Acceptable Use Policies in the Workplace

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					Professionalism and Ethical
Nature of Professionalism

            Nicole L. Mendolera
What is Professionalism?
Code of Ethics
Code of Ethics

   Academic Honesty
   Adherence to Confidentiality Agreement
   Data Privacy
   Handling of Human Subjects
   Impartiality in Data Analysis
   Professional Accountability
   Resolution of Conflicts of Interests
   Software Piracy
Acceptable Use Policies In The

              By: Brian Juba
              Group 2
The Internet: A Valuable Resource?

 Streamlined time-consuming business tasks.
 Faster communication.
 Distractions at work – shopping,
  pornography, gambling, games
Stats about the workplace

   30%-40% of employee Internet usage isn’t
    work related.
   70% of all web traffic to internet porn sites
    occurs between 9am and 5pm according to
    Sex Tracker.
   92% of online stock trading occurs during
    work hours and 46% of online holiday
Company Complaints
Loss Of Productivity
  Modem connections at home, high speed at work, entices employees to use
   work connection for “web leisure”.

Liability From Misuse
   Transferring of sexual images creates a “hostile work environment”.
   Emails clearly document evidence of discrimination and sexual harassment.
   Unauthorized access resulting in release of confidential information.

Company Misrepresentation
 Systems identify username with affiliation.
 Messages and email thought to have come from the company instead of the
 Employees shop online and fail to pay for goods.
Acceptable Use Policies

 Used to combat the misuse and ensure
priorities are on work.
 Should be written down.
 A “living document” able to evolve.
 Outline “what kind of Internet usage is
  permitted, what kind is not, and the
  consequences for violating the rules”.
Sections Of A Basic Policy

   “Employment Is At Will” Disclaimer
   Network Limitations
    –    States appropriate and inappropriate acts.
   Level Of Privacy To Be Expected
    –    Logging and monitoring.
   Damage To Resources
    –    Access only through firewall. No unauthorized input of
   Deletion Of Material
How Does The ACM Tie In?

Section 1.4
 Members should not discriminate.
Section 1.7
 Respect the privacy of others.
Section 1.8
 Maintaining Confidentiality
Section 2.6
 Honor Contractual Agreements
Section 3.3
 Create policies that support proper use.

   Controlling the Internet is no longer an IT problem.
   Mitigated itself into a “corporate issue”.
   Best dealt by Human Resources People.
   A survey of HR people found that monitoring
    employees to make sure they are not wasting time
    has become an increasing problem.
   Finding the appropriate balance between work time
    and personal time on the Internet.
   Find a way to increase the bottom line without
    increasing liability.
Tools Available

   Filtering Software
   Access Policies
   Logging Software
   N2H2, SurfControl, Connectotel
Ethical Dissent and Whistle-Blowing
McDonnell Douglas’s DC-10

   In 1972:      American Airlines Flight 96         [malfunction]
    –   nine passenger and two flight attendants were injured.
   In 1974:      Turkish Airline Flight 981          [crashed]
    –   all 335 passengers and 11 crew members were killed (the 5th
        worst aviation disaster in history)
   In 1979:      American Airlines Flight 191        [crashed]
    –   275 people were killed
   In 1979:      Air New Zealand Flight 901          [crashed]
   In 1989:      United Airlines Flight 232          [crashed]
    –   112 of its 296 passengers and crew members were killed.
McDonnell Douglas’s DC-10 Cont’d

   There was mechanical and designing problem in
    DC-10’s cargo doors and employees knew about the
   No on Blew the Whistle!
Ethical Dissent and Whistle-Blowing

   Ethical Dissent
    –   Noticing the wrongdoings in the organization and attempting
        to get them changed within the organization.
   Whistle-Blowing
    –   Making your dissent public by going outside the
        ex) involvement of an unfolding number of agencies,
        lawyers, legal systems, and public proceedings.

   First used in the early 1970’s by Ralph Nader
          “An act of a man or a woman who believing in the public
    interest overrides the interest of the organization he serves, and
    publicly blows the whistle if the organization is involved in
    corrupt, illegal, fraudulent or harmful activity”.
The Hughes Whistle-Blowing Case

   Hughes Electronics' Hybrid chips
    –   Used in guidance system and other military programs.
        ex) weapon systems in F-14, F-15, F16 and F-18 aircraft.
    –   Needed to be tested to make sure that they can withstand
        years of exposure to the extreme environmental hazards
        they might face.
        ex) rapid changes in temperature, severe shock, changes in
        atmospheric pressure, etc.
    –   However, the tests were skipped sometimes.
The Hughes Whistle-Blowing Case

   Whistle-Blowers
    –   Margaret Goodearl and Ruth Aldred
   Outcome
    –   On June 15th, 1992, Hughes was found guilty of conspiring
        to defraud the government.
    –   In 1996, Hughes was assessed 4.05 million for their fraud.
        Goodearl and Aldred were awarded $891,000 of this
        amount (22%). Hughes also had to pay the legal fees for
        Goodearl and Aldred ($450,000).
The Hughes Whistle-Blowing Case

   Why would Margaret Goodearl blew the whistle?

    –   One account quoted Goodearl describing her motivation for
        whistle-blowing as follows:

         “I had no choice … I’ve got three sons and a daughter,
        and any one of them could wind up in the military … and
        dead because of these bad parts”.
What would you do?
Major Codes of Ethics

   In fact, the codes of ethics of our professional
    societies require the professional to blow the whistle
    in certain circumstances.
   Examples:
    –   IEEE Code
    –   ACM Code
    –   IEEE-CS/ACM Software Engineering Code
    –   AITP Standards of Conduct
ACM Code of Ethics

   In the work environment the computing professional
    has the additional obligation to report any signs of
    system dangers that might result in serious personal
    or social damage. If one's superiors do not act to
    curtail or mitigate such dangers, it may be necessary
    to "blow the whistle" to help correct the problem or
    reduce the risk. (item 1.2 of the ACM code)
The Decision is Yours!
Various Forms of Professional

              By David Hockenberry
Two Types of Professional

   Certifications
   Licenses

   Voluntary process.
   Administrated by a
    professional society or
Many Computing Certifications:

   General –
    –   Certified Software Development Program (CSDP)
        administrated by the IEEE.
   Manufacturer specific –
    –   Microsoft Certified Application Developer (MCAD)
        administrated by Microsoft
Survey of Certified Computing
Professionals Found:

                               Value of Certification


           Very Valuable Fairly Valuable   Somew hat    Not Valuable

                                 • Handouts
Survey of Certified Computing
Professionals Found: (Continued)
                            Advancement in Profession
      Reasons for Seeking
          Certification     Advancement in Current
                            Prepare for New Job

                            Secure Employment

                            Job Requirement

                            Improve Job Security

                            Assess Current Expertise

                            Increase Compensation

                            Attain Access to Vendor
Survey of Certified Computing
Professionals Found: (Continued)
                         Primary Achievements Resulting from Certification

                   Increase in Salary

             Solve Problems Quicker

                Greater Self-Esteem

      More Credibility with Customers
  More Credibility Within Organization

                                   0.00%   5.00%   10.00%   15.00%   20.00%   25.00%

   Mandatory, legal
   Administrated by the
    state or federal
Software Engineering Licensing

   Fairly new -
    –   First professional software engineer was licensed
        in 1998 in Texas.
   Advantages -
    –   Same as certification.
   Disadvantages -
    –   Can be held legally responsible.
Dealing With Harassment and

   Equal Pay Act of 1963
   civil rights act of 1964, Title VII
   Rehabilitation Act of 1973
   Disabilities act of 1990
   Nineteenth Century Civil Rights Acts, 1993
    –   Ensures equality
    –   Specifies damages
   Harassment- Based on discrimination laws

   Speech, actions are workplace harassment
    –   severe or pervasive
    –   create a hostile or abusive work environment
    –   based on race, religion, sex, national origin, age,
        disability, military membership
    –   for the harassed and for a reasonable person.
Sexual Harassment

   Most common type of harassment
   Definition: any unwanted activity of a sexual nature
    that affects an individual’s employment
    –   Unwanted touching
    –   Unnecessary Requests for dates
    –   Coercive threats
   Gray Area
    –   Looks, comments, jokes, nude calendars, etc.
Other Types of Harassment

   Religious
    –   Company newsletter
    –   Prayer
    –   Anti-religious talk
   Political/social
    –   Political Beliefs
    –   Construction workers
            “Men at Work”

   discrimination is bias based on race, sex,
    religion, national origin, physical disability,
    and age by employers. There is a growing
    body of law preventing or occasionally
    justifying employment discrimination based
    on sexual orientation. Discriminatory
    practices include bias in hiring, promotion,
    job assignment, termination, compensation,
    and various types of harassment.
Types of Discrimination
   Hiring
     –    Must give an equal opportunity to those of all religions, races, genders
     –    Disability:
               If only reasonable accommodation is necessary, you cannot discriminate
     –    Age
               Must consider people of any age
     –    Affirmative action
   Job Assignments
     –    Must Give equal job assignments to employees of same experience/skill
     –    Cannot promote people of a certain race/gender over others
   Pay
     –    Must pay all equally experienced and talented employees equally
     –    Cannot give more/less money because of gender/race
     –    Pay Gap
               Still exists, Hopefully will change soon
Dealing with Harassment
   Training
     –   Mandatory for all employees and managers
     –   Helps employees to understand what exactly harassment is
     –   Reduce accidental harassment, increases understanding of it
   Harassment Reporting/staff
     –   Allows employees to easily report harassment
              Managers
              Harassment Hotline
              Harassment staff
     –   Help remedy situation in best way possible
   Policies
     –   Zero Tolerance policy
     –   Amiable Solution
              Parties meet
              Discuss friendly terms, misunderstanding
     –   Remedies
              Firing
              Docking vacation days
Stopping Discrimination

   Education
    –   Discrimination Training
    –   Diversity Training
    –   Working with Diverse people
   Reporting
    –   Similar to harassment
    –   Investigate claims
    –   Keep track of Employment
Stopping Discrimination
   Remedies
     –   Zero Tolerance policy
     –   Amiable Solution
             Parties meet
             Discuss friendly terms, misunderstanding
     –   Punishment
             Firing
             Docking vacation days
   False Claims
     –   Perceived Discrimination
     –   No actual Discrimination
             Sit down talk with both parties
     –   False claims to make money
             Some remedies against false claims
The Future

   Harassment and Discrimination will be more
    prominent in our lives
   New Issues
    –   Sexual Orientation
    –   Affirmative Action
   Harassment and Discrimination are bad for
   Laws against them help make society better
The Role of Professionals in
       Public Policy

             By Di Zhang

   Computer Ethics
    –   Didn’t exist
    –   Policy vacuum

   Norbert Wiener
    –   Social and ethical consequences
    –   The Book: Cybernetics:or control and
        communication in the animal and the machine

   Computers in the workplace
   Computer crime
   Privacy and anonymity
   Intellectual property
    Computers in the Workplace

   Health and safety
    –   US Department of Labor
    –   Stress
    –   Physical damage
    –   Radiation
Computer Crime

   Viruses
    –   Trojan Horse
    –   Worms

   Hackers
Privacy and Anonymity

   Privacy
    –   Sensitive data
    –   Personal information
   Anonymity
    –   Protection
   Laws
    –   Information Disclosure Act of 1997
            Legal Charges
Intellectual Property

   Software and Algorithms
    –   Duplications
    –   Illegal Modifications
   Patents
    –   Pros
    –   Cons
    –   Patent Searches
    –   IBM Patent Against Linux World

   ACM & IEEE
    –   Enforce the Codes of Ethics
    –   Moral guidlines
    –   Specific professional responsibilities
    –   Ethics adoption in Computer Science Degree
The Future

   Responsibilities to ensure that computing
    technology is being used for the good of the