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					Translation
             Samuel Butler:
Commonly mistakes the one and misinforms
               the other.
   Now the whole earth had one language and the same
    words, and as they migrated eastward, they came
    upon a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there.
    And they said to one another, “Come, let us make
    bricks, and burn them thoroughly.” And they had
    brick for stone, and bitumen for mortar. Then they
    said, “Come, let us build ourselves a city, and a
    tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make a
    name for ourselves; otherwise we shall be scattered
    abroad upon the face of the whole earth.” The lord
    came down to see the city and the tower, which
    mortals had belt.
   And the lord said, “Look they are one people, and
    they have all one language; and this is only the
    beginning of what they will do; nothing that they
    propose to do will now be impossible for them. Come,
    let us go down, and confuse their language there, so
    that they will not understand one another‟s speech.”
    so the Lord scattered them abroad from there over
    the face of all the earth, and they left off building the
    city. Therefore it was called Babel, because there the
    Lord confused the language of all the earth; and
    from there the Lord scattered them abroad over the
    face of all the earth. (Holy Bible, 1995:14)
Definitions of translation
   1. Translation is the expression in one
    language (or target language) of what has
    been expressed in another (source
    language).——Dubois
   2. Translating consists in reproducing in the
    receptor language the closest natural
    equivalent of the source language message,
    first in terms of meaning and secondly in
    terms of style.——Eugene Nida
             Definition of translation
Alexander Fraser Tytler:
   I would therefore describe a good translation to be, that, in which the
   merit of the original work is so completely transfused into another
   language, as to be as distinctly apprehended, and as strongly felt by a
   native of the country to which that language belongs, as it is by those
   who speak the language of the original work (1790).
Peter Newmark:
  Translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written
   message and / or statement in one language by the same message and /
   or statement in another language.
           翻译名义集自序
   法云(1088-1158):宋平江(今江苏苏州)景德寺僧
   夫翻译者,谓翻梵天之语转成汉地之言。音虽似别,义则大同。
    宋僧传云:如翻锦绣,背面俱华,但左右不同耳。译之言易也,
    谓以所有易其所无,故以此方之经而显彼土之法。周礼掌四方之
    语,各有其官。东方曰寄,南方曰象,西方曰狄鞮,北方曰译。
    今通西言而云译者,盖汉世多事北方,而译官兼善西语故。摩腾
    始至,而译《四十二章》,因称译也。

    《礼记.王制》:“中国,夷,蛮,戎,狄……五方之民,言语不
    通,嗜欲不同,达其志,通其欲:东方曰寄,南方曰象,西方曰
    狄鞮,北方曰译。”
译经:许渊冲

   Translation is possible,       译可译,
    It‟s not transliteration.       非常译;
   Neglect the original form,     忘其形,
    Get the original idea!         得其意。
   Getting the idea,             得意,
    You understand the original;   理解之始;
   Neglecting the form,           忘形,
    You express the idea.           表达之母。

   Be true to the idea,             故应得意,
     Common in two languages;           以求其同;
   Be free from the form,            故可忘形,
    Peculiar to the original!         以存其异。
   Idea and form are,               两者同出,
    Two sides of one thing.            异名同理。
   Getting the common idea,           得意忘形,
    Neglecting the original form!      求同存异。
   That‟s the way of translation.      翻译之道。
Principles of translation
   Yan Fu(严复): Truthfulness(信),
    expressiveness (达), elegance (雅)
   天演论译例言:信、达、雅。求其信已大难矣!
    顾信矣不达,虽译犹不译也,则达尚焉。
   《易》曰:“修辞立诚”。子曰:“辞达而
    已”。又曰:“言之无文,行之不远”。三者
    乃文章正轨,亦即为译事楷模。故信、达而外,
    求其尔雅。
Anlexander Fraser Tytler‟s
Principles
   1. The translation should give a
    complete transcript of the ideas of the
    original work.
   2. The style and manner of writing
    should be the same character with that
    of the original.
   3. The translation should have all the
    ease of the original composition.
Eugene Nida‟s functional
equivalence
   Translating consists in reproducing in
    the receptor language the closest
    natural equivalent of the source
    language message, first in terms of
    meaning and secondly in terms of style.
浮白主人说《笑林》,古人居然笑今人
一青盲人涉讼,自诉眼瞎。官曰:“一双青白眼,如何诈瞎?”答
曰:“老爷看小人是清白的,小人看老爷是糊涂的。”


   《礼记·学记》:
   “凡学之道,严师为难。师严然后道尊,道尊然后民知敬学。”
    About learning, the most difficult
    thing is to find strict teachers.
    Only when the teachers are strict,
    can the students appreciate the Tao.
    Only when the Tao is appreciated,
    can people respect learning.
望文生义是大忌,下笔从译须小心
   《中庸·天命章》:“天命之谓性,率性之谓道,修道
    之谓教。”
   (“性”,即人的本性,属上天所赋予;“道”,即
    按照本性行事之法;“教”,即修治其道的教化之
    举。)
   辜鸿鸣翻译如下:
   The ordinance of God is what we call the law of
    our being (性). To fulfill the law of our being
    is what we call the moral law ( 道). The moral
    law when reduced to a system is what we call
    religion (教).
   明人梦醒龙在《古今谭概•无术部第六》
    讲了这样一则笑话:
      魏博节度使韩简,性粗质,每对文士,
    不晓其说,心常耻之。乃召一士人讲
    《论语》,至《为政篇》。明日喜谓同
    官曰:“近方知:古人禀质瘦弱,年至
    三十,方能行立。”
蝴蝶采空三百园,译人空采园百三


   挣破庄周梦,两翅驾东风,三百座名园
    一采一个空。 谁道风流种,唬杀寻芳的
    蜜蜂。轻轻飞动,把买花人搧过桥东。
        ——元•王和卿《咏大蝴蝶》
第二讲:理解与比较
 似是而非,似非而是;
 译理定数,游若鬼神。

 瞬息之际,乾坤倒转;

 分寸之间,雄兵百万。
词似是,意却非
   一、语序之更与语意之变
   1. Anyhow, he works
      He works anyhow.
   2. We may as well take this.
      We may take this as well.
   3. She foolishly spoke.
      She spoke foolishly.
   4. Happily he did not die.
      He did not die happily.
二、东西悬隔,语意殊异
   1. I could do with more leisure (can
    do=be satisfied with)
   2. You must make good any loss.
   3. The apples are good and ripe. (good
    and=very)
   4. The smoke betrayed where the
    dwelling lay.
   5. Curses come home to roost.
   6. He was strong in his time (in one‟s
    time=when he was young).
   7. He is ignorant to a proverb.
   8. He identified himself with the masses.
   9. In China, his name was well known,
    if not a household word.
   10. You are not playing the game.
   11. The singer has her head turned.
   12. Somebody will have to break the ice.
   13. One observer believed Kissinger‟s genius
    was an ability to tell nine different stories to
    nine people, and keep them all straight.
   14. Truth lies in the bottom of the decanter.
   15. Better not be at all than not be noble.
        第八讲:转换词类 趣不乘本
Transfer parts of speech without changing meaning of the originial



                        英译为汉
                        理解领先
                        词类转换
                        随机应变
                        方法一般
                        技巧灵便
名词转换动词 表达更为坚实
   1. Wenli flared up at the sight of her husband
    walking with Li Tianjiao.
   2. His use of acupuncture, previously taboo
    throughout most of European countries, has
    improved the clinical therapeutic effect of apoplexy
    treatment.
   3. No violation of One-China principle can be
    tolerated.
   4. His insistence on her innocence arouses our
    attention.
   5. Liu Xiang has become the object of admiration for
    many people overnight.
动词转化名词 意义更为明晰
   1. Feeling pulse features the traditional
    system of treatment in China.
   2. I really don‟t know what motivates her to
    join this small party.
   3. Common cold is characterized by cough,
    fever, headache and running nose.
   4. What Shanghai man impresses me most is
    their clearness, industriousness and slickness.
   5. This remedy is marked by immediate effect,
    low cost and mild side effect.
介词转换动词 体现汉语异质
   1. We are surprised at what he has
    mentioned just now.
   2. We are for/against taking such an
    action.
   3. Very few people write with a brush
    now.
   4. Most people in China travel by train
       形容词转动词 语意明晰有力
   1. We are not sure whether doctors can save
    his life.
   2. The old man is content to stay in the
    country.
   3. Mice are quite alerted to danger.
   4. He walked out quietly, as he was afraid of
    disturbing others.
   5. We are very grateful to you for your help.
   6. He was jealous of his friend‟s success.
       形容词转副词 修饰搭配一致
   1. Doctors are making comprehensive
    study of this case.
   2. Policemen are conducting a careful
    investigation of this case.
   3. It was a clear and unemotional
    exposition of the President‟s reasons for
    willing to begin a Chinese-American
    dialogue.
副词转换动词 表达更为有力
   1. The negotiation is off.
   2. The light was still on when he left
    the classroom.
   3. The battle was still on when a great
    storm occurred.
   4. The roses are out.
   5. The tide is out.
名词转换形容词 语意刻画更细腻
   1. Chairman Mao was a great success in his
    career, but a total failure as a husband.
   2. It‟s of great importance for students
    majoring in English to learn Chinese well.
   3. To our great surprise, USSR disappeared
    overnight.
   4. It is of great significance to invigorate
    traditional Chinese studies.
地动山摇玉盘碎 撒向神州皆是泪
          A powerful earthquake
           struck Western China on
           Monday, toppling thousands
           of homes, factories and
           offices, trapping students in
           schools, and killing at least
           10,000 people,destroying
           80 percent of structures in
           some of the towns and small
           cities near its epicenter. Its
           tremors were felt as far
           away as Vietnam and set off
           another, smaller quake in
           the outskirts of Beijing, 900
           miles away.
房倒屋塌天地陷 霎时人间地狱变
           Landslides and
            power failures left
            much of the affected
            area cut off from the
            outside world and
            limited information
            about the damage.
废墟犹忆昨日梦 莘莘学子今何境
           The quake was the
            latest in a series of
            events that have
            disrupted China‟s
            planning for the
            Olympic Games in
            August, including
            widespread unrest
            among the country‟s
            ethnic Tibetan
            population.
总理亲临第一线 指挥健儿排万难
           The prime minister was later
            shown on national television
            standing outside the
            damaged edifice of the
            Traditional Medicine Hospital
            in the city of Dujiangyan,
            shouting encouragement at
            people trapped in its ruins.
            “Hang on a bit longer,” he
            said. “The troops are
            rescuing you. As long as
            there is the slightest hope,
            we will never relax our
            efforts.”
当年唐山大地震 至今记忆尚犹新
          The quake was already
           China‟s biggest natural
           disaster since another
           earthquake leveled the
           city of Tangshan in
           eastern China in 1976,
           leaving 240,000 people
           dead.
地震来临有前兆 动物似乎早知道
          Thousands of frogs
           are moving in May,7.
           Maybe sometimes
           animals know earlier
           than we human
           beings !
灾区学子夜读声 升起未来满天星
           Students read books
            for the upcoming
            senior high school
            entrance exams
            after an earthquake
            in Mianyang,
            Sichuan province
            May 12, 2008.
   It was a typical summer evening in June, the
    atmosphere being in such delicate equilibrium
    and so transmisive that inanimate objects
    seemed endowed with two or three senses, if
    not five. There was no distinction between
    the near and the far, and an auditor felt close
    to everything within the horizon. The
    soundlessness impressed her as a positive
    entity rather as the mere negation of noise. It
    was broken by the strumming of strings.
   这是六月里特有的一个夏日黄昏。暮色
    格外柔和静美且极富感染力,连那些冥
    顽之物都仿佛平添了几分灵性,有了各
    种知觉。远近一切,难分彼此;天际间
    任何一丝声息,听来都恍如近在耳畔。
    她觉得这静寂并非单纯的悄无声息,而
    是一种实实在在的感觉。不想这静寂,
    却被瑟瑟的琴声所打破。
   If China is trying to catch up with the rest of
    the world in the 20th century, maybe the 21st
    century will belong to them. They have
    people, brains and they can be impressively
    disciplined. And their industrial potential is
    awesome. It may come to be commonly
    accepted in the next century that the most
    significant speech ever given by a fellow with
    a cowboy hat came not from Ronald Reagan
    but from an 80-year-old Chinese man.
   如果中国在20世纪设法赶上其他国家,
    21世纪可能是属于他们的。他们有人力,
    有人才,有很强的纪律性。他们的工业
    潜力巨大。下一个世纪,人们将会发现,
    发表重要讲话的那位戴牛仔帽的人不是
    罗纳德.里根,而是一位年逾八旬德中国
    老人。
    2007年上海市高级口译汉英翻译题
   据说上海男人是最好的丈夫。他们总是知道如何讨妻
    子的欢心,从而避免了矛盾,一家人其乐溶溶。所以
    从某种程度上讲,上海男人是社会安静和谐的象征。
    当妻子快乐时,他也快乐,因而整个城市也充满了快
    乐气氛。
   虽然上海男人被戏谑为“妻管严”,但他并不屈服于
    妻子。在与妻子有争议时,他要么保持沉默,要么一
    笑了之。有时候他会发火,但事后不久,他也会毫不
    迟疑地道歉。最终他妻子发现,她还是按照他的想法
    行事。
   上海男人聪明务实,有时也相当圆滑。最令人印象深
    刻的是,上海男人在事业上有进取心,对家庭有很强
    的责任感,而且尊重女性。
   It is said that Shanghai men make the best husband. They always
    know how to gain favor with their wives; consequently conflicts
    between husband and wife are avoided, and the family lives a very
    happy and harmonious life. Therefore, to some extent, Shanghai men
    constitute the symbol of social stability and harmony. When his wife is
    happy, he is happy too. Thus the whole city is permeated with a happy
    atmosphere.
   Although Shanghai men are bantered as henpecked husbands. They do
    not submit to their wives. When a dispute arises, the husband either
    keeps silent or laughs it off. Occasionally, he may lose his temper, but
    shortly afterwards he will not hesitate to apologize. In the end his wife
    finds herself following his way.
   Shanghai men are clever, practical and sometimes rather slick. What
    impresses people most is that Shanghai men are imbued with an
    enterprising spirit in advancing his career, have a strong sense of
    responsibility for the family and respect the fair sex.
2007年上海市中级口译汉英翻译题
   中国坚定不移地走和平发展道路,是基于中国
    国情的必然选择。1840年鸦片战争以后的100
    多年里,中国受尽了列强的欺辱。消除战争,
    实现和平,建设独立富强、民生幸福的国家,
    是近代以来中国人民孜孜以求的奋斗目标。今
    天的中国虽然取得了巨大的发展成就,但人口
    多,底子薄,发展不平衡,仍然是世界上最大
    的发展中国家。推动经济社会发展,不断改善
    人民生活始终是中国的中心任务。中国人民最
    需要、最珍爱和平的国际环境,愿尽自己的所
    能,为推动各国共同发展作出积极贡献。
   It is an inevitable choice based on its national conditions that
    China unswervingly takes the road of peaceful development.
    During the 100-odd years following the Opium War in 1840,
    China suffered untold/utter/deep humiliation from the big
    powers. Ever since the advent of modern times, it has become
    the assiduously sought goal of the Chinese people to eliminate
    war, safeguard/maintain peace and build a country of
    independence and prosperity in which the people can lead a
    happy life. Although it has made enormous achievements in
    development, China, with a large population, a weak economic
    foundation and unbalanced development, is still the largest
    developing country in the world. It is the central task of China
    to promote economic and social development and improve its
    people‟s life. What the Chinese people need and cherish most is
    a peaceful international environment. We are willing to do our
    best to make energetic contributions for the common
    development of all countries.
      第四讲:增补词语 顺畅译文
         (教材第9章)

   中西言语不同,词序结构各异。翻译时
    为使译文通畅顺达,增补词语时有必须。
    根据译文需要,原文暗含之意,需要明
    确叙之;原文直白表述之意,译文可含
    蓄述之。诸如此类,不一而足。本章通
    过具体实例,揭示翻译中的增补之要。
       1、抽象名词 具体释义
   1. After all preparations were made,
    American-Korean dialogue was held in
    Beijing last week.
   2. This modern hospital is able to cope
    with various emergencies.
   3. The tensions between America and
    China was greatly improved after
    Nexion‟s visit to Beijing.
      补加修饰语 增强表达力
   1. She was small, pale and sandy-haired.
   2. These early automobiles were slow,
    clumsy, and inefficient.
   3. The girl took the news quite palely
    and calmly.
         介词之后,补增动词
   1. In the evening, after the banquets,
    the concerts, and the table tennis
    exhibitions…
   2. There were no speeches, no foreign
    diplomats…
暗含之意,从实而译
   1. It is the same old story of not being
    grateful for what we have until we lose
    it, of not being conscious of health until
    we are ill.
   2. What a idea/sight/day!
        增补词语,顺承逻辑
   1. New fathers should have at least two
    weeks paternity leave to help their
    wives recover from postnatal
    depression.
   2. The voter turnout was small and the
    margin tiny…
         背景说明 须加补充
   1. It was only when the economic
    bubble burst that they realized that
    they had been burying their heads in
    the sand for many years.
   2. The death of the Princess of Wales
    unleashed outpourings of newly coined
    honorifics.
          联想之意 化而译之
   1. The opposition leader‟s speech stole
    the headlines from the government.
   2. Now, I had to become a miser with
    words and stretch every sentence like a
    poor man spending his last dollar.
         动词之后 增补宾语
   1. She sent her out to attract and
    torment and do mischief, with the
    malicious assurance that she was
    beyond the reach of all admirers.
   2. He rode with her whenever she was
    free.
          数量之词 深化其喻
   1. They carried on the work in spite of
    the difficulties.
   2. The five rings represent the contents
    of Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and
    America.
      增加代词 完整语义
   1、保重。
   2、他总是将手插在口袋里。
   3、有问题,请举手。
   4、随手关灯。
           省略之词 从实补之
   1. He majors in English and I in French.
   2. Every man is a fool sometimes, and none
    at all times.
   3. A sound must be heard, a color seen, a
    flavor tasted, an odor inhaled.
   4. We will establish a government of, by and
    for the people.
   5. A few other creatures yield oil, but none so
    much as the whole.
      第五讲 词语省略、正反表达
       (教材第10、11部分)

   翻译中词语的省略问题,教材第10部分
    以详实的例子作了细致地说明。这些例
    子简单明了,希望同学们课后认真研读。
    这里仅就其中的个别例句加以分析,借
    以了解翻译中词语省略的理与法。
   1、We Chinese can understand this
    feeling.
   中国人能理解这种感情。
   2、我失骄杨君失柳。
   I lost my proud poplar, and you (lost)
    your willow.
   1、他翻译这本书是为了提高英语会平。
   2、只要一看地图,你就明白搞错了。
   3、如果时间许可,我将和你一起去。
   4、我给他开了一些治疗关节炎的药物。
   5、他不但给她敞开了家门,而且敞开了
    心扉。
                正反译说
   1. They have missed a crucial point.
   2. He disobeyed his mother.
   3. There has been serious disagreement
    between them.
   4. I answered without the slightest
    hesitation.
   5. Your question is beyond my
    knowledge.
   6. Do you deny your children any wish?
   7. You are to blame, and you have apologize
    to her.
   8. How shall we make for the school‟s
    shortcomings?
   9. During the whole of a dull, dark, and
    soundless day in the autumn of the year,
    when the clouds hung oppressively low in the
    heavens, I had been passing alone, on
    horseback, through a singularly dreary (沉闷)
    tract of country.
   10. Near-panic swept through the city,
    until rumors of down-town turmoil
    proved unfounded.
   11. Contaminated lunches are blamed
    for an outbreak of dysentery that left
    primary school pupils suffering from
    dangerous levels of dehydration.
   12. One should always live in the best
    company, whether it be of books or of men.
   13. It is stereotype, but none the less true.
   14. Don‟t lose time in sending for the doctor.
   15. With undivided attention, they cut the
    hay and mixed it up.
   16. The study shows an almost lockstep
    correlation between high cholesterol levels
    and heart disease.
           再举几例 加强记忆
   1. The product of her May-to-December marriage to
    Gary Grant ended in a stormy divorce.
   2. I made up my mind to write a life of my poor
    father.
   3. We are here today and gone tomorrow.
   4. My uncle remembered me on my birthday.
   5. This is a mere apology for soup.
   6. He lost a cool thousand of dollars.
   7. We cannot exaggerate its importance.
                   反说正表
   1. The spies were not going to lose sight of
    me.
   2. He has not a little experience in translation.
   3. He did not turn up until the class was over.
   4. Closed-door policy is now history in China.
   5. Out of sight, out of mind.
第六讲 语态转译(教材第12章)


 被动语态,汉语少见,英语常用。
 翻译之时,语态形式,常须转化。
          英语被动→汉语主动
      一、英译形式主语仍为汉语译文主语

1.   He could be freed on bail within
     months.
2.   The crater may have been caused by
     an asteroid crashing into the earth…
3.   The result slips will be issued to the
     test-takers tomorrow.
    二、英语形式主语→汉语译文宾语
   1. The stock market has been battered
    by investors.
   2. The sluggishness in the economy
    cannot be explained by cyclical factors.
   3. Documents on cooperation were
    signed between the two governments.
三、英语被动句→汉语判断句
   1. Science is discovered by a process of
    inquiry, observation and experiment.
   2. Some of the reports were written in
    verse.
   3. The letter had been posted last night.
四、英语被动→汉语无主句
   1. Therefore, effective measures must
    be taken to control the sales of
    medicine.
   2. No money is allocated for charity.
   3. Legislative pull is needed before the
    city‟s slums can be bulldozed (强行推
    平).
五、英语主动→汉语被动
   1. I almost froze to death.
   2. They received a very warm welcome.
   3. Stiff penalties loom for counterfeiters.
汉语主动→英语被动
   1、一种抗艾滋病新药已经研制出来。
   2、如果事情这样发展,我们过去所做的一切
    都将化为乌有。
   3、老师给学生讲授物理学基本原理,鼓励他
    们完善自己的设计。
   4、人们可以从许多方面了解中国的文化传统。
   5、一家人家生了一个男孩,合家高兴透顶了。
           立论——鲁迅
     我梦见自己正在小学校的讲堂上预备作文,向老师请教立论的方法。
     “难!”老师从眼睛圈外斜射出眼光来,看着我,说。“我告诉你一
    件事——
     “一家人家生了一个男孩,合家高兴透顶了。满月的时候,抱出来给客
    人看,——大概自然是想得一点好兆头。
     “一个说:‘这孩子将来要发财的。’他于是得到一番感谢。
     “一个说:‘这孩子将来要做官的。’他于是收回几句恭维。
     “一个说:‘这孩子将来是要死的。’他于是得到一顿大家合力的痛
    打。
     “说要死的必然,说富贵的许谎。但说谎的得好报,说必然的遭打。
    你……
      “我愿意既不谎人,也不遭打。那么,老师,我得怎么说呢?”
     “那么,你得说:‘啊呀!这孩子呵!你瞧!多么……。啊唷!哈哈!
    Hehe!he,hehehehe!”
    On Presenting a View(张培基译)
   I dreamed that while preparing to write a
    composition in a primary school classroom I asked
    the teacher how to present a view.
   “That‟s a hard nut,” said the teacher, giving me a
    sidelong glance over his glasses. “Let me tell you a
    story-”
   “When a baby boy is born to a family, there is
    immense joy in the whole household. When he is one
    month old, they invite some people over for taking a
    look at him-customarily, of course, in expectation of
    some good wishes.
   “One of the guests received hearty thanks for saying,
    „The child is destined to be rich.‟
   “Another is paid some compliments in return for
    saying, „The child is destined to be an official.‟
   “Still another, however, is given a sound beating by
    the whole family for saying, „The child will eventually
    die.‟
   “To call the child mortal is to state the inevitable
    while to say that the child will become very rich or a
    high official is probably a lie. Yet the former gets a
    thrashing while the latter is rewarded. You……”
   “I don‟t want to tell a lie, and neither do I want to be
    beaten. Then what should I do, sir?”
   “Well, just say, „Ai-ya, this child! Just look! Oh, my!
    Hah! Hehe! He, hehehe!”
                    生活
   所谓“生活”,简单地说,就是生下来就要活着,不想活你可就别生。
    可是生与不生,这由得了你么?
   中国人常说,“本人出生于某年某月某日”。“本人”真是了得,好像
    背着双手,迈着方步,逍遥自在地在后花园转悠了一圈,然后找个出口
    溜达了出来,“本人”来到这个世界似乎与生身之母全然没有了关系。
   这真是自大得可以。
   在这个问题上,欧洲人就被中国人实际得多。若他是1986年来到这个世
    界的,他则说I was born in 1986。翻译成中国话,则是“我是1986年被
    生出来的”。听起来似乎不如“我出生于1986年”顺耳,但却是大实话。
    对于中国人来说,讲大实话真是一个遥远的故事。
   欧洲人祝愿君主时说long live,就是活得长久一些。通过保健养生,延年
    益寿,long live是可能的,但却不能让你不死。这一点欧洲人很明白,所
    以他们不说“万寿无疆”,而说“活得长些”。
   中国人则截然不同,明知道“人生自古谁无死”,还偏要一本正经地高
    喊“万岁!万岁!万万岁!”。
   口是心非,大概就是这样的吧。
      汉语无主→英语被动
   1、必须加快经济体制改革。
   2、还没有决定采取哪个方案。
   3、应当坚定不移地贯彻执行一国两制的
    政策。
汉语泛指→英语被动
   1、大家认为他是比较合适的人选。
   2、有人看见他上课的时候溜出了教室。
   3、众所周知,台湾是中国不可分割的一
    部分。
   4、数千年前人们就发现,血液在人体是
    循环的。
      汉语被动→英语主动
   1、在乡下,老师的工资常常被拖欠
    (arrear)。
   2、海浪突然袭来,我被卷去好远。
   3、这个罪犯理应受到惩罚。
      第七讲 分译法概说
   所谓分译,即将原语中的一个较为复杂
    的句子翻译成目的语中两个或两个以上
    的句子,这样可以使译文结构简洁、语
    义清晰、意思明了。
一、英语单词→汉语分句
   1. The northern Koreans seem
    justifiably proud of their diplomatic
    achievements.
   2. He had long been held in cordial
    contempt by his peers; now that
    contempt was no longer cordial.
   3. He stalked away, but with a gnawing
    uncertainty in his breast.
   长期以来,同僚们(同事们)虽瞧他不起,却
    还友善。然而现在,友善不再,只有蔑视。
   Stalk: walk with slow stiff strides (大步、阔
    步), especially in a proud, self-important or
    threatening way.
   He walked angrily out of the room:他悻悻然
    踱出房间
   He walked along the road: 他在路上得意地踱
    着方步。
      二、英语短语→汉语句子
   1. As a secret training base for a
    revolutionary new plane, it was an
    excellent site, its remoteness effectively
    masking its activity.
   2. Their power increased with their
    number.
   3. Nixon arrived in Beijing at a ripe
    moment internationally.
   秘密训练全新机型,此地方位可谓绝佳。
    因其地处边陲,保密效果甚好。
英语从句→汉语单句或复句
   1. A man may usually be known by the books
    he reads as well as by the company he keeps:
    for there is a companionship of books as well
    as of men.
   2. On behalf of all your American guests, I
    wish to thank you for the incomparable
    hospitality for which the Chinese people are
    justly famous throughout the world.
   1、了解一个人,观其所读之书与所交之
    人即可。书有伴,人有朋。
   2、我谨代表所有的美国客人向你们表示
    感谢,你们的盛情款待世所罕见。中国
    人民以其热情好客而闻名于世,真是当
    之无愧。
         去掉可有可无的字词
   When Kunta got home with the massa well
    into one night a few months later, Bell was
    less irritated than concerned that they were
    both too tired even to eat the good supper
    she‟d prepared.
   几个月以后的一个晚上,昆塔和老爷于深夜才
    回到家里。贝尔看到他们两累得连她做好的美
    味晚餐都吃不下,心里的担心超过了气恼。
   几个月后的一个晚上,昆塔和老爷深夜
    回到家。看到两人累得都无力享用她做
    的美味晚餐,贝尔的担忧超过了气恼。
         附加成分→独立成句
   1. We seek to beat the life and soul out
    of Hitler and Hitlerism-that alone, that
    all the time, that to the end.
   我们竭力要给希特勒和希特勒主义以狠
    狠打击,置之于死地。这是我们惟一所
    求的,这是我们时时刻刻力求实现的,
    不达目的,绝不罢休。
   我们要竭力打击希特勒和希特勒主义,
    要打他个灵魂出窍。这是我们惟一的追
    求,始终的目标,永远的目的。
   But when the politician or the engineer refers
    to oil, he almost always means mineral oil,
    the oil that drives tanks, aeroplanes and
    warships, motor cars and diesel locamotives,
    the oil that is used to lubricate all kinds of
    machinery.
   可是当政治家或工程师谈到油的时候,他所指
    的几乎总是矿物油。这种油用来开坦克,开飞
    机,开军舰,开汽车,开柴油机车,可以用来
    润滑各种机械。
   可是当政治家或工程师谈到油的时候,
    他所指的几乎总是矿物油,即坦克、飞
    机、军舰、汽车、柴油机车所用之油及
    各种机械的润滑用油。
      分译法在汉译英中的应用
   1、他站起来腾出一把椅子请我坐下。
   (他站起来,腾出一把椅子,请我坐下。)
   He rose from a chair and offered it to me.
    Then he asked me to sit down.
   2、她又转身进屋,看见儿子仍站在那里伤心,
    心里感到内疚。
   She turned and went back into the room
    where her son was still standing and looking
    hurt. She felt guilty.
                   欣赏与练习
   Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
   By: Author Unknown
   Today is the tomorrow I worried about yesterday
   And today was such a lovely day,
   that I wondered why I worried about today yesterday
   So today I am not going to worry about tomorrow
   There may not be a tomorrow anyway
   So today I am going to live as if there is no tomorrow
   And I am going to forget about yesterday.
   Today is the tomorrow I planned for yesterday
   And nearly all my plans for today did not plan out the
   way I thought they would yesterday
   So today I am forgetting about tomorrow and I will
   plan for today
   But not too strenuously
   Today I will stop to smell a rose
   I will tell a loved one how much I love her
   I will stop planning for tomorrow and plan to make
   today the best day of my life.
   Today is the tomorrow I was afraid of yesterday
   And today was nothing to be afraid of
   So today I will banish fear of the unknown
   I will embrace the unknown as a learning experience
   full of exciting opportunities
   Today, unlike yesterday I will not fear tomorrow.
   Today is the tomorrow I dreamed about yesterday
   And some of the dreams I dreamt about yesterday
    came
   true today
   So today I am going to continue dreaming about
   tomorrow
   And perhaps more of the dreams I dream today will
    come
   true tomorrow.
   Today is the tomorrow I set goals for yesterday
   And I reached some of those goals today
   So today I am going to set slightly higher goals for
   today and tomorrow
   And if tomorrow turns out to be like today
   I will certainly reach all of my goals one day!
Love‟s Secret—William Blake (1757-1827),
英国诗人、版画家、水彩画家
   Never seek to tell thy love,
   Love that never told shall be;
   For the gentle wind does move
   Silently, invisibly.

   I told my love, I told my love,
   I told her all my heart,
   Trembling, cold, in ghastly fears.
   Ah! She did depart!

   Soon after she was gone from me,
   A traveler came by,
   Silently, invisibly:
   He took her with a sigh.
    第八讲 合并法在翻译中的应用
       (教材第14章)
   所谓合并法,就是将原文两个或两个以
    上的句子合并译为一个句子,从而使译
    文更加简洁、紧凑。
   1. The four men huddled there and said nothing.
    They dared not smoke. They would not move.
   2. My father is of middle height. He is stout and
    strong, with a severe look on his face and with keen
    expressive eyes.
   3. I wasn‟t an enemy, in fact or in feeling. I was an
    ally.
   4. Darkness fell. An explosion shook the earth. It did
    not shake his will to go to the front.
   5. The man was very miserable. He had no money.
    All his savings had been stolen.
英语主从复合句译成汉语单句
   1. If you apply for graduate degree in
    Shanghai Normal University, you should
    contact the University directly.
   2. If a student is on a scholarship, he or
    she may not have to pay HECS.
   3. If you have any problems, please
    come to the police.
两个英语主从复合句译成一个汉语复句
   1. When one is awake, he cannot fix his eyes
    or his attention constantly on a single object.
    He must blink, if nothing else.
   2. I never thought that I would eat a food
    that did not agree with me. Now I meet it
    whenever I have a meal.
   3. I am convinced that what we do to
    children, they will do to the world. It is
    important that we keep this constantly in our
    minds.
合译法在汉英翻译中的应用
   1、对长辈们不能没大没小的。祖父是一
    家之主,尤其要尊敬。
   2、我爱北京。我特别爱黎明前的北京。
   3、中国是一个发展中的沿海大国。中国
    高度重视海洋的开发和保护。
      第九讲:实践与练习
   1、她坚信她会克服一切困难。
   2、一提到考试,学生们就全神贯注起来。
   3、坚持一个中国的原则,是两岸对话的
    基础和前提。
   4、实施计划生育政策,关系到中国未来
    的发展。
   1. Round-the-clock service features this store.
   2. What motivates you to do such a thing?
   3. He impressed me as a man of great ability.
   4. The camel is characterized by the ability to
    go for long period without water.
   5. He was very grateful for the help you have
    given him.
   6. She closed the door quietly, as she was
    afraid of wakening others.
   1、我赞成这项计划。
   2、中国反对制裁伊朗。
   3、你老了也得拄着拐杖走路。
   4、她甘愿留在乡下。
   5、动物常常对危险很警惕。
   6、我们无法肯定是否能挽救她的生命。
   1、使用核武器,违背国际法。
   2、不要满足现有成就,要继续努力,取
    得更大成绩。
   3、我们高度重视与发展中国家的友好关
    系。
   4、完成这一重大科研项目是很有意义的。
   5、她容貌美丽,吸引很多人的注意。
        品品小诗 换换口味
To see the world in a grain of sand
William Blake (1757-1827)
To see the world in a grain of sand,
  And a heaven in a wild flower;
Hold infinity in the palm of your hand,
  And eternity in an hour.
I‟m Nobody! Who are you?
Emily Dickinson (1830-1886)
I‟m Nobody! Who are you?
Are you-Nobody-too?
Then there‟s a pair of us!
Don‟t tell! They‟d banish us-you know!

How dreary-to be-Somebody!
How public-like a Frog-
To tell your name-the livelong June-
To an admiring Bog!
“在牡丹亭边,常山红娘子,貌若天仙,巧遇推车郎于芍药亭畔,在牡丹花
下一见钟情,托金银花牵线,白头翁为媒,路路通畅,择八月兰开吉日成婚,
设芙蓉帐,结并蒂莲,合欢久之,成大腹皮矣,生大力子,有远志,持大戟,
平木贼,诛草寇,破刘寄奴,有十大功劳,当归朝,封大将军之职。”


   Beside the Peony Pavilion lived a young lady in red who came from
    Changshan Mountain and looked as beautiful as a goddess. Quite by
    accident she met a young man who was pushing a carte nearby the Peony
    Pavilion. At first sight in the shadow of the peony tree, they fell in
    love with each other. Pleading the Gold and Silver Flowers to transmit
    messages for them and begging an old man to act as go-between for them,
    they arranged everything smoothly and decided to hold their wedding in
    an auspicious day in August during which the orchid began to blossom.
    After marriage, they lived in a room with hibiscus curtain like twin
    lotus flowers on one stalk. Living happily together for a period of
    time, the lady got pregnant and gave birth to a baby of unusual
    strength who had lofty aspirations. When growing up, he fought with a
    big halberd, putting down a rebellion in the forest, wiping out a group
    of roving bandits, defeating Emperor Liu Jinu and thus rendering ten
    outstanding services. On returning after victory, he was granted the
    title of Great General.
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      谢谢

				
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