Micro-hydro_mostly_inThailand23Oct08 by chenshu

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									(Mostly) micro-hydro
 (mostly) in Thailand
       Chris Greacen

      SEI micro-hydro
      Guemes Island
       23 Oct 2008
                 Outline
• Ph.D. topic -- government/village micro-
  hydropower in Thailand
• Very Small Power Producer (VSPP)
• Pico-hydros in Thailand
Villagers: „our power plant‟
Local manufacture
             Average cost: micro-hydro vs. grid for 25
             years of electricity to a remote household

          $1,600
          $1,400
          $1,200
          $1,000
             $800                                                                                                                          High
             $600                                                                                                                          Low

             $400
             $200
                 $0
                                       Microhydro                                                Grid
Source: Microhydro data from construction costs of existing microhydro projects from Panya Consultants Co. (1993). Kroonggaan Padtana Fai Faa Palang
Naam Radap Muu Baan (Village Scale Microhydro Development Projects). Bangkok, Thailand, Department of Energy Development and Promotion

Grid costs from Price Waterhouse CoopersPrice Waterhouse Coopers (2000). Review of Electric Power Tariffs National Energy Policy Office of Thailand -- Final
Report -- Annexes H-R. Bangkok, Thailand.
          Number of villages served
          micro-hydro vs. the grid (as
                   claimed)
 80000
                                                        68464
 70000
 60000
 50000
 40000
 30000
 20000
 10000
                        59
      0
              Micro-hydro (DEDP)                     Grid (PEA)
Source: PEA Annual Report 2000; DEDP “mini and microhydopower”
   Thailand
topography and
micro-hydro site
   locations
How well do micro-hydro installations
   work in the field in Thailand?
      40

      35
                                         No PEA, 3
      30

      25

      20
                  No PEA, 16
      15                               PEA arrived, 31

      10

       5         PEA arrived, 9

       0
             Microhydro in operation     Abandoned


Of 59 systems installed, less than half still in operation
                          Volts ac




           0
               50
                    100
                            150
                                     200
                                           250
                                                 300


6/25/01 0:00

6/30/01 0:00

 7/5/01 0:00

7/10/01 0:00

7/15/01 0:00

7/20/01 0:00

7/25/01 0:00

7/30/01 0:00

 8/4/01 0:00

 8/9/01 0:00

8/14/01 0:00

8/19/01 0:00

8/24/01 0:00

8/29/01 0:00
                                                               September 2001




 9/3/01 0:00

 9/8/01 0:00

9/13/01 0:00

9/18/01 0:00
                                                        microhydro from 25 June to 23
                                                       Voltage at Mae Kam Pong village




9/23/01 0:00
                            Mae Kam Pong Microhydro Unit #2 Voltage and
                          Current (15 minute intervals) 6 Sept to 8 Sept 2001
       30                                                                                                                                                                                                       300




       25                                                                                                                                                                                                       250




       20                                                                                                                                                                                                       200
Amps




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Volts
       15                                                                                                                                                                                                       150




       10                                                                                                                                                                                                       100




       5                                                                                                                                                                                                        50




       0                                                                                                                                                                                                        0
                                           8/6/01 12:05



                                                          8/6/01 18:05




                                                                                                              8/7/01 12:05



                                                                                                                                       8/7/01 18:05




                                                                                                                                                                                  8/8/01 12:05



                                                                                                                                                                                                 8/8/01 18:05
            8/6/01 0:05



                           8/6/01 6:05




                                                                                8/7/01 0:05



                                                                                                8/7/01 6:05




                                                                                                                                                      8/8/01 0:05



                                                                                                                                                                    8/8/01 6:05
                                         Current 1                       Current 2            Current 3                      Voltage
               7000



               6000



               5000



               4000
       Watts

                3000



                2000



                1000                                                                                                                                                                         2000
                                                                                                                                                                                           1997
                                                                                                                                                                                      1994
                      0                                                                                                                                                                      Year
                                                                                                                                                                                    1991
                          5:00
                                 6:00
                                        7:00
                                               8:00
                                                      9:00
                                                             10:00




                                                                                                                                                                               1988
                                                                     11:00
                                                                             12:00
                                                                                     13:00
                                                                                             14:00
                                                                                                     15:00
                                                                                                             16:00
                                                                                                                     17:00
                                                                                                                             18:00

                                                                                                                                                                             1985
                                                                                                                                     19:00
                                                                                                                                             20:00
                                                                                                                                                     21:00
                                                                                                                                                             22:00
                                                                                                                                                                     23:00
                                                              Time of day


Hourly load curve, by year from 1985 to 2000. Graph based on an appliance
 usage survey of 35 families in Mae Kam Pong village, April and June 2001.
        10000


        9000


        8000


        7000

                                                                                                       other
        6000
                                                                                                       water boiler
                                                                                                       rice cooker
Watts




        5000                                                                                           iron
                                                                                                       fridge
                                                                                                       TV
        4000
                                                                                                       lights

        3000


        2000


        1000


           0
           1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001


                Contribution to evening maximum peak demand by appliance, for the years 1985 – 2001.
          Small is beautiful pitiful:
Community Micro-hydroelectricity and the
Politics of Rural Electrification in Thailand




                      Chris Sangarasri Greacen
                        ERG – UC Berkeley
            Ph.D. colloquium presentation – 4 Dec, 2002
                                   Thanks to…
      Ph.D. Dissertation Committee: Dan Kammen, Dick Norgaard, Jeff Romm
             Switzer Network Mentors: Jim Williams and Margaret Torn
             EPA-STAR Fellowship, Switzer Environmental Fellowship
       Summary from the village level:
          “it still doesn‟t add up”
                                                                                                            30                                                                                                                                                                                                      300


                                   $1,600
                                                                                                            25                                                                                                                                                                                                      250

                                   $1,400
                                                                                                            20                                                                                                                                                                                                      200
                                   $1,200



                             +




                                                                                                     Amps




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Volts
                                   $1,000


                                                                                               -
                                                                                                            15                                                                                                                                                                                                      150




                                    $800                                                High                10                                                                                                                                                                                                      100



                                    $600                                                Low
                                                                                                            5                                                                                                                                                                                                       50


                                    $400
                                                                                                            0                                                                                                                                                                                                       0

                                    $200




                                                                                                                                               8/6/01 12:05



                                                                                                                                                              8/6/01 18:05




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8/7/01 12:05



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           8/7/01 18:05




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8/8/01 12:05



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     8/8/01 18:05
                                                                                                                 8/6/01 0:05



                                                                                                                               8/6/01 6:05




                                                                                                                                                                                    8/7/01 0:05



                                                                                                                                                                                                    8/7/01 6:05




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8/8/01 0:05



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8/8/01 6:05
Local integrated                      $0
                                                    Microhydro       Grid
                                                                                                                                             Current 1                       Current 2            Current 3                      Voltage




 development                                Cost effective rural                                     Resolvable technical
   benefits                                     electricity                                            and managerial
                                                                                                         challenges
                                                                      30                                                                                                                          28
      80000
                                            68464
      70000                                                           25
                                                                                 21
      60000
                                                                      20
      50000


  =                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ?
      40000                                                           15
      30000
      20000
      10000
                      58
                                                                 +    10
                                                                       5
                                                                                                    7



          0                                                            0
              Micro-hydro (DEDP)        Grid (PEA)                          Microhdyro in      Grid arriving                                                                    Using Grid
                                                                             operation
                         Rarely                                                   Existing installations
                       implemented                                                  replaced by grid
   1966: USAID plan dismisses
decentralized micro-hydroelectricity
“The view has been advanced by some that the
construction and operation of hydroelectric plants... is
necessary in order to demonstrate the interest of the
Government in the welfare of the people, particularly in the
so-called "sensitive areas" where the very low income
status of the population makes them susceptible to the
propaganda of Asian Communism. Others believe that …
the funds available can be put to better use by building
transmission and rural distribution facilities to bring power
from large, centrally located generation stations which are
…less exposed to damage or destruction by subversive or
enemy action. The team endorses the later option.”

USAID (1966). Thailand Electric Power Supply, US Agency for International
Development, United States Operations Mission.
    Very Small Power Producer
  (VSPP) Regulations in Thailand
• VSPP forces grid monopoly to accommodate
  small, distributed generation
• Streamlined interconnection
• Production is valued at the retail rate (net
  metering)… 80% of retail rate for net excess.
• In Thailand
  – Cabinet approval 14 May 2002
  – 1 MW net export per project
  – All renewables
• 2006 expanded
  – 1 MW  10 MW net export.
  – Feed-in tariffs
Mae Kam Pong, Chiang Mai
DEDE + community
40 kW
About $130,000 cost
Sell electricity to PEA – $13,000/year
               Biomass
               Biogas




                         Rice husk fired power plant
Potential
: 7000                       • 9.8 MW
MW                           • Roi Et province
Source: Thai                 • Average VSPP tariff for biomass:
Ministry of                    2.9 baht/kWh (incl. subsidy 0.3
Energy 2003
                               baht/kWh)
Korat Waste to Energy - biogas
• Uses waste water from cassava to make
  methane
• Produces gas for all factory heat (30 MW
  thermal) + 3 MW of electricity
• 3 x 1 MW gas generators
• Subsidy 0.3 baht/kWh
              Reduces air and water pollution
              Produces fertilizer
Biogas from   Produces electricity
 Pig Farms    8 x 70 kW generator
              Ratchaburi
              Subsidy: 0.3 baht/kwh
         Bangkok Solar 1 MW PV
• Project size: 1 MW
• Uses self-manufactured a-Si
     1000
                                                                      VSPP
      900                                                            summary
      800
      700
                                                                    June 2008
      600
MW    500
      400                                                         solar
                                                                bagasse
      300                                                    rice husk
                                                          other biomass (saw dust, palm)
      200                                                municipal waste
                                                      biogas
      100                                          wind
                                                hydro
        0
                                             biodiesel
            applied

                      permission

                                   selling
        Pico-hydro projects in Thailand
Village & Year            Turbine                Generator     Regulation     Capacity
Kre Khi village 2003      Chinese turgo          Permanent     None           500 W
                                                 magnet
E Wi Jo village 2004      Crossflow              Synchronous   None           1 kW

Mae Sa Pau village 2005   Chinese turgo          Permanent     None (Nepali   1 kW
                                                 magnet        ELC)
Huai Krating 2006         Pump as turbine        Induction     Nepali ELC     3 kW

Mor Hti Tha 2007          Chinese turgo          Permanent     None           1.5 kW
                                                 magnet
Mae Klang Luang 2007      Vietnamese propeller   Permanent     Vietnam ELC    200 W
                                                 magnet


Mae Wei 2008              Pump as turbine        Induction     Thai ELC       3 kW

Mae Klang Luang 2008      Chinese turgo          Permanent     None           1.5 kW
                                                 magnet
Surin 2008                Chinese turgo          Permanent     Thai ELC       1.5 kW
                                                 magnet
Surin 2008                Vietnamese propeller   Permanent     Thai ELC       200 W
                                                 magnet


Betong 2008               Pelton                 Induction     Thai ELC       1 kW
E Wi Jo 2004
   2 kVA synchronous generator
Crossflow (undershot! lousy „nozzle‟)
E Wi Jo village microhydro
Estimated power: 0.750 kW
Head: 20 meters
Flow: 20 liters/second
Total installed cost: baht 100,000
Huai Krating Microhydro
                 2005

        3 kW pump as turbine
           35 meters head
      Pump and motor cost: $750
      Controller cost: $500 or so
                          Huai Krating:
            „pump as turbine‟ off-grid induction “C-2C”

                               3kW
                           Ballast Load                             ELC

       Motor Run
       Capacitors
         in Box

                                                          Ballast
                                                          Current
                                              15A                         10A


                                                     Total                        To
6A                             380V        235V     Current                     Village


 2C                  C
50μF                25μF




                                          3000W


       4 kVA 380V
Mor Ti Tah Microhydro
           2007

      Chinese Turgo
      35 meters head
       No regulation
     Turbine cost: $200
 Mae Klang Luang,
   Chiang Mai
       2007
• Vietnamese propeller
• 200 watts
• Cost: $90 (including
  controller)
• (show video)
Laos – low head hydro orgy
Mae Klang Luang 2008
         • >500 W
         • 3 inch PVC pipe
         • Turbine cost: $160

         • (show video)
Betong, Yala. Pelton

                  • Nepali
                    pelton &
                    nozzle
                  • Locally
                    fabricated
                    box
                  • Locally
                    procured 3
                    phase
                    induction
                    motor
Mae Wei – „pump as turbine‟ off-grid induction
   Mbangamao mill, Tanzania
• pump as turbine – mechanical mill
Thai government solar
   home program


 203,000 solar home systems
 Sustainability challenge
 >20% failure rate within first year in Tak
Solar for computer training centers
         in refugee camps




            •1 kW PV hybrid with diesel generator
            •Each powers 12 computers
            •7 systems

								
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