Environmental journalism and the ecological conscious cultivation

Document Sample
Environmental journalism and the ecological conscious cultivation Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                                                                Dang Min
                                             Environmental journalism and the ecological conscious cultivation of the public



Environmental journalism and the ecological conscious cultivation of the
public
Dang Min

School of Journalism, Fudan University
email: 082013023@fudan.edu.cn

Introduction

In recent years the environmental protection has already gradually entered into our country macroscopic
decision-making and system reform mainstream. In China, the lack of the public ecological law conscious and
science conception that manifests the lack of ecological conscious. The environmental journalism of China
takes shape relatively late, in 1980s environmental journalism began to appear in china, developed rapidly in
the 1990s, guided the masses environmental consciousness. As the bridge between government, the public and
experts, the quality and effectiveness of environmental reporting of our mass media could directly affect our
environmental development.
Most researchers have regarded environmental issue just as a scientific problem. In this article environmental
issue is constructed by media or other cultural mechanism, just like any other social problems. Then, how
does mass media construct environmental issue?

The analysis of environmental reports in “People’s Daily” from 2002 to 2006

This article through systematically content analysis more than 5000 environment reported in continuously 5
years “People’s Daily”form 2002 to 2006 summarizes our country environment report present situation and
problems. In order to provide wonderful insight to help inform communities about sustainable cities.

Methods

Selection of the media
The targeted topics of this research are about newspapers. Therefore, I have chosen an integrated Daily
Newspaper - "People's Daily" (national edition), the newspaper is published for the whole country, which is
the most authoritative party newspaper in China.
The range of time selected
The material of media is collected mainly in January 2002 to December 2006. In 2006 China has been
identified as the "ecological safety and environment-friendly society", China made great effort on the
environmental protection in that year. In terms of some special festival and meeting in some months which
would effect the content of reports. I have chosen the environmental reports in April and November.
The selected unit
The reports of "People's Daily" (national edition) whose main topics are about environment or environmental
protection, including news, reviews, photos and graphics, each one is counted as one unit of analysis.

Results and Discussion

The total number of reports about environment are 1275.
According to this graph, the trend was growing in general.




                                                    Page 131
 Universitas 21 International Graduate Research Conference: Sustainable Cities for the Future
 Melbourne & Brisbane. Nov 29 – Dec 5, 2009

                          Table 1 - The numbers of environmental news in "People's Daily" among 5 years.
                                                                  Number      Ratio(%)
                                                         2002       176         13.8
                                                         2003       148         11.6
                                                         2004       247         19.4
                                                         2005       343         26.9
                                                         2006       361         28.3
                                                         total     1275         100


 Thematic analysis
 —"key" are relatively static stability, "hot spots" are dynamic changing.

 In this study, the green theme is divided into 33 categories, selecting the theme whose number were among the
 top 10 each year to make analysis.
                 Table 2 - The distribution of topics of enviornmental reports in "People's Daily" (2002--2006)
sequence                  1                         2                          3                          4                            5
  year          theme         amount      theme          amount       theme        amount        theme         amount        theme         amount
  2002       philosophy        324         legal          296      air pollution    263        freshwater       201        terrestrial      199
             and culture               administration                                           pollution                 ecosystem
 2003            legal          341     philosophy         302      freshwater      236       air pollution     225        terrestrial      210
            administration              and culture                  pollution                                            ecosystem
 2004            legal          426     philosophy         411     air pollution    269        freshwater       323        terrestrial      302
            administration              and culture                                             pollution                 ecosystem
 2005            legal          455     philosophy         428      freshwater      374       air pollution     319        economic         307
            administration              and culture                  pollution                                               means
 2006            legal          627      economic          603      philosophy      406       air pollution     397       freshwater        361
            administration                 means                    and culture                                            pollution
sequence                  6                         7                          8                           9                          10
  year          theme         amount      theme          Amount        theme       amount         theme        amount        theme         amount
  2002        economic         195      food safety       142          urban         98         biological       81       solid waste        53
                means                                                 ecology                   protection                 pollution
 2003         economic          183    urban ecology       143      solid waste     103        food safety       78        biological        62
                means                                                pollution                                             protection
 2004         economic          243    urban ecology       189      energy and      126        biological       115     disertafication      68
                means                                              environment                 protection                & sandstorm
 2005         terrestrial       286      energy and        187         urban        154      disertafication    113     environmental        97
              ecosystem                 environment                   ecology                 & sandstorm                   missions
 2006         terrestrial       356    disertafication     256      energy and      207      urban ecology      167           green         154
              ecosystem                 & sandstorm                environment                                           consumption


 Source analysis
 —the official authority can not be shaken, the reporters’ witness are important channel, other channels are
 weak.
                Table 3 - The frequency of the source of enviornmental reports in "People's Daily" (2002--2006)
           official    expert     Non-governmental organizations             public       own journalist       other media      unknown
 2002       46.6         4.5                  3.3                             0.0              41.6                3.4            0.6
 2003       49.3         5.2                  3.9                             0.3              37.6                3.3            0.4
 2004       49.5         5.3                  3.6                             0.4              37.1                3.7            0.4
 2005       50.6         8.2                  3.6                             0.0              34.6                2.5            0.5
 2006       50.4         8.3                  3.3                             0.0              35.8                2.2            0.0
 total      49.3         6.3                  3.6                             0.1              37.3                3.0            0.4




                                                                   Page 132
                                                                                                                          Dang Min
                                                     Environmental journalism and the ecological conscious cultivation of the public


Dimensions analysis
—strengthening the government-led, neglecting of public environmental awareness training.
              Table 4 - the distribution of dimensions of enviornmental reports in "People's Daily" 2002--2006)
        Total          Statement          Government         Supervise         Supervise           Culture Citizen's         other
        number of      of facts           initiatives        enterprises and   legal               Environmental
        reports                                              individuals       department          Awareness
2002    176            161                102                27                14                  15                        2
2003    148            133                89                 33                12                  20                        5
2004    247            237                152                47                24                  35                        7
2005    343            331                175                49                26                  54                        4
2006    361            354                184                58                28                  61                        15


  Table 5 - the ratio of reports which is about culturing citizen's environmental awareness in all the reports each year
                                                         Year      Ratio
                                                         2002      0.09
                                                         2003      0.14
                                                         2004      0.14
                                                         2005      0.16
                                                         2006      0.17


Language analysis
—less and less technical terms become less and less, it’s much easier to understand than before.

       Table 6 - The frequency of the reporting lauguage of enviornmental reports in "People's Daily" (2002--2006)
 Terminology                 most               more               ordinary               less             Unknown
    2002                     0.4                 1.8                 84.8                 12.6               0.4
    2003                     0.3                 1.4                 84.4                 13.5               0.4
    2004                     0.1                 1.0                 76.3                 22.1               0.5
    2005                     0.0                 1.2                 76.1                 22.4               0.3
    2006                     0.2                 0.6                 76.5                 22.7               0.0


Type analysis
—the kinds of reports are a great variety.
                        Table 7 - the type of enviornmental reports in "People's Daily" (2002--2006)
                  total             news        newsletter         depth        comments           chart          other
                 number                                           reports
  2002             176              112            26               13              12               13             0
  2003             248              99             12               13              8                12             4
  2004             247              125            42               19              35               24             2
  2005             343              193            57               20              25               49             1
  2006             361              217            37               37              35               35             0




                                                              Page 133
Universitas 21 International Graduate Research Conference: Sustainable Cities for the Future
Melbourne & Brisbane. Nov 29 – Dec 5, 2009

Layout analysis
—all pages are involved, the environmental problem has infiltrated all areas of social life.
             Table 8 - the distribution of layout of enviornmental reports in "People's Daily" (2002--2006)
          Total     Front   Domestic    International   Economic     Science      Healthy      Comprehensive   other
         number     page     News           News         and law    &education    Living          Social
2002       176       11       36             16            31          32           16              14          20
2003       148       21       18              9            22          35           11              5           27
2004       247       27       58              9            31          62           11              27          22
2005       343       30       54             17            66          61           33              44          38
2006       361       23       74             20            83          56           30              45          30

Conclusion: the advantages and disadvantages of the contemporary environmental reports.

Advantages
Environmental protection has been incorporated into China's government work and the media coverage
agenda in 21st century. Environmental reporting has not only increased in number rapidly, but also been a
great breakthrough in the scale and the related aspects. In terms of content of news, the small environment
gradually became much bigger, and the simple environmental protection news transformed into the integrated
reports which related to the environment, the economic and social. It can be said that in our government-led
environmental reports, because of the media's universal participation in the growing field of environmental
reporting, environmental protection has aroused the universal concern of the public and the community. the
improvement of public’s conscious about environmental protection laid the foundation for the media to
achieve effective communication. Considering the reporting methods, the large-scale environmental reporting
activities "China Environmental Protection in the New Century" led to the cooperation of the media to carry
out an environmental reporting initially. At the same time, the media’s opinion began to move towards
integration including news reporting and administrative supervision, legal supervision and supervision by the
public. The mass media is playing an increasingly important role in guiding the public opinion. In addition,
according to the coverage, level, language and type, the mass media are gradually close to the audience to
realize the interaction with the audience.
The problems
 A large number of mass media coverage put too much emphasis on the government, which strengthen the
government's dominant position in environmental protection, but ignored the driving force of the public. To a
certain extent, dull and uniform coverage; top-down perspective of the non-head-up; "see things not seen" and
"thousand side" model of coverage, made the audience not only generate prejudice and misconceptions on the
current understanding of environmental protection work, but also lack of interest in environmental reporting,
and have a sense of distance about environmental ideas and actions. It is difficult to promote the public’s
environmental awareness towards the positive direction. With the emergence of a large number of
environmental reporting, environmental reporting played a strong role in guiding public opinion. However, the
current reports did not deal with perception and evaluation of environmental issues properly. there exits many
contradictions about "a" and "many", "emphasis" and "ignore", "long-sighted" and "short-sighted "," why
"and" how " and so on.
The reports that lack depth and breadth can easily cause problems weakening the effect of the media’s
guiding. In the environmental reports related to environmental transmission level, most of the coverage is still
stuck in the low level of communication such as "perception, knowledge "instead of" attitude, skills,
participation" and other higher-level Communication. The situation is "education" more but "interactive" less,
and macro arguments more and concrete solutions less. how to implement in their reports from the
"knowledge" to "action" has already raised a question of great value on the current media environmental
reports.




                                                        Page 134

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:12
posted:3/10/2010
language:English
pages:4
Description: Environmental journalism and the ecological conscious cultivation