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Socio-Economic Indicators and Housing Delivery in South Africa

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Socio-Economic Indicators and Housing Delivery in South Africa Powered By Docstoc
					Presentation to the Annual Public Management
              Conversation 2005
                 Trevor Fowler
                The Presidency
      Governance System for South Africa

   National




9 Provinces



  LOCAL
GOVERNMENT
•   Brian Levy and Sarh Kpundeh, in their book on “Building State Capacity in Africa” clearly indicate that
    building the capacity of African states is at the top of the agenda for the agenda of the continent.

•   Reducing poverty and forging productive partnerships with donors, investors and academic institutions
    depends on strong public capacity:
                      » To formulate policies
                      » To build consensus
                      » To implement reforms
                      » To monitor results, learn lessons and
                      » adapt accordingly.

•   It is important to note ahead of time that learning how to build democracy and develop country capacity is
    an ongoing and very complex process and a formidable challenge.

•   It is important to note ahead of time that learning how to develop a country capacity is an ongoing and
    very complex process and a formidable challenge.

•   The book on Building State Capacity in Africa has drawn from a number of experiences of public sector
    reform implementation in more that a dozen of African countries to address topics such as the
    relationship between governance and economic development, public expenditure and accountability,
    anticorruption reform, decentralization, political structures and delivery of public services.
•   Dele Olowu and Soulana Sako have concluded in their book on better governance and public policy that
    governance is now an important term in developing policy discourse, yet its relationship to development, as
    institutional reforms and public policy process, or even its definition remain ambiguous.

•   In the recent years, a number of African States INCLUDING South Africa have launched new style
    programmes to strengthen the public sector. These efforts were trying to address the following issues:

           •   How   can   the   country be innovative in the reform process?
           •   How   can   the   country harness the energies of local elites?
           •   How   can   the   country learn from the past reforms?
           •   How   can   the   country harness the political will as a partner in the reform process?

•   Governance issues can be discussed in relation to different political systems that exist including the
    democratic governance system that South Africa is in. The premise of a paper written by Anders Hanberger is
    that, since governance and democracy are changing phenomena, evaluation and frequent reviews should be
    embedded in their structures. Governance, democracy and evaluation are therefore interdependent
    phenomena which affect one another in different ways.

           •   For South Africa, it is highly important to forge partnerships with the intellectuals, researchers, academia and other
               learning networks to deal with the ambiguity of governance and its contribution to the development agenda of this
               country.

           •   There is a need for a comprehensive development plan for the country, learning from countries that have gone this
               route e.g Ireland (small as it is). Development plans for countries should underpin the attainment of a goal to grow
               the economy and eradicate poverty in 2014.

           •   Its aim should encompass building on the unprecedented economic progress that South Africa has made in the
               recent years and to strengthen the foundations for further strong And sustainable progress.

           •   Central to the development plan for this country should be implementation of public policies which will increase the
               capacity of South African economy to maintain strong and sustainable output as well as employment growth.
• Governance issues can be discussed in relation to different political systems
  that exist including the democratic governance system that South Africa is
  in. The premise of a paper written by Anders Hanberger is that, since
  governance and democracy are changing phenomena, evaluation and
  frequent reviews should be embedded in their structures. Governance,
  democracy and evaluation are therefore interdependent phenomena which
  affect one another in different ways.
   – For South Africa, it is highly important to forge partnerships with the
      intellectuals, researchers, academia and other learning networks to deal
      with the ambiguity of governance and its contribution to the
      development agenda of this country.
   – There is a need for a comprehensive development plan for the country,
      learning from countries that have gone this route e.g Ireland (small as it
      is). Development plans for countries should underpin the attainment of a
      goal to grow the economy and eradicate poverty in 2014.
   – Its aim should encompass building on the unprecedented economic
      progress that South Africa has made in the recent years and to
      strengthen the foundations for further strong And sustainable progress.
   – Central to the development plan for this country should be
      implementation of public policies which will increase the capacity of
      South African economy to maintain strong and sustainable output as well
      as employment growth.
•   Democracy presented government with twin challenges:
     – institutional transformation and the introduction of new policies in line with the
        democratic Constitution

     – dealing with the legacy of Apartheid in South Africa while integrating the country
       in a rapidly changing global environment.

•   From 1994, the State has set out to dismantle Apartheid social relations and create a
    democratic society based on equity, non-racialism and non-sexism. New policies and
    programmes have been put in place to dramatically improve the quality of life of all
    the people. This process, defined in the Reconstruction and Development
    Programme (RDP), has been elaborated in all post-1994 policies. The RDP identifies
    the following key objectives:
                   » meeting basic needs
                   » building the economy
                   » democratising the State and society
                   » developing human resources
                   » nation-building.
•   The RDP objectives were elaborated to include more specific priorities of different clusters and departments.

•    In 2003, government conducted the Towards a Ten Year Review to see how it had met these objectives
    through the work of its five clusters, and to assess the challenges of the Second Decade of Freedom.

•   The first years of democracy saw a new constitutional and legislative framework introduced. The Constitution
    was adopted in 1996 and an average of 90 Acts of new legislation was introduced per year in the first 10
    years.
•   New global standards of governance are emerging, these include governments reforms and performance
    areas. Citizens of developing countries are demanding better performance on the part of their governments,
    and they are increasingly aware of the costs of poor management, corruption and lack of delivery in certain
    areas. South Africa is no exception.
•   A compendium of development indicators was listed as one of the result areas for the proposal on
    Government wide monitoring and evaluation to measure the performance of the South African government
    both in the medium and long term.
     – These developments have led to new interest in measuring the
         performance of government, using indicators for:

                        (i) Governance & institutional quality;
                       (ii) Social development and poverty alleviation;
                       (iii) Economic development and growth Indicators;
                       (iv) Justice, Peace & Security;
                       (v) International Relations

                       These indicators are deemed most appropriate to South Africa’s particular purpose and will be refined
                          over time.
•    Participatory Democracy with a constitutional imperative to create a non-
    racial, non-sexist united and democratic society

• Good Political Governance is based on Accountability, Transparency and
  development that redresses the wrongs of the past – inequality, poverty

• Minister Moleketi gave some attributes of governance as follows:
     – Increasing agreement that the challenge of the new millenium is to increase the
       levels of public involvement in governance… it improves planning,
       implementation etc.
     – Capacity of “The Governed” to contribute is contingent on many factors
     – Ability of those “Governing” to listen and change is also dependent on many
       factors including culture and history

• The following slides are quick review of efforts to create effective, efficient
  and clean government.
• The integration of Bantustan and central government civil services into an
  integrated public service has been a great success. Plans to create an
  integrated public service including local government are underway.

• Integration increased the number of personnel and expenditure and resulted
  in the implementation of Resolution 7 of the Public Service Co-ordinating
  Bargaining Council Agreement to address the restructuring of the Public
  Service.

• The Public Service has also come close to meeting its targets of
  representivity – previously disadvantaged people, mainly Africans, were
  estimated at 72% of the Public Service by the end of the first decade.

• The introduction of a Senior Management Service improved conditions with
  the aim of retaining and attracting skilled personnel in the Public Service.
  There is more stability in the top echelons although a general lack of
  technically skilled personnel at all levels is a matter of concern. This is
  particularly acute in provincial and local government. Career-pathing,
  especially at the highest levels of the Public Service, is not yet fully
  developed.
• In the 11 years of democracy, government has established public entities to
  allow flexibility in conditions of service, to retain income from revenue
  raised, to expedite systems such as procurement, to ensure operational
  autonomy and to implement commercial principles and practices. They
  receive considerable State funding and employ more than 288 983 people.
  The challenges facing them, which government is addressing, relate to
  performance, corporate governance and in some cases orientation to the
  Government’s overall development objectives.

• According to the latest figures, 11 April 2005, there are 280
  registered public entities. This figure can be broken down as
  follows (using the classification in the PFMA):
          – Major public entities: 18
          – National public entities: 138
          – National government business enterprises: 30
          – Provincial public entities: 81
          – Provincial government business enterprises: 13
          – Total: 280
• Please note that this figure excludes constitutional institutions of which
  there are 9 and which are not regarded as public entities. It also excludes
  any subsidiary entity or entity under the ownership control of any other
  entity.

• Introduction of the Public Finance Management Act (PFMA) in 1999
  improved accountability in government and to Parliament. Implementation
  of the PFMA and the change to a medium-term budget cycle has improved
  budgeting as well as national and provincial financial management.
   – The challenge remains to include local government within government’s
      budgeting and planning cycles.

• The national planning framework is a government tool that is meant to
  ensure that the strategic priorities of government are held in view by all the
  three spheres and public entities.

• The Review of the national planning framework was completed recently and
  presented to Cabinet Lekgotla in July 2005. PCAS is in the process of
  updating the national planning framework and will communicate the
  documents to all the three spheres of government in 2006.
• The national planning framework is a government tool that is meant to
  ensure that the strategic priorities of government are held in view by all the
  three spheres and public entities.

• The Review of the national planning framework was completed recently and
  presented to Cabinet Lekgotla in July 2005. PCAS is in the process of
  updating the national planning framework and will communicate the
  documents to all the three spheres of government in 2006. The reviewed
  national planning framework gives clarity to the alignment of fiscal, strategic
  and political cycles of government as indicated below.

• Minister Mabandla raised issues relating to constitutional democracy, human
  rights, separation of powers, the legislature, anti-corruption measures,
  protection of the rights of women, and vulnerable groups.
• The National Spatial Development Perspective (NSDP) was developed to
  facilitate dialogue between and within spheres about the country’s spatial
  priorities for infrastructure investment and development spending.

• Provincial Growth and Development Strategies developed and implemented
  at Provincial level are informed by the IDPs and the National Spatial
  Development Perspective to ensure harmonisation and alignment of
  planning tools across the three spheres of government.

• Introduction of Integrated planning and implementation has seen strides
  towards positive recognition of Integrated Development Plans (IDPs) as
  local reflection of both provincial and National programmes.

• The Presidency is leading a process on aligning the NSDP, PGDSs and IDPs.
  Guidelines for the formulation and implementation of Provincial Growth and
  Development Strategies were drafted. This is being used to conduct an
  assessment of all PGDSs through a self and peer review mechanism.
   – Through this process municipalities should have clearer direction in
     respect of economic development and spatial restructuring of their
     areas. The review and update of the National Spatial Development
     Perspective is underway.

   – IDP hearings and Forums (National, provincial and Local) have
     involved civil society and all stakeholder relevant for decision making
     processes required by government

• Inclusion of Premiers and SALGA in the broad planning sessions of
  government through Cabinet Makgotla has improved coordination and
  decision making across the spheres of government.

• The Cluster approach, the Forum of South African Directors-General, the
  Presidential Co-ordinating Council and the restructured Cabinet
  committees have all contributed to better co-ordination of policy-making
  and implementation.
• Sustainable Rural Development Programme nodes.

• The e-Government Programme will also help improve service to citizens.
   – Phase One of the Batho Pele e-Government Gateway was launched in
     August 2004, with a portal at www.gov.za and the call centre number
     1020.
   – Nine In efforts to improve service delivery, Multi-Purpose Community
     Centres (MPCCs) have been set up to provide information and services
     to the public. The aim was to establish one per district/metro by the
     end of 2004/05 financial year and then expand them to each
     municipality in the next decade.
   – There are about 66 MPCCs that are currently operational and only four
     districts still lack MPCCs and these are based in Eastern Cape (3) and
     Northern Cape (1). The Second Generation MPCC Business Plan is
     currently being implemented and the research studies to assess the
     impact and challenges is underway in the MPCCs
• This is being complemented by the decision taken in 2003 to introduce
  Community Development Workers (CDWs) to enhance access to the
  benefits of government’s socio-economic programmes.
   – The key function of these multiskilled CDWs is to maintain direct
     contact with the public. There are currently 1367 Community
     Development Worker learners that are enrolling for the learnership
     programme.

   – 577 learners have completed the learnership and 199 CDWs have been
     deployed into the public service as government employees. They have
     been recruited particularly in Urban Renewal and Integrated MPCCs
     and 55 Citizen Post Offices have so far been linked to the Gateway
     Portal.
• Promulgation of the Intergovernmental Relations Framework Bill has
  facilitated understanding of the implementation roles and responsibilities
  across the spheres of government. This includes measure for dealing with
  disputes, powers and functions in brief and need for intergovernmental
  structures for decision making

• Premiers and Mayoral committees have been established to forge
  participation between provinces and local government structures

• Ward committees are the link between government and communities at
  local level. Therefore, all stakeholders need to ensure that interventions
  geared at communities need to involve those. Communities in the Public
  Participation Policy Framework drafted by dplg, each of the ten ward
  committee members is responsible for a sector. These sector heads have
  to ensure that they form a sub-committee of the ward.
• Each sub-committee will include relevant stakeholders drawn from civil
  society structures, community based and non-governmental
  organizations. These subcommittees of the ward will be linked to relevant
  business units of the municipalities in order to track service delivery.

• School governing bodies have been established in schools to integrate
  parents and education service providers around the welfare and quality of
  education for learners across the country.

• Participation of Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs) and Community
  Based Organisations (CBOs) have forged practical partnerships towards
  the broad implementation of the PEOPLE`S CONTRACT.
•   Since 1994, government has initiated various anti-corruption programmes and
    projects. In March 1997, the departments responsible for the South African National
    Crime Prevention Strategy (NCPS) initiated a programme to work on corruption in
    the criminal justice system (CJS).

•   In June 1997, the Code of Conduct for the Public Service became part of the
    regulations for every public servant. The National Anti-Corruption Forum is a national
    structure that brings the public, business and civil society sectors together to further
    national consensus against corruption.

•   The Second National Anti-corruption Summit was held in March 2005 and the
    Summit adopted 27 resolutions as the basis of a national strategy to fight corruption.

     – The Summit involved representatives from all sectors of the society including
       Government, Parliament, national, provincial, local administrations, unions,
       business, NGO’s, CBO’s, academia, research institutions and CDWs.

     – The National Anti-Corruption Programme (NAP) was has been developed based
       on the 27 Resolutions that were agreed to.

     – An Implementation Committee has been established and has commenced with
       its first project on the Prevention and Combating of Corrupt Activities Act.
• One of the most significant changes since 1994 is the increased
  participation of women in Governance. South Africa has ensured that at
  least one third of political representatives in all spheres are women, ahead
  of the Millennium Development Targets for correcting gender
  discrimination.

•    The public service also demonstrates an improvement in the participation
    of women in management although the state has yet to achieve its targets
    for women and people with disabilities.

• In the economic theme, it was evident that women are making progress in
  the professional and technical categories but as still lagging when it comes
  to senior management.

• In the Social theme, evidence was presented to show the dramatic
  improvements that have come to the aged and to children from social
  grants. There is also evidence from research that whilst there were 13
  disability grants per 1000 in 1993, there are now 29 per 1000.
• The racial bias that existed in 1993 no longer applies. Other evidence from
  the social theme indicates that health, education services are now strongly
  focused on women and children. Indeed, South Africa has already
  surpassed the Millennium Development Goals for gender in education.

• Housing, land redistribution and other services also show significant
  improvements in gender bias, although the majority still go to male headed
  households.

• It is also evident that the focus on sexual crimes and the institution of
  special courts will ensure that women and children receive better
  treatment by the criminal justice system.

• Although the levels of such crimes has stabilised, they remain unacceptably
  high by international standards.
• To promote effective implementation of government’s Programme of Action,
  the first phase of a government-wide Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) System
  was launched through implementation of POA
         • Government departments report every two months on progress against set deadlines
           and targets in the Programme.
                   » This information is also available online to promote public accountability. This phase of
                     M&E has been functional for almost 2 years and is proceeding as planned to assist
                     government in accounting to the citizenary.

                   » Review of implementation of POA was conducted in November 2005 and shows great
                     improvement in collegial relationships amongst the executive.

•   The proposal on the Government-wide Monitoring and Evaluation System (GWM&ES)
    was presented to the G&A Cabinet Committee and the July Cabinet Lekgotla.

         • The first phase of the implementation of the GWM&ES has commenced with the
           formulation of minimum standards and the establishment or improvement of
           contributory systems. The initial draft report on reporting norms and standards will be
           completed by the end of the year 2005.

                   » The pilot of IT infrastructure for Cabinet support (CabEnet) is nearing completion and
                     implementation in the remaining departments is being planned.
• Enhancing our Democracy Through Participation
      • The voice of the resourced is still most evident in our institutions
        despite a greater flow of information:
          – Methods and systems of outreach historically baised to the
            resourced eg. Media
          – Under-resourcing of people-centred communication
          – Insufficient communication based on dialogue

• Transformation to meet democratic & governance demands
      • Valuing the contribution of indigenous institutions such as restorative versus
        retributive justice;
      • Getting the Basics right in the criminal justice system while addressing
        strategic matters.
      • Balancing representivity, skills, understanding the challenges and solutions
• Shared vision of Development
      • Acceptance of the balance between speed and cost of
         implementation with levels of service
       • Political & civic education, skills development to enhance
         participation in development and governance processes
                                     A degree of municipal
                                  distress was inevitable given
At the time of the 2004             the scale and complexity
national elections                     of local government
                                         transformation.
Noticeable signs of distress
and under-capacity in 47%
of the 284 municipalities      Underestimation of the complexity
had begun to emerge.             of transformation & the kind
                                   of dedicated support that
Sporadic but isolated civic     municipalities will require From
unrest arose in response to    national & provincial govt for it to
municipal service provision     become a fully effective sphere
failures.                       of government in its own right.
Municipal managers operate in an       Core skills and competencies for
environment in which they must         municipal managers would thus include:
contend with a vast and complex
array of internal and external         •Leading transformation and change as an
pressures.                             important organ of the developmental state

                                       •Leading and investing in people
To perform their role effectively as
champions contend with a vast and      •Results and impact-driven with complementary
complex array of fundamental           modes of operation
change
                                       •Financial and economic development acumen;
                                       and
They must possess a combination
of managerial competence,              •Building partnerships within the context of
organizational savvy and political     government’s contract with the people
sensitivity.
• Government continues to assess its level of organization and capacity to
  implement development programmes for economic growth and poverty
  alleviation
        • This is being complemented by the current task on accelerated and
          shared growth (ASGI)
        • Measure for improved capacity and service delivery include project
          consolidate and addressing service delivery issues arising from the
          municipal izimbizo
        • Identification for interventions towards improved skills and
          sustainable pools for management will be prioritized
        • Improvement of the Human Resources Management and
          development remain crucial
• ASGI (SA) will provide strategic direction for improved capacity for the state
  to grow the economy including infrastructure development and investments
  strategies
• Improvements in the social aspects for development will be enhanced
  through measures dealing with social exclusion, improved cohesion and
  provision of basic services
       • This will include implementation of social infrastructure programmes
       • Evaluation of social programmes will be enhanced

• Transformation of the Judiciary system and crime prevention continue as
  priorities of the Justice system

• Work on the Consolidation of the African agenda, NEPAD and SADC will
  continue
• Most institutions are operating effectively although the
  stabilisation of the intergovernmental system needs
  improvement.
   – More flexibility in a single or uniform Public Service will make
     it more responsive to public needs.

   – Government must continue with what it has started, only
     more diligently and more vigorously. Improved capacity of
     the State to deliver social services requires greater capacity
     in national departments and attention to some provincial
     and local weaknesses.

   – Compliance with regulations is high, but there are some
     weaknesses with regard to government’s capacity to involve
     the informal sector in adhering to their civic obligations.
     Success in fighting corruption is slow but notable.
• The key challenges for the next decade include:

   • using the NSDP to focus government’s attention on localities with
     greatest potential for development and poverty alleviation while
     rebuilding other areas
   • improving the capacity of provincial and local government especially
     where it impinges on service delivery and financial management
   • improving accountability to, and contact with, citizens by all levels of
     government should include mechanisms to enhance the oversight role of
     parliament and the Office of the Leader of Government Business and the
     presidency
   • developing and maintaining partnerships with civil society with the
     emphasis on practical programmes
   • providing leadership to social partners through the articulation of an
     encompassing framework for South Africa’s development in the next
     decade and beyond
   • build capacity for implementing the Government-wide M&E system
   – the alignment of strategy not only within government but with civil
     society including business, labour, civics requiring greater substantive
     engagement leading to shared objectives.
• In line with the principles of deepened democracy and
  participatory governance, government has put in place a
  number of interventions.
   – These include the Project consolidate meant to improve the capacity in
     136 municipalities that need assistance.
   – This process is complemented by the municipal imbizo programme
     where the President and Deputy President interact directly with the
     communities and masses in the municipalities to draw on issues of
     service delivery.
   – Building partnerships with communities and civil society to participate in
     governance through ward committees, SGB’s, CPF’s etc

				
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