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					                 HELP
                                        Real people
                                         Real catchments
                                           Real answers


Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy:
 The Global network and Tarim basin in China
          Jim Wallace and Zhang Jiebin

 International Workshop on Vulnerability of water Resources to
  Environmental Change, 16-19 September 2002, Beijing, China
                        HELP: key points

•   Background

•   Clarification of approach and issues

•   Progress on implementation

•   Links to other international water programmes

•   Summary of future plans

•   The Tarim basin in China



                                                    HELP
                                                           Real people
Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy               Real catchments
                                                               Real answers
                      HELP: Background

•   Widespread recognition of the vital importance of water in
    sustaining human and environmental health.

•   Need for an international programme in hydrology that
    would address key water resource issues in the field and
    integrate them with policy and management needs.

•   HELP initiative developed by wide range of international
    water experts at meetings from 1998 onwards.

•   Joint UNESCO/WMO initiative formally adopted as part of
    IHP VI in September 1999.

                                                 HELP
                                                        Real people
Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy            Real catchments
                                                            Real answers
                HELP: The Paradigm Lock


  Process hydrology                                Water managers and
                                                   stakeholders
                                          Accepted
     research                     ideas               design                       output
                                          practices


                 understanding                                 implementation

                                                    Isolated by legal and professional
Isolated by lack of proven utility
                                                    precedence



                                                                      HELP
                                                                                Real people
  Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy                                  Real catchments
                                                                                    Real answers
                  HELP: Key Objectives

•   BREAK THE “PARADIGM LOCK”:                                      Process hydrology
                                                                                                    Accepted
                                                                                                            Water managers and
                                                                                                            stakeholders

      Water related observations will be collected in real         research                   ideas
                                                                                                    practices
                                                                                                                design                  output



        catchments, with real people and real problems. Not                   understanding                         implementation


        just physical measurements (e.g. precipitation and        Isolated by lack of proven utility
                                                                                                             Isolated by legal and professional
                                                                                                             precedence


        river flow) but water-related sociological, economic,
        and legal data

•    BUILD A FRAMEWORK:
      This will allow water law and policy experts, water
         resources managers and water scientists to work
         together on important water-related problems.

•    FOCUS RESULTS:
      The involvement of stakeholders will produce results that
        are directly beneficial to society’s needs.



                                                                              HELP
                                                                                                          Real people
Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy                                                              Real catchments
                                                                                                              Real answers
                      HELP: The Essence
•   WHAT IS THE REQUIRED PRODUCT?
       Integrated hydrological, socio-economic and legal research which is directly
         responsive to water-related policy and development issues.
•   WHAT IS THE NATURE OF THE INITIATIVE?
       A global network of experimental catchments in a range of bio-climatic zones
         and socio-economic conditions freely exchanging data and understanding
•    HOW WILL IT OPERATE?
      “bottom up” selection of the science to be undertaken (via stakeholder
          consultation)
      multi-disciplinary, involving managers, policy makers and scientists (physical,
          social and legal)
       build on existing networks
       complement other water-related international programmes
       integrate existing and generate new data, knowledge and build capacity as
          required

                                                                   HELP
                                                                           Real people
Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy                               Real catchments
                                                                               Real answers
                     HELP: Policy Issues

                       • Water and climate
                              • Water and food
                                      • Water quality and human health
                                             • Water and the environment

                                                 • Water and conflict

                                                               HELP
                                                                        Real people
Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy                            Real catchments
                                                                            Real answers
              HELP: Stakeholder issues
Environmental
                                 Indigenous
management                                           Landowners
                                 people
agencies




Special
                                                     Water
Interest
                                                     companies
groups




                               CATCHMENT LIASION GROUPS

                                                            HELP
                                                                   Real people
  Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy                     Real catchments
                                                                       Real answers
            HELP: Hydrological Science
Hydrological
                                 Biophysical       Hydro-chemical
variability and
                                 processes         pathways
change




                  ?
Global                                             Remote
models                                             sensing




                       EXPERIMENTAL CATCHMENT MONITORING

                                                             HELP
                                                                    Real people
  Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy                      Real catchments
                                                                        Real answers
HELP: Social, economic & legal studies

Regulatory                       Management        Economic
frameworks                       structures        instruments




Social                                             Institutional
uses                                               arrangements




                       EXPERIMENTAL CATCHMENT MONITORING

                                                           HELP
                                                                   Real people
  Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy                     Real catchments
                                                                       Real answers
HELP: Progress on implementation

•   Design & development phase: completed through extensive world wide
    meetings and consultations during 1999 and 2000.
•   Implementation phase:
         Workshops:            Kuala Lumpur (2000);         Forest, Water & People.
                                Dundee (2001);               Water Law
                                Kalmar (2002);               Scientist, Policy maker,
                                                             Stakeholder dialogues

         Basin development:               25 pilot basins established in 2001
                                           6 operational basins
                                           14 evolving basins
                                           5 proposed basins
                                           several other basins interested


                                                                       HELP
                                                                                 Real people
Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy                                     Real catchments
                                                                                     Real answers
 HELP PILOT PHASE DRAINAGE BASINS
                                                                                                             Reference HELP Basin
                                                                                                             Operational HELP Basin
                                                                                                             Developing HELP Basin
                                                                                                             Proposed HELP Basin




                                                              15
                                                                        14
                                                             16         13
                     22              17                                          9
                                             23                     12
                               18
                        19
                                                                                                                  8
                                                                                                     11
                                                      20                                      7
                                                                                                       6
                            21
                                               24
                                       25                                               10

North and Central America
17. Lake Ontario (USA, Canada)
18. Red-Arkansas/Little Washita (USA)
19. San Pedro (USA, Mexico)                                               1
20. Luquillo Mountains (Puerto Rico)                                                                          4
                                                                         2
                                                                                                               5
21. Panama Canal (Panama)
22. Yakima (Washington, USA)                                                                                                  3
23. Hudson (NY &NJ, USA)                                               Africa
                                                                       1. Olifants (South Africa,      Asia
                                     Europe                               Mozambique)                  6. NE of Thailand and
South America                        12. Herault ( France)             2. Thukela (South Africa)       Vietnamese Delta, sub-basins of
24. Rio Jau and/or Rio Branco        13. Danube (5 countries in Europe)                                Mekong (6 countries in Asia)
                                                                       Australasia
    or Ji-parana (Brazil)            14. Spree-Havel (Germany)                                         7. Subernarekha (India)
                                                                       3. Motueka (New Zealand)
25. Rio Jequetepeque (Peru)          15. Upper Severn (UK)                                             8. Yasu or Tama (Japan)
                                                                       4. Mount Lofty (Australia)
                                     16. Thames (UK)                                                   9. Aral Sea (Central Asia)
                                                                       5. Murrumbidgee, sub-basin
                                                                       of Murray Darling (Australia)   10. Walawe (Sri Lanka)
                                     Middle East (None)
                                                                                                       11. Tarim (China)
                             HELP: partnerships
•   GEWEX and CLIVAR
        Via GEWEX Hydrometeorology Panel (GHP)
        GEWEX/CLIVAR: climate variability (seasonal, annual, decade, century) and HELP: applications to water management and policy
        GEWEX Continental Scale Experiments (CSE‟s) have HELP catchments

•   WWAP
        Similarities and differences identified (WWAP; top down, assessment: HELP; bottom up, ICM activity)
        Joint study basin: HELP, Walawe part of WWAP Ruhuna, Sri Lanka

•   GWP
        Co-sponsorship of Swedish IHP HELP meeting, Kalmar, August 2002
        Other links developing

•   Dialogue on Water and Climate
        Joint study basins: Thukela, South Africa, Walawe, Sri Lanka, San Pedro, USA/Mexico

        Links between DWC SSC and HELP IMC (via (IWMI)

•   Dialogue on Water and Food
        Via IWMI, Walawe catchment

•   WCRP/IGBP/IHDP Joint Water Project
        Joint meetings (e.g.HELP & JWP, Bonn, Germany, 27-28 June 2002)

•   GECAFS
        Joint Workshop on „water and food‟ issues in India, late 2003

•   Others …
                                                                                                               HELP
                                                                                                                          Real people
Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy                                                                              Real catchments
                                                                                                                              Real answers
          HELP: next steps (2002-2004)
   Ongoing implementation of HELP Principles in the Pilot Basins
         Establish flagship „world reference‟ basins
         Progress developing basins towards operational status
         Progress proposed basins towards developing status
         Develop HELP tools for guidance and reporting through case studies

    Meeting (led by and/or involving) HELP, e.g. (there are others..)
         Swedish IHP-GWP HELP meeting, August 2002, Kalmar, Sweden
         International Workshop on Vulnerability of Water Resources to Environmental Change,
          September 2002, Beijing, China
         HELP “donors” workshop, 2003, South Africa
         Joint HELP-GECAFS „Water and Food‟ workshop, late 2003, India
         Joint HELP-GLOWA workshop, Germany, 2003/4
         Joint HELP-IAHS meeting, place tbd, 2004

   HELP programme Management
         Continued support from UNESCO for Global secretariat
         Establishment of regional coordination Centres
         Global Steering Committee (next meeting March 2003)
   Second Call for Proposals for HELP Basin Status, 2003

                                                                           HELP
                                                                                    Real people
Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy                                        Real catchments
                                                                                        Real answers
                           HELP Summary

•   Global catchment network linking hydrology with
    societal needs
•   Bottom-up approach: stakeholder dialogues set issues
    and research agenda
•   Unique framework for hydrologists, water resources
    managers and water law and policy experts to work
    together
•   Contains immense technical and intellectual capital that
    can rapidly spread „best practice‟ around the world
•   Strong partnerships with other international water
    programmes
                                                 HELP
                                                        Real people
Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy            Real catchments
                                                            Real answers
Tarim River Basin
                 General Fact Sheet
Length                    2437 km
     Mainstream           1321 km
     Downstream cut-off   320 km
Drainage area             1.02 million km2
Annual precipitation      Less than 50 mm
(plain)
Surface runoff            39.83 km3
Water resources           42.90 km3
Population                8.55 million
Major crops               Wheat and cotton (15% of
                          national yield)
Per capita water          5018 m3
resources
Per capita GDP (RMB)      RMB 4505
Major water users         Agriculture, natural vegetation,
                          wetland
                          Degraded riparian forest
Major ecological issues   (reduced area: 200 thousand ha.,
                          of which 46.7 thousand ha. in the
                          downstream) , salinized soil
                          (about 40% of total farmland),
                          desertification, sand storm
Major legal norms         Regulations of Tarim River Basin
                          on Water Resources
                          Management
Basic Institutional       Water Resources Commission of
arrangement               Tarim River Basin, Water
                          Resources Bureaus
              Implementation Structure

                                        Research
                                  (Xinjiang Institute of
                                  Ecology and Geography
                                  of CAS)




       Management                                            Administration
                               Real                           (Water Resources
       (Management
                              Projects           HELP         Bureau of Xinjiang
       Bureau of Tarim
                                                              Government)
       River Basin of TBC)




                                      Participation
                                   (Stakeholders and NGOs)




                                                                       HELP
                                                                                   Real people
Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy                                       Real catchments
                                                                                       Real answers
                      Land Use Pattern of Tarim Mainstream




                                                             Qiala
                                         m i d s t r e a m




                                      Yingbaza                       Lop Nur
          Xiaojiake


                                              Taitema




• Toatal length:1321km ;Cut-off :320 km downstream since 1972
                 Runoff Generation and Transformation
                                                   Atmosphere

                 Mountain Precipitation
                                                                                                             Total Plain
                                                                      Plain Precipitation
Total
                     Overland Flow
                                          O                                                                 Evapo-transp
Mountain                                                                                                       iration
Evapo-transpir                            U           Surface Runoff
ation               Unsaturated Zone
                                          T                   Plain( Oasis、 Desert)
                      Saturated Zone
                                                                      Infiltration




                     Underground Flow
                                                                          Seepage from River
                                                                          System, Canal System,
                                              Precipitation Seepage
                                                                          Reservoirs and Irrigated
                                                                          Land                       Ground
                                                                                                     Water Use

                                                 Direct Recharge               Indirect Recharge


                                                                Unsaturated Soil Storage

                                                             Saturated Groundwater Storage

                                                              Total Underground Water
                                  River System




                                                 HELP
                                                        Real people
Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy            Real catchments
                                                            Real answers
Water Transformation and Consumption in the Plain
                                                 Atmosphere



                                       Evaporation

                             Plant evapotranspiration                Soil evaporation
                                   (Beneficial)                      (Non-beneficial)




                         Canals

                                        Irrigation
     Rive      Reservoirs                                                                            River
      r
                                                                           Root zone
                                                                                                      Lakes or
               Seepage
                                                              Soil                                  depressions
                                   Abstract
                                                                                                    (non-benefi
                                                          Capillary water
                                                                                                       cial)
                                  Salinization                                           Desertification
      Return
                                                          Groundwater
                                                                                        Drainage       Drains
                                                     Runoff Variation
                                   90
                                   80
                                   70                                            Kaidu
                                                                                 Weigan
                                   60
                                                                                 Kumalake
                                   50
                                                                                 Yerkant
                                   40
                                                                                 Yulunkasi
                                   30
                                   20
                                   10
                                    0
                                            Spring       Summer         Autumn               Winter
                                                   Seasonal runoff distribution of tributaries

                                                                                 8
       26                                                                                             Aler
                                                                                 7                    Qiala
       24
                                                                                 6
       22                                                                        5
       20
                                                                          km 3
                                                                                 4
km 3




       18                                                                        3

       16                                                                        2

                                                                                 1
       14
                                                                                 0
       12                                                                            1957     1966       1975     1984          1993
            1957         1966        1975         1984        1993
                                                                         Annual Runoff of Tarim Mainstream at Alar (upstream)
                   Annual Total Runoff of Major Tributaries              and Qiala (downstream) Gauging Stations
Riparian Forest Ecosystem of Tarim Mainstream




                      River
         Tarim                  Poplar Deversifolia forest




                                      Tamarix shrubs




                                   Halophytic meadow
Flood and Vegetation
                                  Groundwater and Vegetation


                        0.8
      Growth rate(cm)


                                                                       Critical point                                          0.40




                                                                                                                   Frequency
                        0.6                                                                                                    0.30
                                                                                                                               0.20                           Critical point
                        0.4
                                                                                                                               0.10
                        0.2
                                                                                                                               0.00
                         0                                                                                                            0   1   2   3   4   5     6    7    8    9   10
                              1    2      3                     4           5           6
                                                                                                                                              Depth to water table
                                   Depth to water table (m)


Average growth rate of DBH vs. depth to water table                                                              Probability distribution vs. depth to water
of tree Poplar deversifolia over 30 years of age                                                                 table of shrub Tamarix




                                                                4.00
                                               NPP(tDM/hm2.a)




                                                                3.00

                                                                2.00
                                                                                                Critical point
                                                                1.00

                                                                0.00
                                                                        0          1        2    3          4      5
                                                                                 Depth to water table (m)


                                              Net primary production vs. depth to water table
                                              of halophytic meadow vegetation
2 Existing Paradigm
     Water Development and Utilization
            Reclamation + Plain Reservoirs + Poor Canal

                             system
                       Much water diverted

               Much Evaporation and infiltration

                       Much water wasted
                                                      Leaching

                                       Insufficient
     Reduced flows or interrupted
                                          drains
         rivers downstream
                                        Salinized soil

          Dried & shrunken
                                     Low-yield land
               lakes
       Degraded ecosystem              Discarded & reclaimed
     downstream and enlarged
           desert area                   Poverty


                   Irrational water development and
                               utilization
        Water Management


Incomplete law       No master         Inefficient institutional
  and policy           plan                  arrangement



                  Lack of integrated
                  water management


 Water disputes       Inefficient        Degraded ecosystem
                      water use


                     Unsustainable
                     management
    Legal and Institutional Framework of Water
                     Legal framework of water

                       National basic water laws
Water Law of PRC ( adopted on January 21, 1988 and in force on July 1, 1988).
Law of PRC on Water Pollution Prevention and Control (adopted on May 11, 1984, in

force in November 1, 1984, amended in 1996).
Law of PRC on Flood Prevention and Control (adopted on January 21, 1988).

Law of the PRC on Water and Soil Conservation (Adopted on June 29, 1991).




                         Local water regulations
Procedures of Xinjiang for Implementing Water Law of PRC, adopted on May 8, 1992.
Regulation for Water Resources Management in Trim River Basin adopted December

11, 1997, in force on the same date. It is the first regulation legally adopted as to apply to
a river basin in China.
Regulations for Protection and Management of Bostan Lake,             adopted on March 30,
1997 and ratified on May 29, 1997.
          Basic Institutional Arrangement

                        Government    of   Xinjiang   Autonomous
                        Region



                               Water Resources          Governments of
                               Bureau                   Prefectures or districts

Water Management
Bureau of Tarim Basin                Sections            Water Resources
                                                         Bureaus


                                                            Sections

                        Government of Counties



                         Water Resources
                         Bureaus



                               Sections


                  Technical                               Administrative
                Major legal and Institutional Issues

Water law
                                       Institutional arrangements
1. Unclear water right
                                       1. Low capacity for implementing
2. No detailed provisions for
                                       integrated water management
integrated water management
                                       2. Managing water quantity but
at the level of river basin
                                       not water quality and ecosystem
3.Encouraging but not regulating
                                       3. Inadequate authorization for water
water-saving activities
                                       allocation and settlement of dispute
4. No detailed rules on ecosystem
                                       4. Lack of ecosystem objectives
preservation except for pollution
                                       5. Lack of communication and
5. No rules for water allocation
                                        coordination mechanism
in draught
                                       6. Lack of implementation and
6. No detailed provisions for public
                                       supervision mechanism
participation
3 Emerging Paradigm
                       Tenth Five-Year                      Ecosystem
                       Plan                                 Restoration plan

                                 Prioritized Comprehensive
                                 Management Plan



                                 Prioritized Comprehensive
                                 Management Project
         Tarim Regulations                                                     TBC


     Market Based Water                                                 GIS Based Information
     Pricing Mechanism                   Enforcing Integrated           Management System
                                         Water Management
                                                                        Stakeholder’s Participation
         Capacity Building                                                & Agreement


             Ecosystem                   Rational Water               Optimized Economic
             Restoration                 Allocation                   Structure




                                 High-efficiency Water Utilization
     Regulations on of Tarim River Basin on Water
  Resources Management ( adopted in December 1997)
                        Breakthroughs
Define the Tarim River Basin.
Remove the administration by various departments
 stimulated in the Water Law.
Integrate ecosystem protection with economic
 development as a guiding principle.
Establish a commission including a standing committee
 with commissioners of all stakeholders.
Formulate the water allocation agreement by committee in
 consultation with all stakeholders.
Define the seven group factors affecting economic
 development and ecosystem protection in determining
 water allocation.
Establish the foundation and its management procedures
 for water resources protection.
        New Institutional Arrangement

                    Government of Xinjiang
                     Autonomous Region

                       Water Resources
                       Commission of
                       Tarim Basin
Water Resources                                     Governments of
Bureau                                              Prefectures or
                       Standing Committee           Districts
                       (Decision-making)

                                                    Water Resources
                                                    Bureaus
                       Management Bureau
                       (Technical &
                       administrative body)




         Training          Information        Representative
         Center            Management         Offices of
                           Center             Sub-basins


 Negotiatory             Membership                   Administrative
Rebirth Project on Tarim Downstream Ecosystem


                        Bosten




                Qiala
                                                Before water injection




Tarim   Basin                    Lake Taitema    After water injection
              Comprehensive Rehabilitation Plan
  Target:“By the end of 2005, a sound ecosystem in Tarim River basin
  will be basically restored”.
  Total Investment: RMB 10.7 billion (US$ 1.29 billion)


                                   Major Actions
• To enforce integrated water, land and ecosystem management;
• To readjust the economic structure;
• To developing water-saving agriculture system by improving the irrigation
 works and applying advanced irrigation technology;
• To construct reservoirs in the mountains and abandon some reservoirs in
the plains;
• To return some farmland to forests and grassland;
• To dredge mainstream and build dikes with ecological sluice gates;
• To adopt stricter provisions for banning unplanned reclamation and unduly
 pumping of water.
                    4 Research in Next Phase
•   Coordination mechanism of integrated management and
    administration at different levels
•   Reasonable and equitable water allocation
•   Reasonable water pricing system
•   River regulation and flood management
•   Dissemination and Communication Strategy




                                                 HELP
                                                          Real people
Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy              Real catchments
                                                              Real answers
              HELP
                                Real people
                                 Real catchments
                                   Real answers


Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy:
 The Global network and Tarim basin in China


            Thank You

				
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