The Amish - PowerPoint by shimeiyan

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									The Amish

                                  Fig. 1: Working the fields

Be not conformed to this world, but be transformed by
the renewing of your mind that ye may prove what is
  good and acceptable and the perfect will of God."
                  (Romans 12:2)
Be not conformed…
   The Amish society has little, if any, desire to
    participate in our modern world, doing so
    only when necessary. However, because of
    songs such “Amish Paradise,” movies such as
    “Witness,” and the huge Amish tourist
    industry, each Amish person accounts for
    $30,000 dollars per year in tourist revenue
    (Kraybill 327), most of us know some basic
    facts about the Amish.
   For example, we know
    that they are very
    religious people.
   We know that they
    dress in a particular
    way with clothes that
    look old-fashioned to
    us. The Amish refer to
    this mode of dress, and
    living, as “plain.”
                              Fig. 2: Amish Youths
   We know they do
    not use electricity or
    drive cars.
   We know that they
    do not like to have
    their picture taken.

                             Fig. 3: Amish, Intercourse Pennsylvania
   We know they tend to
    live in certain areas of
    the country, such as
    Pennsylvania and
   And, we know that
    family plays an
    extremely important
    role in their culture.     Fig. 4: Amish Family
    But beyond these basic facts, the Amish remain a
    mystery to most of us and questions still remain such as:
   Why can the children use roller blades but not bicycles?
   Why will the Amish ride in cars but not own nor drive
   Why can they use calculators but not computers?
   And, is it true that some of the Amish have adopted
    some items from our modern world, such as computers
    and televisions?
Hopefully, by examining their history and
culture in more depth, these questions may be
answered and a greater understanding of the
Amish gained.
Historical Background of the Amish
   In 1517, Martin Luther led the Protestant
    Reformation and the breaking away from the
    Catholic Church.
   In 1525, several followers of a Swiss pastor,
    Ulrich Zwingli, grew impatient with the pace
    of reformation and started their own
    reformation within the Protestant church.
   The leaders of this group included Georg
    Blaurock, Conrad Grebel, and Felix Manz.
   In a secret ceremony, they illegally baptized
    each other and began what is often referred to
    as the Radical Reformation. Because
    everyone in the group had been baptized
    already as infants in the church, either
    Catholic or Protestant, they became know as
    the Anabaptists, which means “rebaptizers.”
   These men held beliefs that differed from the mainline
    Protestant doctrine.
   They believed that only adults willing to live a life of
    “radical obedience to the teachings of Jesus Christ”
    should be baptized (Kraybill 4). Consequently, their
    group refused to baptize infants.
   They also believed that government should not be
    involved with religion, that it had no authority within the
    church, and that the Bible was the only authority the
    church should obey. They also declared themselves to be
Other core beliefs included:
 The church as a covenant community

 Exclusion of errant members from communion

 Literal obedience to the teachings of Christ

 Refusal to swear oaths

 Rejection of violence

 Social separation from the evil world (Kraybill 6).
   Their beliefs brought them into direct conflict with
    civil and church authorities. They were viewed as a
    political threat as they questioned the historical
    interaction of civil government and the church.
   Their refusal to baptize infants defied government
    orders that all infants be baptized. This was done as
    a way to confer citizenship, maintain tax rolls, and
    provide a list of potential military recruits.
   Neither the church nor the government was going to
    allow this group to question their authority, and
    persecutions began almost immediately.
   Less than five
    months after they
    had rebaptized
    themselves, a
    member of the
    Anabaptists was
    executed for
    sedition against the
                           Fig. 5: Anabaptist being burned at the stake
   Despite the persecutions, the movement grew
    and spread throughout Sweden, the
    Netherlands, and Germany.
   However, the persecutions also continued and
    increased. Over the next two centuries,
    thousands of Anabaptists would be killed for
    their religious beliefs. Special “hunters”
    would even be trained to seek them out,
    torture, and kill them (Kraybill 4).
   The persecutions continued in various forms and gradually
    subsided in the 18th century. By then, thousands of
    Anabaptists had sought refuge in other countries, including
   Today the stories of the early days of the Amish religion are
    contained in the Martyr‟s Mirror, originally printed in 1660.
    The Martyr‟s Mirror is one of the Amish‟s most beloved
    books from which they draw strength to continue in their
    faith and beliefs.
                                             Fig. 6: Compassion
                                             for the enemy

Among the stories is one of an Anabaptist named Dirk
Williams. He was being chased by a sheriff when the
sheriff fell through the ice. Williams heard the man‟s
cries for help, turned back and pulled him from the ice,
thus saving his life. The sheriff promptly arrested
Williams, and he was burnt at the stake in 1569.
   Another Anabaptist, Michael Sattler, was
    sentenced to “be delivered to the executioner,
    who shall cut out his tongue, then throw him
    upon a wagon, and tear his body twice with
    red-hot tongs; and after he has been brought
    without the gate, he shall be pinched five
    times in the same manner” (Igou 26). After
    the torture, Sattler was burned at the stake.
   In 1537, a former Catholic by the name of
    Menno Simons joined the Anabaptists. His
    followers would come to be known as
    Mennonites and some of them would later
    settle in the Alsace region of modern-day
    France. One of these men would be Jakob
    Amman, who, in the 1690s, began to have
    problems with Mennonite and Anabaptist
   The church had drifted from many of its original ways,
    Amman declared, becoming too lenient in the process. He
    called for reform and renewal within the Mennonite and the
    Anabaptist church.
   Some of the problems he had with the church revolved
    around communion. Amman thought that communion should
    be held twice a year instead of the annual service that was
    then being held. He also contended that foot washing should
    be part of the communion service; something the Mennonites
    had drifted away from.
   He also disagreed with the manner of
    excommunication of those who disobeyed church
    doctrine. Amman argued that not only should they be
    cast out of the church, but they should also be
    shunned in social circles as well, with true believers
    breaking off all contact with them.
   Amman began to have open disagreements with the
    Swiss Anabaptist bishop, Hans Reist. These
    disagreements came to a head the day that Amman
    and his followers excommunicated Reist and other
    leaders of the church.
   Despite later efforts to heal this breach, the damage had
    been done and Amman‟s followers split from the
    Mennonite church in 1693. They would later come to be
    known as Amish, named after Jakob Amman.
   After the split, Amman followers adopted their own
    doctrine that included, among other things, prohibitions
    against trimming of beards, “fashionable” dress, and the
    use of buttons. Amman‟s followers would forgo the use of
    buttons, utilizing hook and eyes instead. They often
    referred to the Mennonite church they had left as the
    “button people.”
The Amish Today: Day to Day Living
   Today, the Amish
    order their
    communities around
    three basic
    settlement, district,
    and affiliation.

                            Fig. 7: Old Order Amish Couple circa 1940
   The settlement consists of the Amish families who
    live within a geographical area. These settlements
    range in size from a few families to several thousand
    people. One such settlement is in Lancaster County,
    Pennsylvania. The settlement may have non-Amish,
    or “English” homes scattered amongst the Amish
    homes, but towards the center of the settlement, it
    will be almost exclusively Amish homes and farms.
    In some areas, the Amish may own up to 90% of the
    farmland within their settlement area.
   The district refers to the church district, the basic
    organizational unit within the Amish society. The district
    typically consists of approximately twenty-five to thirty-five
    families living in close proximately to each other. Church
    services are held in homes, so houses in the district need to be
    large enough to accommodate all families with the district.
    When the district becomes too large, a new district is formed.
    In Lancaster County, four or five new districts are formed
    every year.
   An affiliation is a cluster of Amish congregations in
    spiritual fellowship with each other. Congregations,
    or districts, within each affiliation will follow similar
    religious and social practices, cooperating with each
    other to survive. The Old Order Amish of Lancaster
    County is one such affiliation. However, there are
    also New Order Amish affiliations and the Beachy
    Amish affiliation, who are more progressive and
    thus, outside of the Old Order affiliation because of
    their views on religious and social issues.
   There are over 1, 300 districts scattered
    throughout America and Canada today, with a
    total population around 180,000.
   Of the 250 settlements, 70% were founded
    after 1960.
   The largest settlement is in Ohio and contains
    more than 150 districts.
Old Order Amish
   It is the picture of the
    Old Order Amish with
    their plain clothes and
    buggies that comes to
    most people‟s mind
    when they think Amish.
   The Old Order Amish
    today have deviated little
    from the regulations
    established by Jakob
    Amman over 300 years         Fig. 8: Old Order Amish at a horse auction

   They still dress plain, do not use electricity, do not
    own or drive cars, do not have telephones in their
    homes, and forbid the use of most modern farm
    equipment, including air-filled tires.
   In an Old Order Amish home, all lighting is supplied
    by candle or oil and gas lamp. Bottle-gas appliances
    are acceptable under the Ordnung. The Ordnung, a
    verbal standard that the Amish live by, will be
    discussed in detail later.
                   Fig. 9: Old Order Amish with farm equipment

   However, look inside an Old Order Amish cow barn and you
    will find a modern automated milking system with refrigerated
    tanks. Because the Amish must trade with the outside world to
    survive, they must conform to modern health and agriculture
    laws mandated by the various federal, state and local agencies.
    Thus, the modern equipment is necessary. However, it is all
    powered by gas generators, not electricity.
   Old Order Amish follow strict clothing regulations. Men
    wear black suits without lapels or buttons, white or blue
    shirts, black suspenders, black shoes or boots and broad-
    brimmed hats in black felt or natural straw. Old Order
    women wear a frock type dress of mid-calf to ankle
    length with black stockings, an apron, black shoes or
    boots, black cape, and either a white "prayer cap" (if
    baptized) or a black hood.
   Only solid colors are worn, with darker colors favored
    over lighter ones. The idea behind the dress code is not
    only that it sets them apart from the world, but that is also
    eliminates pride and envy.
   Men crop their hair, and
    wear beards, if married,
    but not mustaches as
    they are associated with
    the military.
   Women do not cut their
    hair but wear it tied in a
    bun on their head, which     Fig. 10: Amish women
    is always covered once
    she is baptized.
                                                   Fig. 11: Young
                                                   Amish out for a

   The Old Order Amish make their own clothes, although
    they do purchase the fabric. Hats, suspenders, and shoes
    can be bought ready-made.
   The buggies they drive vary according to purpose. The
    “family” buggy will always be covered. Young people
    drive open buggies, such as the one in the photo above.
   Old Order Amish use High German for church services,
    and their Bibles are also printed in High German. All
    Amish can speak English, but they use a form of Low
    German amongst themselves in everyday activities.
   The name they give to those outside their order, the
    “English,” is not viewed by the Amish as derogatory, but
    simply refers to the language used most often by the
    world outside the order.
New Order and Beachy Amish

   The important thing to remember when studying the
    Amish is that there are many variations within the
    culture. Some are more strict then others in matters
    of religion and society codes. Adherence varies from
    affiliation to affiliation: some allow one thing while
    banning another.
   For example, the New Order and Beachy Amish
    vary greatly from the Old Order in daily life, but not
    in religious practice.
   The New Order Amish are more progressive than the
    Old Order but still restrictive in the use of modern
    items. They use telephones in their homes, allow air
    operated equipment, electrical generators, bicycles,
    and gas pressurized lights. They also allow the use
    of rubber air-filled tires, milking machines and milk
    bulk tanks. However, horses are still mandated for
    field work and transportation. They do not own or
    drive cars.
   The Beachy Amish have telephones, more modern
    clothing, and utilize modern farm equipment. They
    are also are allowed to own and drive cars and meet
    for worship in meeting houses instead of private
    homes. All but six of the Beachy districts now use
    English in their worship instead of German. They
    refer to their churches as fellowships and maintain
    just enough centralization to maintain the sense of
    congregationalism that is so highly valued by all
   There are approximately 150 districts of
    Beachy Amish. They have fellowships in
    America, Latin America, Africa, Australia,
    and parts of Europe. They are considered by
    many in the Amish and Mennonite
    communities to be a combination of both
   The New Order Amish are found almost
    exclusively in Ohio and Pennsylvania.
   Both groups still hold to the Ordnung, like the Old
    Order, but in varying degrees.
   Both groups also differ from the Old Order in the issues
    of Meidung (avoidance), Streng-Meidung (strict
    banning): what we today refer to as shunning.
   The New Order and the Beachy Amish practice, for the
    most part, avoidance and not total shunning, like the Old
Day to Day Life: little known facts
   The Amish are exempt from paying Social
    Security taxes, however they do pay all other
    federal, state, and local taxes.
   They provide their own social security within
    their communities. Members are taken care of
    and provided for at all stages of life. Everyone
    is expected to contribute to a fund that is used
    to help members who need financial
   Musical instruments are not allowed among the Old
    Order Amish, as they believe it would lead to pride
    and the stirring up of emotions.
   Amish do not believe in having their picture taken;
    they consider photographs to be graven images and
    thus against God‟s law. However, many photos of
    the Amish are to be found. This is because while
    they will not pose for photos, they do not object to
    someone taking an unposed photo if permission is
    asked beforehand.
                                                      Fig. 12: On the
                                                      way to a wedding

   Families are a cornerstone of the Amish community, and
    as such, marriage is an important part of life.
   Nine out of every ten adult Amish are married.
   Marriages are traditionally held on a Tuesday or Thursday
    in November, after fall Communion
   Most couples meet at “singings,” which are similar to
    country dances. Both must be members of the church to
   In October, the names of those seeking to be married are
    “published” by being read at Sunday service. The couple
    will not attend church that day, instead the woman will
    fix a special meal for her finance, which they eat at home
   Amish wedding dresses are blue and have no lace or
    train. This same dress is usually used by the woman to
    wear to church, and she will more than likely be buried in
    it as well.
   The wedding service lasts for up to five hours,
    after which is a huge feast which continues
    long into the night. The marriage night is
    spent at the house of the bride‟s parents.
   The newlyweds will spend the rest of the
    winter visiting and spending time at various
    relatives‟ houses. It will be spring before they
    establish a home of their own.
   The Amish believe large families are a blessing from
    God, so contraception is not practiced. The typical
    Amish family has 8.5 children.
   By the age of forty-five, an Amish woman has
    probably given birth to seven children.
   Under the Ordnung, divorce is not allowed
   Children are usually
    born at home and
    attend school only
    through the eighth
   Amish children
    walk to school,
    which are usually
    one room buildings.
                           Fig. 13: An Amish classroom
   After the eighth grade, children are schooled at
    home, learning and working alongside their family
    until they marry and start a family of their own. In
    1972, the Amish won an exemption from the U.S.
    Supreme Court, granting them exemption from
    Federal or state mandated school attendance. They
    had argued that their religious beliefs teach that a
    child should be schooled at home beyond the eighth
    grade, and to send their children to school beyond
    that would violate their religious teaching.
   The Amish also currently have a proposal
    before the government requesting exemption
    from Federal Labor Laws regulating teen-
    agers and certain heavy woodworking
    machinery. Over the last decade, federal
    inspectors have fined some Amish wood mills
    as much as $20,000 for illegally allowing
    teens to work in the same buildings as this
   Although the proposal does not “specifically
    mention the Amish, it would give them an
    unconstitutional exception simply because of their
    religious affiliation." The Amish wish their teen-
    agers to be able to be around the equipment in order
    to learn how to operate it. They are seeking
    exemption based on religious grounds, as they view
    these apprenticeships as a “cornerstone of their
    faith” (Jordan),
   In Amish society, woman are viewed as equal
    partners in the marriage, but it is the man who
    holds authority in the family and the church.
    Wives are expected to submit to their
   Women do help with all aspects of family
    chores, although the men seldom help with
    household type work.
   While women‟s rights is not an issue among
    the Amish, some women do wish for more
    equality and more modern conveniences to
    make their household job easier.
   While more Amish women today own their
    own businesses than in the past, their
    traditional role is still viewed as being in the
    house taking care of home and family.
   The Amish have no prohibition against using
    modern health services or medicines. They
    view these as ways of healing that are
    blessings from God.
   While the Amish do not celebrate some
    national holidays such as Memorial Day or
    the Fourth of July, they do observe
    Thanksgiving Day, Christmas, New Year‟s
    Day, and Easter, as well as other holidays that
    spring from their European roots, such as St.
    Michael's Day.
   The Amish barn
    rising is another
    aspect of their
    culture that most
    people know
    about. The barn
    is started in the
    morning and
    finished by that
    night.              Fig. 14: Seven in the morning
   One day work/social events, like the barn
    raising, are called „frolics.” Hundreds of
    people may come together to build a school,
    help plant a field, or women may gather to
    help clean a house or make a quilt. Women
    also hold Sisters‟ Day, where all the sisters in
    a family gather one day a month to visit and
    chat. They will usually work on a quilt during
    that time, or clean a house.
   While the Old Order Amish can not own cars, they
    often pay someone to drive them to various places
    too far to drive their buggy.
   Amish also take vacations to such places as Europe.
    Although they are forbidden to fly, they can take a
    train or a boat to their destination. One popular
    vacation spot is an Amish community in Florida,
    which attracts hundreds of Amish on their vacations
    every year.
Amish Gangs
   The Rumspringa is a time of life for Amish that
    typically begins at the age of sixteen and lasts until
    they are married. It loosely translates as “sowing
    wild oats.”
   During this time, a young person will join a “gang”
    with whom they run around with on the weekends.
   During this period of their lives, the youth are
    viewed as falling between the authority of their
    parents and the church because they are not yet
   In Lancaster County alone, there are over
    twenty six Amish youth gangs, with names
    such as the Bluebirds, Canaries, Pine Cones,
    Drifters, Shotguns, Rockys, and Quakers.
   Youth are free to join the gang of their choice.
    The gang will then become their primary
    social group until their marriage.
   Gangs vary in the intensity of their activities.
   While some gangs are reserved and do no more wild
    behavior than hold a dance on Saturday night or a
    volleyball game, others may hold parties where beer
    kegs will be present, modern music played by live
    bands with electric instruments, and all attendees
    dress in secular clothing.
   Some gangs place fancy reflective tape on their
    buggies, which may have a radio or CD player
    hidden inside.
   In 1998, two Amish men were arrested in
    Pennsylvania for buying cocaine, which they then
    sold to other members of their gang.
   This very public incident, coupled with an increase
    in alcohol abuse among the youth in the gangs,
    prompted members of the Amish community to rein
    in the gangs to some extent. Many events are now
    chaperoned by adults and a closer eye are kept on the
    youth during these years.
Amish Religious Life
   Amish are Christians, with all traditional
    Christian beliefs in the Divinity of Christ, the
    Trinity, salvation, etc.
   The Ordnung, roughly translated it means
    order, is a set of oral laws that regulates all
    aspects of Amish society, from religion to
    family life. It is not something that is written
    down, instead all Amish “just know it, that‟s
    all” (Kraybill 112).
   The Ordnung is something that all Amish
    grow up with and learn by observing adults
    and their behavior.
   In some aspects of life, the Ordnung is very
    specific, such as in the case of how hair
    should be worn. Other areas, such as food
    issues, are more open to individual
   New issues are constantly being addressed in the
    Ordnung as technology advances. It was recently
    decided that transplanting cow embryos was not to
    be allowed but that battery operated calculators
    could be used.
   However, unless a practice begins to cause problems
    within the community, or is something that would
    obviously be forbidden, it is usually either
    overlooked or not addressed within the Ordnung.
   Exemptions are made in some cases. A mental
    challenged child may be allowed to have a
    bicycle, for example, or a family with medical
    problems may be allowed to connect to
    electricity to run needed medical equipment.
Examples of Practices Prescribed by
the Ordnung:
   color and style of clothing
   hat styles for men
   order of the worship service
   kneeling for prayer in worship
   marriage within the church
   use of horses for fieldwork
   use of Pennsylvania German
   steel wheels on machinery
Examples of things prohibited by the
   air transportation
   central heating in homes
   electricity from public power lines
   entering military service
   jewelry, including wedding rings and wrist watches
   joining worldly (public) organizations
   owning computers, televisions, radios
   using tractors for fieldwork
   wall-to-wall carpeting (Kraybill 116)
   Amish are typically baptized around the age
    of nineteen to twenty two. Baptism is viewed
    as a vow that the person agrees to submit to
    the church, the community, and the Ordnung.
   Worship services are held every other Sunday
    in homes of members. The services
    traditionally last three hours, starting around
    8:00am, lasting until 3:00pm with the meal
    that follows.
   Men and women enter the house through different
    doors and sit separately for worship and eating.
   Except in some New Order or Beach Amish districts,
    services are held in High German.
   The worship service usually consists of fellowship,
    followed by congregational singing, a sermon,
    prayer, reading of Scripture, another sermon, more
    prayer, and a benediction. A meal is served
   Who will preach is not decided until that morning:
    this precludes any feelings of pride. However, only
    ordained men are allowed to preach.
   There is no music, offering, cross, candles, or any
    other items likely to be found in a modern worship
    service. The Amish worship as they live: simply.
   Sunday is considered holy; a day when no work is to
    be done or money transacted. Even those few who
    smoke refrain from doing so on Sunday.
   Communion is held twice a year and only after any
    changes to the Ordung have been agreed upon and
    the pastors feel all have fully confessed of their sins.
   The Communion service will last all day, from
    8:00am to 4:00pm, culminating in a foot washing
    ceremony in which all members ritually wash each
    other‟s feet.
   Ministers are chosen by lot from a list of men
    recommended by men in the community.
   A slip of paper with a Bible verse will be placed in a
    song book; each man nominated, who agrees to
    serve, will then take a book from the pile and open
    it. The one whose book has the slip of paper is the
    one who will be ordained.
   Amish ministers receive no pay, and they serve for
    life. A saying among the Amish is “only God can
    fire an Amish minister” (Kraybill 130).
   Ministers are then ordained in the church, after
    which their family will be expected to follow the
    Ordnung to the exacting letter.
   Within the Amish community, a term is often
    used to describe their life style. This word is
    Gelassenheit. It means, roughly translated, a
    yielding or submission, and it signifies the
    Amish life.
   Gelassenheit involves submission to the
    family, submission to the community,
    submission to tradition, submission to the
    Ordnung, submission to the church, and most
    important, submission to God.
Amish and Technology
   The Amish have found it increasingly difficult to
    moderate their beliefs with technology. This has
    resulted in some unusual practices throughout the
   For example, phones are not allowed in homes, but
    the use of them is allowed, so you will see Amish
    using the phones of their non-Amish neighbors or
    the “community phone” that can be found outside
    stores or some houses.
   The use of cell phones is increasing among
    the Amish, as they are easily hid from
    inquiring neighbors‟ eyes.
   Electricity generated from batteries or gas
    powered generators is allowed under the
   These electricity may be used for things such
    as fence chargers, cow trainers, agitators for
    bulk milk tanks, calculators, adding machines,
    reading lights for the elderly, hand-held drills,
    small motors to operate equipment in shops,
    welders, the electrical tools needed by mobile
    construction crews, and to recharge batteries
    for a variety of uses.
   It can not be used for general lighting in
    houses or barns, computers, hair dryers, or
    other similar modern electrical appliances,
    among other things.
   If an Amish buys a house from an “English,”
    he has one year to tear out all electrical wiring
    in the house or face sanctions from the
   Owning a car is grounds
    for automatic expulsion
    from the order.
   A child may ride a
    scooter, but bicycles are
    forbidden. When asked
    why, one Amish replied,
    “I don‟t know, they just
    are” (Kraybill 12).
                                Fig. 15: Boy and his scooter
   One young Amish woman joked that the “the
    men make the rules so that‟s why more
    modern things are permitted in the barn than
    in the house” (Kraybill 85).

   There are three Biblical passages the Amish
    often quote to define who they are and why
    they live as they do.
   The first verse is Peter 2:9: "But you are a
    chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy
    nation, a peculiar people.”
   The Amish feel this passage applies to them
    and that if it did not, then it is an indicator that
    something is wrong and must be corrected.
   The second verse is Matthew 5:16: "Let your light so
    shine before men, that they may see your good
    works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.”
   This verse is viewed as being directed towards
    themselves. The Amish feel that their plain clothes,
    honesty, generosity, life style, piety, and obedience
    to God are ways the world may see their good works
    and they may glorify God.
   The third passage comes from 1 Corinthians 2:14:
    "But the natural man receives not the things of the
    Spirit of God, for they are foolishness unto him;
    neither can he know them, because they are
    spiritually discerned.”
   This third verse is seen by the Amish as explanation
    as to why the rest of the world does not follow their
    way of life and why their culture seems foolish to
    those outside their community.
   The Amish today face increasing pressure to
    conform to the world. Until now they have
    managed to meld modernity with their beliefs
    without much social upheaval. Only time will
    tell if they can continue to do so successfully.
Works Cited
   Good, Merle and Phyllis. 20 Most Asked Questions about the Amish and Mennonites.
        Intercourse, Pennsylvania: Good Books, 1995.

   Igou, Brad. The Amish in Their Own Words: The Amish in Their Own Words : Amish
         Writings From 25 Years of Family Life Magazine. netlibrary. 9 October 2003. <http:/

   Jordan, Lara, Jakes. “Amish Want Labor Laws for Teens Relaxed.” 8 October
         2003. 10 October 2003. <

   Kraybill, Donald. The Riddle of Amish Culture. netlibrary. 9 October 2003.
Image Credits
   Figure 1: Plowing the fields. How Stuff Works. 9 October 2003. <http://
   Figure 2: Graham, Ira. Amish Youth. Ira Graham Photography web site. 9 October 2003.
   Figure 3: Peled, Doran. Amish, Intercourse, Pennsylvania. 9 October 2003.
   Fig. 4: Amish Family. Aaron and Jessica‟s Buggy Rides. 9 October 2003.
   Figure 5: Anabaptist being burnt at the stake. The Hutterian Brethren. 9 October 2003.
   Figure 6: “Compassion for the Enemy.” Mennonite Quarterly Review. 9 October 2003.
   Figure 7: Old Order Amish Couple. Library of Congress Photo Archives. 9 October 2003.
   Figure 8: Old Order Amish at a horse auction. Pennsylvania Press Association. 9 October
          2003. <>.
   Figure 9: Mennonite Historical Society of Canada. 9 October 2003. <
   Figure 10: R.C. Quilts. 9 October 2003. <>.
   Figure 11: 9 October 2003. <>.
   Figure 12: Mennonite Historical Society of Canada. 9 October 2003. <
   Figure 13: Who are the Amish? 9 October 2003. <
   Figure 14: Who are the Amish. 9 October 2003. <
   Figure 15: Aaron and Jessica‟s Buggy Rides. 9 October 2003.

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