhms
                  Ra
             2.2 mOhm
                                                     MASS_roto                                             SystemGearin                        WM_Cran
               La                                                                                                                         +                   MASS_Cran
                                                              %
                                                    0.0005 kg m                                        100 %
              0.15 mH                                                                                              2                       W                  2.6 kg m%
                                                                                                       1
                                      GAIN_ke                                                                          60
                                                        +
                  Ea                      GAIN          ω
                                                                                       DAMP_ROT
                                                   VM_Arm_Sp
                                                                                     0.0003 Nms/ra
                                  GAIN_kt
                  AM1
                                                                                                           DAMP_Cran
                          A           GAIN                          T   F_arm
                                                                                                               25 Nms/rad
                                                                                                                                  Engine nonlinear torque model


                                                                                                                                                     State machine to actuate and terminate cranking event
                                                                                                                                                                 TRANS1      STATE2   TRANS2
                                                                                                                                                     STATE1                                      STATE3




          Starter motor electro-mechanical model                                                                                                      K1:=0        t>=1.5    K1:=1     t>=9.5     K1:=0




Ultracapacitors         Microelectronics         High-Voltage Capacitors                                                                                                                Slide 29
                                                                            Engine Cold Cranking Example
   • Engine cranking simulation ultracapacitor only: 16 liter CI
     engine
           •            Electrical performance
           •            Starter Motor: Armature speed & current
                            Arm Speed(r.         2DGraphS..
                                                                                                                               Ultracapacitor:
                                                                                                                                   UC
          1.11k
                       Voltage             1.93k                                                                  12.8




                                                             AM1.I [A]
                                                    VM_...               1.00k                        AM1...                                                         VM1..
          500.00
                                                                                                                  10.0


               0                                                            0                                      8.36
                   0                5.00     8.00                                0      5.00   8.00
                                                                                                                           0                     5.00       8.00




   • Mechanical performance
                Arm Torque (Nm)
                                                                                                               18.40
                                                                                                                               Engine Crank Speed (r/s)

                       21.00
           • Starter motor torque (Nm)                                                                                                     Engine speed
             (rad/s)                                                                                           10.00
                       10.00                                                 -1.00...                                                                              WM_...




                           0
                                                                                                                   0
                               0                5.00         8.00                                                      0                      5.00        8.00



Ultracapacitors           Microelectronics    High-Voltage Capacitors                                                                                     Slide 30
                                                               Summary

   • The Maxwell Technologies ultracapacitor
     large signal equivalent circuit model
     provides very good agreement with products
           • Constant current validation
           • Constant power validation


   • The model is readily scalable to industrial
     applications
           • Ultracapacitor and battery hybrid energy
             storage systems are currently under evaluation


Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors     Slide 31
                                                                       References

   •     Andrew B. Kahng, Sudhakar Mudd, “Optimal Equivalent Circuits for
         Interconnect Delay Using Moments,” published in Association for Computing
         Machinery, 1994 ACM 0-89791-687-5

   •     Russel L. Spyker, Robert M. Nelms, “Analysis of Double Layer Capacitors
         Supplying Constant Power Loads,” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and
         Electronic Systems, Vol. 36, Nr. 4, Oct. 2000

   •     George L. Paul, Anthony M. Vassallo, “Effect of Time Constant on Power
         Capability of Supercapacitors,” authors are with CapXX and CSIRO Energy
         Technology respectively of Villawood and North Ryde, Australia




Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors                       Slide 32
                  Maxwell Technologies
                         The Ultracapacitor Company




                                 Thank You!


Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors   Slide 33
                                                               Appendix



   Supplementary
    material



Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors      Slide 34
                                                   Hybrid Energy Storage Systems

  • The new combination!
                  • High power density component plus
                  • High energy density component




Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors              Slide 35
                                                               Energy and Power Density

   • Specific energy                                                     2
                                                                    CU   mx
           • E [=] Wh/kg
                                                                E=    2
                                                                   3600 M

   • Specific power                                                           2
           • Pd [=] W/kg
                                                                     0.12U    mx
                                                                      ESRdc
                                                                Pd =
                                                                        M
           • M = cell mass, kg

Ultracapacitors   Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors                       Slide 36
                                                                                                                        Energy Relationships

   • Energy storage systems are typically
     compared using the Ragone relationship
                                                                                       BCAP0650 P Ragon ne Umx=2.7V, Umin=2.2V
                                             16.178 100
           Energy Density at point (Wh/kg)




                                             E
                                                                                                                                                E ML   E
                                             Es
                                                          10                                                                           T0 =          = s
                                                                        γ E = γ ES − mγ P
                                                  i
                                                                                                                                                PML 2 PML
                                             E ML

                                             E ml
                                                      i    1
                                                                                                                                                                Es/2
                                                 0.1
                                                          0.1
                                                                                                                        1 .10       1 .10         1 .10
                                                                                                                                3           4               5
                                                                1                 10                 100
                                                                1.123                                      P, P s                                1×10
                                                                                                                                                        5
                                                                                                                    i
                                                                                               Power Density tested (W/kg)


Ultracapacitors                                   Microelectronics         High-Voltage Capacitors                                                          Slide 37
                                                                                              Normal and Abuse Operation

   • Normal operation range of the
     ultracapacitor is from no load to matched
     power loading.
                   Beyond
                • 16.178 100 matched power load is abuse tolerance
                                  BCAP0650 P Ragon ne Umx=2.7V, Umin=2.2V

                   region
          Energy Density at point (Wh/kg)




                                            E

                                            Es
                                                 i       10
                                                                 η => 100%                   Normal Operation
                                                                                                                                 η => 50%
                                                                                                                                                     Abuse
                                            E ML
                                                                 γ E = γ ES − mγ P                                                                   Tolerance
                                            E ml
                                                          1
                                                                                                                                                     Rapid
                                                     i
                                                                                                                                                     Discharge
                                                                                                                                 η => 0%             Regime
                                                0.1
                                                         0.1
                                                                                                                     1 .10        1 .10      1 .10
                                                                                                                             3        4              5
                                                               1              10                  100
                                                               1.123                                    P, P s                              1×10
                                                                                                                                                 5
                                                                                                                 i
                                                                                            Power Density tested (W/kg)


Ultracapacitors                                      Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors                                                  Slide 38
                                                                                                 Hybrid Markets and Trends

                                                             The HEV Application matrix                           Mild (42V & 144V):
                                     100.000                                                                      • <1kWh; 10 15kW
   Electric Energy per cycle in Wh




                                                                                                                  • 7% to 12% FE
                                                                              Electric vehicle

                                     10.000                                         Plug In        Full           Strong Hybrid (>200V):
                                                       min                          Hybrid
                                                 120                                              Hybrid          • low storage ~ 1 kWh
                                                                                                   bus            • battery heavy <3 kWh
                                       1000        min Mild                            Strong                     • Storage: 20kW...60kW
                                                20    Hybrid +                         Hybrid                     • 20% to >50% FE
                                                          Comfort
                                                          Features                                                Plug-In Hybrid (300V)
                                        100            in
                                                2m                                                                (AER:all electric range)
                                                                 Mild Hybrid
                                                     c                                                            • 10...20kWh; 20  40mi
                                         10     20se                                                              • Storage: 50kW..100kW
                                                    Micro Hybrid
                                                     c
                                                10se
                                                                                                                  Full Hybrid Bus:
                                                                                                                  • 2...20kWh
                                          1                          10                          100       1000
                                                                                                                  • 80kW   200kW
                                                                          Electric Power in kW


Ultracapacitors                               Microelectronics   High-Voltage Capacitors                                        Slide 39
                                                                      Ultracapacitor Power Cells

   • Ultracapacitor cell design
            • Trends are for τ <1s and PML                                10 kW/kg




    C=       650                      1200                     1500             2000                  2600
    3000      F
    ESRac    = 0.6                     0.44              0.35            0.26                  0.21             0.20 mΩ
     τ=       0.39                    0.528              0.525                         0.520            0.546
                   0.60 s
    Irms   = 105                 110                     115             125                   130           150+ Arms



                  Micro-Hybrid                                 Industrial Applications                  Heavy Transportati



Ultracapacitors    Microelectronics     High-Voltage Capacitors                                                 Slide 40

								
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