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Language Arts and Social Studies Curriculum for High-Ability Learners

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Language Arts and Social Studies Curriculum for High-Ability Learners Powered By Docstoc
					William and Mary Language
Arts Units


         Tamra L. Stambaugh, Ph.D.
             Vanderbilt University
       Tamra.stambaugh@vanderbilt.edu

                Center for Gifted Education
              The College of William and Mary
Who Are Advanced Readers?
   What common characteristics do
    advanced readers in your classroom
    share?
    Advanced Reader Goals
>   To develop analytical and interpretive skills in
    literature
>   To develop persuasive writing skills
>   To develop linguistic competency
>   To develop listening/oral communication skills
>   To develop reasoning skills in LA
>   To understand the concept of change or other
    generalizations in the LA area
Developing
Advanced Reading Skills

         Advanced Content



    Products/
    Processes    Major Concepts/
                 Generalizations



                             VanTassel-Baska, 1986
    Models
   Concept/Generalization
       Concept Development Model – Big Ideas in
        Literature
   Process/Product – Advanced Organizers
       Literature Web – Analyze Literature
       Bookmarks and Guided Reading - Reasoning
       Vocabulary Web – Define and Understand Words
       Persuasive Writing Models – Write Convincing
        Arguments
   Navigators Novel Studies – Reading and
    Independent Study (Advanced Content)
Concept Development
Cite examples.
Categorize.

Cite non-examples.

Generalize.
Change Generalizations
   Change is linked to time
   Change is positive or negative
   Change is can be natural or man made
   Change is everywhere
   Change may be perceived as orderly or
    random
Change Generalizations and
Outcomes
Generalizations:                 Outcomes:

Change is linked to time.        Illustrate the variability of change
                                 based on time.
Change is everywhere.            Understand that change permeates
                                 our lives and our universe.
Change may be positive or        Interpret change in selected works
negative.                        as progressive or regressive.
Change may be perceived as  Categorize types of change, given
orderly or random.          several examples.
                            Demonstrate the change process at
                            work in a piece of literature.
Change may happen naturally Analyze social and individual
or be caused by people.     change in a given piece of literature.
   Other Concepts Used in
   Literature
  Change        Life and Death         Scale

 Constancy         Conflict      Signs and Symbols

  Evolution        Origins           Systems

   Family          Patterns            Time

Good and Evil    Patterns of           Truth
                  Change
 Knowledge         Power             Wisdom
           Change Matrix
Literature Changes in Changes in Changes in      Change in
           characters setting    relationships   you as a
                                                 result of
                                                 reading
“Shells”

The Green
Book
Poems

“The Ugly
Duckling”
Bringing
the Rain
to Kapiti
Plain
Your own
story
  Change
  Write or draw pictures to show examples of change.

A change that happens fast   A change that takes a long time


A good change                A bad change


A neat change                A messy change


A change caused by people    A change caused by nature
Sample Summative Writing
Assignment
 Think about how the literature pieces you have
 read have reflected the five generalizations about
 change. Select a generalization that seemed
 especially true to you in the unit readings. Write
 a persuasive essay arguing that the
 generalization is true, using specific examples
 from the literature you have read to support your
 points. Explain your reasons thoroughly, and
 write a conclusion to end your essay.
Reading Web
Key Words
                           Feelings




            READING



  Ideas                 Images/Symbols


            Structure
    Reading Web
   Key Words: What were some words and phrases that were
    especially interesting or important? What words were new to
    you?
   Feelings: What feelings did you get reading the passage?
    What feelings did the characters have? How were those
    feelings expressed?
   Ideas: What was the main idea? What other major ideas and
    concepts were important? What was the author trying to say
    about those ideas?
   Images/Symbols: How did the author use description and
    imagery in the novel? What sensory images came to your
    mind? How did the author use symbols?
   Structure: What type of writing was this? What literary and
    style elements did the author use? How did the structure of
    the writing contribute to the meaning of the novel?
.

Grandmother Moon
                                Only if you look
                                 will you find.
   Each day is a journey,       Only if you leave
    a leaving home,              will you arrive.
    over paths that wind         One step,
                                 then another,
    between rocks and bog.
                                 as day unrolls itself
    Behind each rock             along the road toward
    is a shadow;                 night.
    behind each shadow,          And at evening,
    a flower,                    look who welcomes us
    or a wellspring,             Grandmother Moon,
    or a trembling rabbit,       waiting in the doorway,
    or an unfolding fern         the stars in her hands –
                                 to lead us safely home.
                                            Jane Yolen
Literature Web
Key Words                   Feelings




             READING


                         Images/Symbols
  Ideas


             Structure
    Literature Web
   Key Words: What were some words and phrases in the novel
    that were especially interesting or important? What words
    were new to you?
   Feelings: What feelings did you get reading this novel? What
    feelings did the characters have? How were those feelings
    expressed?
   Ideas: What was the main idea of the novel? What other
    major ideas and concepts were important? What was the
    author trying to say about those ideas?
   Images/Symbols: How did the author use description and
    imagery in the novel? What sensory images came to your
    mind? How did the author use symbols?
   Structure: What type of writing was this? What literary and
    style elements did the author use? How did the structure of
    the writing contribute to the meaning of the novel?
Building Textual
Understanding
Underlying Assumption: Discourse that promotes
  understanding needs direction, focus, and movement
  towards goal.
 Marking (focusing)

 Revoicing (repeating student ideas)

 Turning back (textual or student-based)

 Recapping (synthesizing)

 Modeling (thinking aloud)

 Annotating (providing information)

                                Beck & McKeown, 1996
Sample Follow-Up Questions
   That’s interesting.. Does anyone have a
    different idea?
   I agree with ---- because…
   I disagree with --- because..
   I thought the passage…. was….
    because
   My idea was different or the same as…
   I think… because in the story it says…
Using the Literature Web
 Provide self reflection time
 Provide discussion time

 Discuss as an entire group

 Process is critical to learning
Elements of Reasoning
               Purpose/         Point of
                Goal             View



   Evidence/                               Assumptions
     Data
                       Issue/
                      Problem

                                       Concepts/
      Inferences
                                         Ideas


                     Implications/
                    Consequences
                                                   -- Paul, 1992
                                                                         Reasoning in Literature
                                                                          Adapt to Grade Level



                           Purpose/Goal                                           Point of View

                What is the purpose of the poem or                    What point of view is the poem or
                story? Why do you think this?                         story from? Explain why you think
                                                                      this is so?




                                                                                                       Evidence/Data
   Implications/Consequences
                                                                                           What evidence is presented that the
 What are the implications of                                                              central character is motivated by a
 character behavior at certain                                                             given emotion? How does the evidence
 points in the story? Cite                              Issue/Problem                      or data contribute to the central issue of
 examples that will support your                                                           the poem or story?
 answers.                                              What is the central
                                                       issue of the poem
                                                           or story?




            Inferences                                                                            Concepts/Ideas

What inferences might be made                                                          What concepts are central to
about the ending of the poem or                                                        understanding the story? What do we
story based on specific events?                                                        understand about these concepts? For
                                                                                       example, what generalizations about
                                                                                       the concept of change can be made
                                                                                       about the poem or story?
                                                      Assumptions

                                           What assumptions does the author
                                           make about the concept of change?
                                           What in the poem or story led you to
                                           your answer?
Elements of Reasoning
               Purpose/         Point of
                Goal             View



   Evidence/                               Assumptions
     Data
                       Issue/
                      Problem

                                       Concepts/
      Inferences
                                         Ideas


                     Implications/
                    Consequences
                                                   -- Paul, 1992
      Developing Questions
   What is the issue or problem the character is facing and
    what inferences can you make about the character
    based on how the problem is handled?
   How is the concept of wisdom important in the story?
   What are the implications of the character’s actions and
    how do those link to the theme of the story?
   What assumptions might we make about the story from
    the title and opening?
   What might you infer about the character from the
    description the author uses?
   How does point of view affect the story plot?
   What do you think is meant by the quote “….”?
   How does setting impact the overall theme of chapter 6?
Hamburger Model for Persuasive Writing
(primary)
           Introduction (State an opinion.)




  Reason                                      Reason
                     Reason




                   Conclusion
Hamburger Model for Persuasive Writing

                     Introduction
                  (State an opinion.)

              Elaboration       Elaboration       Elaboration


       Reason               Reason            Reason

Elaboration       Elaboration     Elaboration


                       Conclusion
Dagwood Model

                  Claim/Opinion/Introduction
        Details                                   Details
                             Background

                    Reason           Other Points of View
   Elaboration                                         Elaboration

                    Reason           Other Points of View
   Elaboration                                         Elaboration

                    Reason           Other Points of View
   Elaboration                                          Elaboration


                        Conclusion
Question
   Do you think_________ should be
    required reading at your grade level?
Pre-Assessment
   Persuasive Writing Pre-Assessment
   Student A, Grade 3
    Yes, because a lot of people will
    understand it and it was a good story.
    No, because some people might think I
    do not want to read this story.
Post-Assessment
   Persuasive Writing Post-Assessment
   Student A, Grade 3
        Yes, I do think every kid in this grade
    should read The Miser. Because it might
    teach some kids to use what they have and
    not waste things. It would also tell kids to
    not attract other people. I would also tell
    children that you should think before you do
    something.
        This story will help children in the third
    grade.
Pre-Assessment
   Persuasive Writing Pre-Assessment
   Student B, Grade 3
       Yes, I think the story The Wolf and the
    Lion should be required reading for all the
    students. Why? It’s a great story with a very
    interesting topic. They could also learn from
    the story. Also they could get lots of
    interesting questions. That’s why I think 3rd
    grade students should read The Wolf and the
    Lion.
Post-Assessment
   Persuasive Writing Post-Assessment
   Student B, Grade 3
           Yes, I think all the students in 3rd grade should read this book.
    It’s such an excellent moral.
           One reason I think everyone in third grade should read The Miser
    is because it does teach a good lesson. It could help them learn that
    things they never use are worthless.
           Another reason I think all the students in third grade should read
    this story is they use great, funny words. It basicly is a funny story.
    One of the parts I likes was “He pulled his hair out (not really). It
    would make our writing better.
           Also, the students should read this because it’s similar to a true
    story. If you have a good, healthy body and you never use it, the
    muscles will be very weak, and you’ll miss out on a lot of things.
           As you see, it’s a good moral for all the students in third grade.
    They could learn great details for their own stories, and they can
    compare it with a true happening like this story. It’s a great story.
Capital Punishment
     In recent years, capital punishment has been invoked
      in many states. I believe that it should be abolished
      because it is immoral, ineffective as a deterrent to
      crime, and subject to risky decision-making.
     First, two wrongs don’t make a right. To kill
      someone convicted of murder contradicts the
      reasoning behind the law that taking another’s life is
      wrong. The Bible tells us that killing is wrong in the
      Commandment “Thou shalt not kill.” In capital
      punishment, the state is committing the same violent
      act that it is condemning.
   Second, the death penalty is not as effective as a
    deterrent to the crime as some people want it to be.
    Many studies show that murderers do not think about
    the consequence of their actions when they commit
    the crime; they show that murder is usually a result
    of complex sociological and psychological problems
    that make the murderer act out of need for
    immediate gratification.
   The third and most serious object is that the death is
    final and cannot be altered. Errors in deciding guilt
    or innocence will always be present in our system of
    trial by jury. There is too great a risk that innocent
    people will be put to death. If even one person is
    put to death by mistake, it would be too many.
   Putting murderers in prison for life seems the best
    alternative for those who commit murder. It keeps
    dangerous people away from society while it avoids
    the problems of making an irrevocable mistake and
    of having to decide “life and death.” Too much is at
    stake here to continue the practice of capital
    punishment.

    Rubric
    Persuasive Writing Scoring Rubric

   Claim or Opinion:
   0         No clear position exists on the writer’s assertion, preference, or view, and context does not help to clarify it.
   2         Yes/no alone or writer’s position is poorly formulated, but reader is reasonably sure what the paper is about based on
              context.
   4         meets expectations: A clear topic sentence exists, and the reader is reasonably sure what the paper is about based
               on the strength of the topic sentence alone.
   6         exceeds expectations: A very clear, concise position is given and position is elaborated with reference to reasons;
               multiple sentences are used to form the claim. Must include details that explain the context.

   Data or Supporting Points
   0         No reasons are offered that are relevant to the claim.
   2         One or two weak reasons are offered; the reasons are relevant to the claim.
   4         At least two strong reasons are offered that are relevant to the claim.
   6         meets expectations: At least three reasons are offered that are relevant to the claim.
   8         exceeds expectations: At least three reasons are offered that are also accurate, convincing, and distinct.

   Elaboration
   0         No elaboration is provided.
   2         An attempt is made to elaborate at least one reason.
   4         More than one reason is supported with relevant details.
   6         meets expectations: Each reason (3) is supported with relevant information that is clearly connected to the claim.
   8         exceeds expectations: The writer explains all reasons in a very effective, convincing, multi-paragraph structure.

   Conclusion
   0         No conclusion/closing sentence is provided.
   2         A conclusion/closing sentence is provided.
   4         meets expectations: A conclusion is provided that revisits the main ideas.
   6         exceeds expectations: A strong concluding paragraph is provided that revisits and summarizes main ideas.
Assessment for Persuasive Writing
   Writing assessment follows literature assessment and
    discussion of selection.

   Prompt asks students to argue for or against
    requiring the literature selection to be read.

   Rubric rates claim (0-6 points), data (0-8 points),
    warrant/elaboration (0-8 points), and conclusion (0-6
    points) for total possible score of 28 (based on
    Burkhalter, 1995).
What do you think?
   Kids should say “no” to drugs for a lot of important
    reasons. First, drugs are dangerous to the person
    who takes the drug and to others. If you take drugs,
    you might get really sick or even die. Plus, you
    might hurt somebody else while you’re on drugs and
    not even know it. Another reason is that drugs are
    expensive. Once you start buying drugs and us up
    all your money, you might even start stealing to get
    money to buy more drugs. My last reason is that
    once you start taking drugs, you might not be able to
    stop even if you want to. These are all the good
    reasons why kids should say “No” to drugs.
       From Autobiographies (Wm. & Mary Unit)
Guiding Persuasive Writing
   Share models or examples that highlight
    positive aspects of writing or missing
    elements
   Use color to mark varied parts of the writing,
    outlining key components
   Discuss areas for improvement within the
    examples
   Use the rubric as a class to assess models
Vocabulary Web
                                                         Synonyms:

      Source (sentence
      where you saw the
      word):
                                           Definition:




                            WORD:
                                                         Antonyms:



Example:                                                               Part of
                                                                      Speech:
                                                  Analysis


                          Word Families:                             Stems:


                                                     Origin:
                               AUTOBIOGRAPHY
   “Autobiographia Literaria means literary autobiography, the story of a
    writer’s life.” Koch, Talking to the Sun: An Illustrated Anthology of
    Poems for Young People.
   autobiography n., pl. –phies. The biography of a person written
    by that person. – autobiographer n. – autobiographic,
    autobiographical adj. – autobiographically adv.
   auto – or aut – pref. 1. Self; same: autogamy. 2. Automatic: autopilot.
    [Greek, from autos, self.]
   bio– or bi – pref. 1. Life: living organism: biome. 2. Biology; biological:
    biophysics. [Greek, from bios, life.]
   biography n., pl. –phies. Abbr. biog. 1. An account of a person’s
    life written, composed, or produced by another: a film biography of
    Adlai Stevenson, an oral biography. 2. Biographies considered as a
    group, especially when regarded as a genre. 3. The writing,
    composition, or production of biographies: a career entirely devoted to
    biography. [Late Greek biographia: Greek bio-, bio- + Greek –graphia, -
    graphy.]
   –graphy suff. 1. A writing or representation produced in a specified
    manner or by a specified process: photography. 2.a. A writing about a
    specific subject: oceanography. b. A representation of a specified
    object: phonography. [Latin –graphia, from Greek, from graphein, to
    write.]
   The American Heritage Dictionary, Third Edition.
                                             JOURNEY
   “Each day is a journey, a leaving home, over paths that wind between
    rocks and bog.” J. Yolen
   journey n., pl. –neys. 1a. The act of traveling from one place to
    another; a trip. b. A distance to be traveled or the time required for a
    trip: a 2000 mile journey to the Pacific; the three-day home. 2. A
    process or course likened to traveling; a passage: the journey of life.
    v. –neyed, -neying, -neys – intr. To make a journey, travel. – tr.
    To travel over or through. [Middle English journei, day, day’s travel,
    journey, from Old French jornee, from Vulgar Latin diurnata, from Late
    Latin diurnum, day]
   The American Heritage Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
   1journey   n, pl. journeys (13c) : 1 : travel or passage from one place to another: trip 2 : something
    suggesting travel or passage from one place to another <the ~ from youth to maturity> <a ~ through
    time>
   2journey vb. journeyed; journeying (14c) : to go on a journey: travel; to travel over or through –

    journeyer n
   journal n (15c) : 1 a : a record of current transactions; esp. a book of original entry in double-entry
    bookkeeping b : an account of day-to-day events         c : a record of experiences, ideas, or reflections kept
    regularly for private use   d : a record of transactions kept by a deliberative or legislative body     e : log
    2 a : a daily newspaper      b : a periodical dealing esp. with matters of current interest
   journalism n (1833)
   journalistic adj (1829)
   journalist n (1693)
   sojourn n. (13c), v. (14c)
   journeyman n (15c)
   soup du jour n. (ca. 1945)
   diary n. (1581)
   Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed.
                                       REFLECTION
   reflect v., tr.
   1.    To throw or bend back (light, for example) from a surface.
   2.    To give back or show an image of (an object); mirror.
   3.    To make apparent; express or manifest: Her work reflects intelligence.
   4.    To bring as a consequence: The victory reflects credit on the coach.
   5.    Archaic. To bend back.

    v. intr.
   1.      To be bent or thrown back: Her voice reflected off the canyon walls.
   2.      To give something back, as light or sound: a shiny surface that reflects
    well.
   a.   To give evidence of the characteristics or qualities of someone or
    something: That student's performance reflects well on the whole school.
   b.  To bring blame or discredit: Hasty preparation of the report will reflect on
    you.
   c.      To think seriously.
   d.      To express carefully considered thoughts: In the essay, he reflects on his
    career.
   [Middle English reflecten, from Old French reflecter, from Latin
    reflectere, to bend back : re-, re- + flectere, to bend.]
   The American Heritage Dictionary, Fourth Edition
                                             ***
Characteristics of an Issue for
Research
   Real world
   Multiple points of view
   Researchable and substantial
    information available
   Worthy topic and personal involvement
   Linked to Reasoning Model
Issue Versus Topic
   Topic                Issue
       Elephants            Should elephants be
                              hunted for their tusks?
                              Should people be
        Vegetarians
                          
    
                              vegetarian?
                             Should the US troops
       War in Iraq           withdraw or remain in
                              Iraq?
                              Should the government
       Smoking           

                              be allowed to create laws
                              to ban smoking in
                              restaurants?
“For me, the fundamental mandate of school
reform is to examine every decision, practice,
and policy, and ask the question:
 What, if anything, is anyone learning
        as a consequence of this?
Whether we are called teachers, principals, or
parents, our primary responsibility is to
promote learning in others and in ourselves.
That is what it means to be an educator.
                                --Roland Barth

				
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