Components of Fitness - PowerPoint

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					Components of Fitness
   there are a number of different components of
    fitness.
   it is important to understand the difference between
    the different types of fitness:
   these components of fitness are:

   CARDIOVASCULAR ENDURANCE
   MUSCULAR ENDURANCE
   SPEED
   STRENGTH
   FLEXIBILITY
    CARDIOVASCULAR ENDURANCE -
   depends on the capacity of the heart and circulatory
    system to meet the demands of the body for a
    sustained period of activity. Good cardiovascular
    endurance usually comes from long term endurance
    training in can result in an increase in the size of the
    heart muscles.

    MUSCULAR ENDURANCE -
    is a measure of the capacity of the muscles to
    perform repeated contractions at, or near maximum
    level for an extended period of time without becoming
    fatigued.
   SPEED -
   this does not simply just mean how fast one person
    can run. For example, a boxer will work on a speed
    ball to work on the speed of his/her punch this has
    nothing to do with running.
   many experts define speed as innate, meaning we
    either born with or without it

    STRENGTH -
   is defined as:
    ‘The maximum force that can be developed within
                a muscle or group of muscles
            during a single maximal contraction’.
   strength is not always just how much force you can
    put on a muscle in one contraction
   some types of strength may need to be repeated over
    a period of time, for example, over 80 minutes a
    rugby scrum uses their combine strength many times
    FLEXIBILITY
   flexibility is the range of movement around a joint. It
    is also known as mobility or suppleness
   it depends on our joints, ligaments, tendons and
    muscles
   it can also depend on how regularly you exercise
    because joints lose their flexibility rapidly
    THE COMPONENTS OF FITNESS AND
    PERFORMANCE
   all the components of fitness just looked at are very
    important factors affecting performance
   different activities require a different balance of these
    components of fitness
The Effect Of Fitness On
Performance
   TESTING AND MEASUREMENT - testing a range of
    capabilities can be useful. It can measure progress in
    a specific area of fitness and can help to identify
    those who possess particular abilities.

   The following list seven tests:
   THE MULTISTAGE FITNESS TEST
   THE 12MINUTE RUN
   SPRINT TESTS
   SIT AND REACH TEST
   PRESS-UPS/SIT UPS
   AGILITY RUN TEST
   STORK STAND TEST
   THE MULTISTAGE FITNESS TEST - the subject
    runs a distance of 20m, placing his/her foot over a
    line marked by cones at both ends. The participant
    must complete the distance between the sound of
    two bleeps. The bleeps come at progressively shorter
    intervals so the speed in between must increase. The
    participant should keep going until the pace is two
    fast for him/her.
     The test measures your VO2 max. the higher this
                      is the fitter you are.
   THE 12 MINUTE RUN - (THE COOPER TEST) - the
    participant must run usually around a 400 metres
    track for a period of 12 minutes, aiming to run as far
    as possible. When finished the distance should be
    calculated to the nearest 100 metres
    The test also measures your VO2 max. The
    further you can run the fitter you are
   SPRINT TESTS - are a measure of speed. They can
    also be used to measure velocity, acceleration and
    maximum speed, and to see whether someone has
    an aptitude for a particular sport or activity. Sprint
    tests can also be useful for game players. The most
    common sprint tests are:
   30 metre acceleration test: monitors athlete’s ability
    to build up acceleration from standing start
   60 metre sprint test: measures sustained speed over
    a longer period
   30 metre flying sprint test: usually performed as part
    of a longer sprint and time is taken for a specific 30
    metre 30 metre flying section of it
   the Running Based Anaerobic Sprint test ( RAST
    test) : perhaps the most sophisticated test as it
    measures both power output and fatigue levels
   there are similar test for swimming and an ergometer
    test for cyclists
   SIT AND REACH - the sit and reach test is a test of
    flexibility and is used particularly in connection with
    the hips, hamstrings and muscles of the lower back.
    The legs must be fully extended with the soles of the
    feet against the box. Measurement is taken at the
    point reached by the fingertips past the line of the
    toes . Performers are normally allowed two attempts
   a warm up is essential before the test is undertaken
   PRESS-UP/ SIT-UP TEST - this is test of muscular
    endurance in:
   the arms and shoulders (press-ups)
   the abdominal region (sit-ups)
   both activities can be modified if need be, for
    example - if body weight is too heavy for press ups
   AGILITY RUN TEST - (ILLINIOS AGILITY RUN) -
    this test discovers the kind of agility and balance that
    is required of potential team and racquet games
    players
   the test requires the performer to compete the course
    as fast as possible with times being converted into a
    score.
   the performer must avoid the cones by weaving in
    and out of them. Usually get two attempts the fastest
    score is recorded.
   STORK STAND TEST - is test measures balance,
    sometimes referred to as the ‘blind stork test’ where
    the participant is required to undergo the test while
    blind folded.
   the person stands on both feet with hands on hips
    and lifts either leg and places toes of that leg against
    the knee of the supporting leg
   time begins when the person is steady and end when
    they start wobbling. Then repeated with the position
    of the legs reversed
Training Methods
    TRAINING FOR SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES
   there are are a number of different training methods
    that can be used either in general exercise
    programmes or in preparation for specific activities.
    All of them can be adapted for use in a wide range of
    training and exercise programmes:

   the most common methods of training currently in
    use are:
   CIRCUIT TRAINING
   CONTINUOUS TRAINING
   FARTLEK TRAINING
   FLEXIBILITY TRAINING
   INTERVAL TRAINING
   WEIGHT TRAINING
   Each training method consists of exercises or
    activities which may be organised into:
    REPETITIONS - the number of times an exercise is
    repeated
    SETS - The number of groups of repetitions of one
    exercise
   CIRCUIT TRAINING - circuit training involves a
    series of exercises or activities, with each one taking
    place at a different station. Each station involves an
    exercise aimed at a specific muscle group in the
    body.

   the exercises are arranged so that muscle groups
    alternate between work and recovery, to allow lactic
    acid dispersal and so opposing muscle groups are
    worked for balanced strength distribution
   CONTINUOUS TRAINING - this involves LONG,
    SLOW, DISTANCE EXERCISE (LSD) at a
    CONSTANT RATE WITHOUT REST. Training at first
    should be at 60% maximum heart rate progressing to
    85% maximum heart rate as fitness improves and the
    distance involved increases to beyond competition
    distance.
   FARTLEK TRAINING - is very similar to interval
    training except that the intensity and type of exercise
    are varied through changes in pace, terrain and style.
    There are no fixed amounts of each component can
    be planned to suit the level of fitness of the individual

       10 min JOG    100m WALK    50m SPRINT    2m REST


    Fartlek training is effective for many sports including
    running, cycling and swimming
   FLEXIBILITY TRAINING -
   this form of training is relevant to all sporting activity
   moving or stretching the tendons surrounding a joint
    to a point marginally beyond their normal limits is the
    normal way of developing and maintaining flexibility.
    This can done either by the performer or with
    assistance from a partner. This is normally referred to
    as:
   ACTIVE STRETCHING
   PASSIVE STRETCHING
   stretching and /or flexibility exercises form part of the
    training programme and a warm up routine
   flexibility should also be part of any warm up routine
    prior to competition and before any training sessions.
    This should also address two aspects

   WHOLE BODY FLEXIBILTY
   ATTENTION TO EVENT-SPECIFIC JOINTS
   INTERVAL TRAINING -
   interval training involves alternating between fixed
    periods of exercise and fixed periods of rest ( or light
    exercise) for recovery. Careful planning is needed to
    match the duration and intensity of exercise and
    recovery with the level of fitness of the individual

    25 SPRINT    30 SEC REST    25 SPRINT    30 SEC REST



    interval training is effective for most sports teams and
    is appropriate method of training for running and
    swimming
   WEIGHT TRAINING -
   weight training involves a series of exercises where
    each one focuses on a specific muscle group in the
    body. All of these exercises involve the overcoming
    of resistance or load by the use of a machine or free
    weights

   repetitions and sets depend on whether the individual
    is wanting to build up strength or endurance
   typical programmes could be;

   FOR STRENGTH                   FOR ENDURANCE
   10 reps                        20 reps
   3 sets                         3 sets
   large load                     small load


   weight training can have many effects on the body it
    improves muscular strength, endurance, tone and
    posture. It can increase muscular size, bone density
    and metabolic rate
    ISOMETRIC AND ISOTONIC CONTRACTIONS -
   muscles produce movement by contracting, there are
    two main ways in which muscles do this isometric
    contractions and isotonic contractions.
   isometric contractions are for stabilising movements,
    the muscle holds part of the body still. The muscle
    tenses bit it does not lengthen or contract. For
    example, pushing against a scrummage machine
   isotonic contractions are when the muscles move,
    either lengthening or contracting, pull ups are a good
    example
Fitness Training Principles
   PLANNING AND MONITORING A PERSONAL
    EXERCISE PROGRAMME
   when preparing your six-week personal exercise
    programme, you will need to bear the following in
    mind

   THE INDIVIDUAL ANDTHEIR REQUIREMENTS
   SPECIFIC FITNESS COMPONENTS(S)
   WARM UP AND COOL DOWN
    THE INDIVIDUAL AND THEIR REQUIREMETS
   to start with you must establish the purpose of the
    programme
   there are several reasons why a individual may want
    to undertake a personal exercise programme, such
    as to lose weight, regain fitness.
   whatever the reason this will influence the nature of
    the programme
   the individual is also is important. How old you are?
    Male/ female, previous exercise experience and other
    factors must all be taken into account
   when planning for someone else you need to check
    that they have medical clearance
   Two questions that will affect the type of programme
    you plan are
   is the programme for general health and well
    being?
   Is the programme for a specific activity?
    SPECIFIC FITNESS COMPONENTS
   when assessing individual needs it will become clear
    what type of programme is required
   the content of the programme will need to address a
    wide range of fitness components
   an activity specific programme will need in addition to
    concentrate on those components identified as
    relevant
   when designing a general fitness programme you
    might decide to work on all the components of fitness
    but select no more than four or five of them to be part
    of any one session
   to vary sessions you might include some pure fitness
    components and some that are skill related
   if some weakness are identified in some of the
    components these aspects may require additional
    sessions
   programmes can be re-designed if a new purpose
    needs to be accommodated
    SPECIFIC ACTIVITY
   your personal exercise programme might be
    designed to improve fitness for a specific activity
   it might still be advisable to ensure that an all round
    programme of exercise comes before more
    specialised work unless this was CLEARLY not
    necessary
   however specialised the activity all the components
    of fitness should be addressed at the same point
   take a shot putter for example, the warm up and cool
    down may include flexibility, agility and
    cardiovascular endurance so that the body of the
    training programme can concentrate on the event
    specific components
   specialised programme might mean that fewer
    components are addressed in any single session, this
    allows more time to be spent on each one
   the contents of the programme will vary according to
    the time of year and whether training is concerned
    with building power and strength or on developing
    technique and speed
   WARM UP
   the body needs to be well prepared for physical
    exercise
   it is not such a good idea to suddenly begin
    strenuous activity and expect the body to be able to
    adapt without injury
   these basic requirements need to be satisfied:
   the pulse rate should be gradually raised to a
    level approaching that experienced during the
    activity
   Joint flexibility need to be addressed through a
    series of moderate stretching and mobility
    exercises
   the skills or movement that are part of the activity
    could be included also as part of the warm up
   the performer should become mentally focused
    on the activity to come
   THE COOL DOWN
   the purpose of the cool down is the opposite of the
    warm up
   when the body has been working to maximum level it
    must be allowed to return gradually to its normal
    resting state
   the main three reasons for a cool down (warming
    down) are:
   1 - your heart rate and respiration rate need to
    gently return back to normal
   2 - lactic acid and other waste products are
    removed from your muscles
   3 - it helps prevent muscle soreness and aids
    recovery
A warm up and cool down is essential
The Application of Training
Principles
   In developing a training or exercise
    programme it is essential to be aware of the
    principles that determine the way in which the
    body responds to physical exercise
   these training principles include:
   SPECIFICITY
   OVERLOAD
   PROGRESSION
   REVERSIBILITY
   SPECIFICITY - training must be specific to the sport
    or activity, the type of fitness required and the
    particular muscle groups. For example, marathon
    runners do mostly endurance work. Whereas,
    swimmers exercise ‘swim specific muscles’

   OVERLOAD - training must be raised to a higher
    level than normal to create the extra demands to
    which the body will adapt. This can be done in three
    ways:
   INCREASE THE INTENSITY - lifting heavier weights
   INCREASE THE FREQUENCY - train more often
   INCREASE THE DURATION - by training longer

   PROGRESSION - as the body adapts to training it
    progresses to a new level of fitness. To then take this
    to the ‘next level’ a gradual increase in intensity is
    needed to create an overload
   progression can be achieved by ensuring that three
    specific pathways are followed;
   easy to difficult
   general to specific
   quality to quantity
   REVERSIBILITY - the effects of training are
    reversible. If exercise is reduced in intensity or even
    stopped the benefit can be lost quickly. Deterioration
    can start after only one week. Strength and speed
    are gradually lost with muscles losing their tone and
    size

   progression produces performance
   FITT PRINCIPLE -
   FITT principles suggest that all training or exercise
    programmes - whatever their purpose should include
    the following (of training or exercise)



   FREQUENCY - how often. Experts suggest that at a
    basic level three sessions per week is the minimum
    frequency that is needed to acquire and maintain a
    healthy fitness level.
   INTENSITY - how hard. For general improvement of
    health it is essential that the heart rate is raised to
    between 60 and 85 % of the maximum heart rate
    (MHR) for a specific age. This is known as the safe
    training zone. To calculate your MHR subtract your
    age from 220. Then work out 65% - 85% this allows
    you to work out the training zone for effective training.
   the following example is for a person who is 30 years
    old:
   the lower threshold for training is 60% of MHR: 190 x
    60 divided by 100 = 114 beats per minute
   the upper threshold for training is 85% of MHR: 190 x
    85 divided by 100 = 162 beats per minute.
    Therefore the safe training zone would be between
    114 and 162 bpm.
   TIME - for most people 30 minutes exercise will raise
    the heart rate above 60 % of the MHR. Whereas,
    some professional athletes will train for two or three
    hours per session

   TYPE - the type of training activity will reflect the
    groups or individuals specific needs
Training Effects
    IMMEDIATE SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF
    EXERCISE
   there are a number of physiological changes that
    take place in the body following the start of exercise
   many of these will have begun in the warm up and
    will speed up during high level of activity in a
    competition
   short term effect of exercise:
   BREATHING - warms ups initiate breathing to
    increase. Working muscles need more oxygen than
    normal to work at a higher intensity (respiration)

   PULSE RATE - heart rate increases so greater
    volume of blood is pumped around the body almost
    twice as fast as at resting rate. Pulse rate and
    respiration rate will increase until the demands of the
    muscles are met, then they will level off when the
    body reaches a steady state

   CIRCULATION - of blood increases as the level of
    activity rises in order to meet the increased demand
    of the muscles for oxygen
   MUSCLES - blood vessels dilate (get bigger) to
    accommodate increased blood flow. Blood
    temperature rises as muscles work better warm 37
    degrees - 41 degrees, this rise in temperature
    benefits connective tissue (tendons) it will make them
    more supple and less likely to tear or strain

   SWEATING - a cooling mechanism which also
    accelerates the removal of waste products as the
    pores of the skin open
    LONG TERM EFFECTS OF EXERCISE

   GENERAL WELL BEING
   being able to cope with the demands of everyday
    living
   bones become stronger
   tendons and muscles become more elastic giving
    larger range of movement
   healthier appetite
   improved sleep patterns
   feel better about ourselves - cope with stress better
   HEART RATE - resting level falls/ working limits
    increase

   STROKE VOLUME - more blood from each beat

   CARDIAC OUTPUT - total volume of blood pumped
    around the body is increased
   BODY COMPOSITION - take on better physique
   MUSCLE SIZE - adaptable muscles
   RECOVERY RATE IMPROVES
   MORE OXYGEN STORED IN MUSCLE CELLS -
    beneficial to anaerobic activity

				
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