Teacher/Student Kia LaDawn Clements Teacher Grade: 2nd grade Subject: Mathematics Date: 12-05--07 1. Briefly describe the students in this class. This is a second grade class comprised of 20 children, 13 boys and 7 girls. There is diversity amongst the children: 3 African American girls, 2 African American boys, 1 Asian boy, 1 Puerto Rican girl, and 13 Caucasian (8 boys, 5 girls). One child has seizures. Another has bad allergies, both food and seasonal. One child has chronic bronchitis. Most of the children are 6 turning seven. Over half from single parent households due to divorce, 1 widowed, the remainder by choice. The socio-economic backgrounds are mixed. Our classroom is somewhat spacious with 4 computers and a kitchenette area. One male has Spina Bifida but is pretty mobile in the upper torso. He uses a wheelchair. 2. What are your goals for the lesson? What do you want the students to learn? Math lessons at this age group should be engaging and teach the concepts but also allow the students to connect math as a living language. I want them to enjoy math and see it as a part of everyday life. So this lesson is based on a lesson from http://school.discoveryeducation.com/lessonplans/everydaymath/ in which students will be able to (SWBAT): -Discuss how to solve word problems by using money. -Work as a whole group to solve word problems focusing on addition, subtraction, multiplication, and simple fractions. -Work cooperatively in 5 groups of 4 students to provide peer coaching and tutoring (students typically retain 90% of material learned in this cooperative learning (CL) setting to students who may not be mathematical/logical thinkers (Bloom’s reference). Typically, this lesson is taught in two parts. Counting money is something that most children enjoy and can reason without proper mathematical terms the difference between dollars and coins. By 2nd grade, students are able to reason numerically (Math Contents Standard 1). They have developed and continue to solve problems by having an understanding of number and operations. They can defend their position by using real numbers and expressing them verbally, physically, and symbolically. Students will work together to apply previously learned math skills (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and fractions) to solve real life problems about money. The technology used in this lesson will show students additional ways to count change and solve their word problems by showing additional ways to count. They will see virtual manipulatives, as well as use physical ones, such as, fake money and real money. Keeping in mind that 2nd graders can read and use computers: 1. Students will be asked to think about the times they have been given money by a relative, friend, stranger, or themselves. Questions to Class? How much money do you earn for your weekly or monthly allowance? How many times are you paid in a month for completing your chores or jobs around the household? How much money would you need to save to purchase a new toy? 2. SWBAT understand they use math everyday and every time they figure out how much money they have, spend, need, or save. On computer, have 4 google- jockeys look up the U.S. Franklin Mint and we discuss where money is printed, etc. 3. They will work cooperatively as a whole to solve general problems and watch the virtual programs regarding money. 4. Then they will answer a main problem on the Smart Board. By the end of the lesson SWBAT reason amounts of money numerically and develop efficient strategies for counting (Standard 1) and addressed the National Standards for teachers of mathematics by teaching them numbers and operations while solving problems. Students will use multiple strategies to compare money and demonstrate an understanding that our money system is based on combinations of ones and tens-place value. They will also have met Process Standard 5-problem solving. SWBAT meet the following performance indicators also: 2.201 and 2.202 for standard one; 2.212, 2.213, and 2.214 for standard 5. Each Q and exercise within the lesson moves them along Bloom’s taxonomy towards evaluative thinking mode. 3. Why are these goals suitable for this group of students? These goals are suitable for this group of students because most 2 nd graders had received various amounts of money and can identify the value of a mixed set of coins with a value less than or equal to a dollar. They can count dollars as whole number values. 4. How do these goals support the district’s curriculum, state frameworks, and/or content standards? This lesson plan is taught in two days but introduces the student to both Delaware’s content and process standards as well as the National Council for Teaching Mathematics Standards by meeting the following criteria: Numeric reasoning, numbers and operations, and problem solving. It is Delaware’s expectation that by grade 2, SWBAT develop and apply strategies to solve problems, use mathematical notations and language to defend their positions, and be able to count money and understand its value in coins less than or equal to one dollar. I would also add that to understand math concepts and realize we use it everyday, teaches students math is a living language. Simultaneously, they should be moving toward evaluative thinking in the processing of all their information. In other words, once they’ve been taught, can they apply the concepts? This proves the process of learning. It involves several types of learning styles: visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and logical/mathematical. 5. How do these goals relate to broader curriculum goals in the discipline as a whole or in other disciplines? Mathematics is one of the original elements of the basis of an education: Reading, Writing, and Erythematic (as people would say jokingly). In 2007, an individual is expected to be able to read, write, and count. Although, some adults struggle with literacy and mathematics. Research says that math should be real to people so that it can be used in everyday aspects of life. It is a necessary skill set if one plans on being employed and/or furthering his/her education. Math helps sharpen the analytical skills in order to solve problems. It will help tremendously in science-oriented classes. It also helps in other disciplines like business or economics where you analyze data. It also helps with writing and understanding theories. It is as fundamental as being able to read. By using technology in helping to develop mathematical skill sets, it moves the students towards a higher-order of thinking. 6. How do you plan to engage students in the content? What will you do? What will the students do? (include time estimates). Describe: Focus or establish a mindset o Review of previous learning diagnosis of student needs State objective or purpose of the lesson o Tell students what it is they are expected to know or be able to do o Explain why the lesson is relevant to real life situations and/or related to future learning Provide Instructional Input o Content and vocabulary the student will need to know o Describe strategies and presentation methods to be used (lecture, demonstration, discussion, experiments, inquiry, direct instruction) Model o Explain, describe, and/or illustrate procedural steps and key concepts o Go through the process and explain to the students what you are doing Show a finished product of what is expected from the student. Day 1: We will conduct a warm-up exercise as a whole class (10 minutes): “Good Morning, boys and girls”! I would like for you to tell me how much money you see on the Smart Board? (have a visual of various coins totaling under $1.00 to assess how many children know the proper values). Define money, U.S. Mint, use google jockeys to search the web for U.S. Franklin Mint. Questions to Class: How many dimes, nickels, pennies, quarters are on the screen? How much money is in your piggybank at home? Do you have a piggybank at home? Why is it important to have some coins saved in a piggybank (these answers will be the best)? Which do you like best coins or dollars and why? Math lessons at this age group should be engaging and teach the concepts but also allow the students to connect mathematics as a living language. I want them to not fear math but enjoy it in everyday routines and something as enjoyable as saving for a new toy or a present for me. Counting is very important for the handling of money. This is the firs day of a continuing lesson. It will take 3 days to complete all pieces. Day 1 is the intro. Explain time to students. Use the Smart Board as I describe what our objectives are over the next two days. (if the lesson is truly engaging, absenteeism should be low over the next two days). Tell students they are learning how numbers make sense, counting money helps them as they grow & eventually they will get a great job and come back & buy me great presents (use humor throughout lessons if appropriate). Today involves more lecture instruction on concepts and questions to the whole group and from the group. The theories will be explained and I will model how to solve a word problem first on my whiteboard. “Teacher Kia told you to buy a notebook, a ruler, a pencil, and an eraser for class. The notebook costs $3.00, the ruler $1.50, the pencil $.25, and the eraser $.50. What is the total amount of money you need to buy these items”? Q to Class? How would you solve this problem? *Give them tips to help solve word problems: Tell them to read the problem carefully. Tell them which operations they should use. The words total amount usually mean to add something together. Go through the problem to show them how. Explain how they need $5.25 to have enough money to purchase the supplies. Discuss the importance of showing the steps involved in solving a problem. Q to Class? How much money do you need to buy 3 erasers and 3 notebooks? *Give tip this involves multiplication of items because we hear the word “each”. Do another problem together as a whole group in relation to their chores around the house and have them calculate how much their allowance is per week and then for the month. Have the students break into their CL peer groups. Q’s to Class? Do you now understand that math is part of everyday life? As a group answer the following q’s: Give 2 examples of how money comes up in your lives everyday? Which words in a word problem usually mean addition is the correct operations to use? …multiplication to use? Then they get to go shopping in our make-believe store. Depending on time they will shop and have all items selected. They will then go to the computer, where I have built Excel spreadsheets for them to fill in the items selected. But they will have to figure out the formulas (operations to use). The students will need to tell me, which operations they used, show the total amount of the bill, how much change they will receive from the $20.00 (given to shop with), and what they will do with any change amount. Day 2: SWBAT complete the shopping spree questions. Then they will come over to me as a group to checkout. Students can go back to the computers (1 group will have to use mine) and have manipulatives help them assess the amounts of change. They can use the Excel to guide them along. Assist students who may be struggling. May allow peer tutoring also if any student done quickly. Depending on time available, have a round table discussion about how numbers help businesses. Ask if any of the children’s families own companies? 7. What difficulties do students typically experience in this area, and how do you plan to anticipate these difficulties? This lesson is divided into 2 parts. So if anyone is absent, this student may lag behind. It may delay the group finishing as a whole. It is a lot of material and several concepts to cover at once. Flexibility will be essential. However, the lesson is balanced because it engages a 7 year old and addresses a good portion of multiple intelligences. Hopefully, by looking at the virtual manipulatives and using real money during the CL sessions, it will also engage the artistic learners as well. 8. What instructional materials or other resources, if any, will you use? List all equipment and materials needed. Include: Spectrum Math, Mc-Graw Hill Publications, Numbers (Math Matters Series, Vol. 1) Grolier Educational Computers, whiteboard Mathematical software, Little Einstein CD rom playing, etc. Seatwork (fake money, real money- coins for each group totaling 1.00, virtual manipulatives, items to purchase (5 sets) etc.) 9. How did you plan to assess student achievement of the goals? What procedures will you use? (Attached any tests or performance tasks, with accompanying scoring guides or rubrics.) On Day 2, they will receive real money to come and purchase the items from me at my checkout cash register. They can shop together and checkout in their peer group. They will need to know the total amount of items selected during their shopping spree and how much change they will be issued. 2 handouts to complete independently. I have been walking around assisting. Their peers have provided additional support. Our math/logical children are also peer counseling. Cooperative learning research states that by teaching in this method, a student should retain 90% of total instruction. Day 1 and 2 were grouped in 5 sets of 4 and focused on cooperative work. Then I will use a 3 point rubric to evaluate how well the students listened in class, participated in the shopping spree and class discussions, and were able to apply the techniques, virtual manipulatives, etc. to what they have learned to write 2 of their own word problems. A students is given: 3 points: very attentive during class; actively participates in class discussions; and applied what they learned to write accurate, interesting word problems 2 points: somewhat attentive during class; showed some involvement during class discussions; and applied what they learned to write satisfactory word problems. 1 points: not attentive during class; showed little involvement during class discussions; and had difficulty applying what they learned to write their own word problems. 10. How do you plan to use the results of the assessment? On Day 2, the rubrics are being used as part of the student’s math grade. Their peers will also have assessed them through peer tutoring. This lesson plan will build comprehension and help them eventually solve larger word problems and more complex math concepts. The students will have met certain state standards as well.