Docstoc

Persuasion Through Rhetoric Words Phrases and Simple Assertions A psychological point about rhetoric and suggestion It’s a fact that even fleeting impressions may have measurable influenc

Document Sample
Persuasion Through Rhetoric Words Phrases and Simple Assertions A psychological point about rhetoric and suggestion It’s a fact that even fleeting impressions may have measurable influenc Powered By Docstoc
					Persuasion Through Rhetoric

 Words, Phrases, and Simple Assertions
A psychological point about
rhetoric and suggestion...
It’s a fact that even fleeting impressions may have
measurable influence on behavior.
A psychological point about
rhetoric and suggestion...
It’s a fact that even fleeting impressions may have
measurable influence on behavior.
The operation of such influences may occur below the
threshold of consciousness.
A psychological point about
rhetoric and suggestion...
It’s a fact that even fleeting impressions may have
measurable influence on behavior.
The operation of such influences may occur below the
threshold of consciousness.
The positive and negative impressions made by use of
rhetorical devices, while they may sometimes seem trivial, can
have powerful and long-lasting effects.
A psychological point about
rhetoric and suggestion...
It’s a fact that even fleeting impressions may have
measurable influence on behavior.
The operation of such influences may occur below the
threshold of consciousness.
The positive and negative impressions made by use of
rhetorical devices, while they may sometimes seem trivial, can
have powerful and long-lasting effects.

Critical thinking addresses influence of rhetoric in two ways:
(1) helps identify attempts at non-argumentative persuasion
(2) helps check “spontaneous” beliefs and impulses
 Euphemisms and Dysphemisms
Words or phrases that are substituted for
 other words or phrases to put what is being
 discussed in a more positive or negative light
 Euphemisms and Dysphemisms
Words or phrases that are substituted for
 other words or phrases to put what is being
 discussed in a more positive or negative light

 Euphemism: “Used cars” become “pre-owned vehicles”.
 Dysphemism: “Music” becomes “noise”.
 Euphemisms and Dysphemisms
Words or phrases that are substituted for
 other words or phrases to put what is being
 discussed in a more positive or negative light

 Euphemism: “Used cars” become “pre-owned vehicles”.
 Dysphemism: “Music” becomes “noise”.

 Note: Reports and descriptions may convey pleasant or
 unpleasant information without being euphemistic or
 dysphemistic. It’s the quality of the language that matters.
     Rhetorical Comparisons,
   Definitions, and Explanations
Ways of speaking that depart positively or
 negatively from a fair or neutral position
Problems of content, not of form
     Rhetorical Comparisons,
   Definitions, and Explanations
Ways of speaking that depart positively or
 negatively from a fair or neutral position
Problems of content, not of form
  Comparison: The American revolutionaries used
  tactics similar to those employed by the Viet Cong.
     Rhetorical Comparisons,
   Definitions, and Explanations
Ways of speaking that depart positively or
 negatively from a fair or neutral position
Problems of content, not of form
  Comparison: The American revolutionaries used
  tactics similar to those employed by the Viet Cong.
  Definition: religion - the opiate of the people
     Rhetorical Comparisons,
   Definitions, and Explanations
Ways of speaking that depart positively or
 negatively from a fair or neutral position
Problems of content, not of form
  Comparison: The American revolutionaries used
  tactics similar to those employed by the Viet Cong.
  Definition: religion - the opiate of the people
  Explanation: Franklin stayed in France throughout
  the revolution because he was a celebrity there.
                Stereotype
May function as an unexamined assumption
 behind a premise (easily results in fallacy of
 begging the question) or explanatory claim
 (especially, as circular reasoning)
                Stereotype
May function as an unexamined assumption
 behind a premise (easily results in fallacy of
 begging the question) or explanatory claim
 (especially, as circular reasoning)
When directly expressed, takes the form of a
 generalization
                Stereotype
May function as an unexamined assumption
 behind a premise (easily results in fallacy of
 begging the question) or explanatory claim
 (especially, as circular reasoning)
When directly expressed, takes the form of a
 generalization
As expectation, may cause an observer to
 ignore conflicting phenomena or supply
 consistent details that never occurred
                    Innuendo
A suggestion that is made indirectly
Creates a negative impression (using indirect
 language to create a positive impression is
 usually better classed as understatement)
May be constructed by association with
 something negative or by faint praise
  Example: Prof. X? Is he the one who admitted that his
  emotions influence his grading? (When speaker knows Prof.
  X didn’t.)
  Example: Student Y? Yes, I remember her. She satisfied the
  minimum requirements of the course.
           Loaded Question
Often a yes-no question or a false dilemma,
 but could occur with any question form
Answering directly requires accepting or
 presuming a questionable, hostile, or
 unjustified assumption
May function similarly to innuendo
               Loaded Question
Often a yes-no question or a false dilemma,
 but could occur with any question form
Answering directly requires accepting or
 presuming a questionable, hostile, or
 unjustified assumption
May function similarly to innuendo
  Example: Are you still abusing illegal drugs?
  Example: Should we vote for the Democrat or the Repulican
  in this election?
  Example: What were you thinking when you attempted to
  steal that CD?
                Weaseler
A word or phrase that deceptively weakens a
 claim
                 Weaseler
A word or phrase that deceptively weakens a
 claim
Not to be confused with careful qualification
                       Weaseler
A word or phrase that deceptively weakens a
 claim
Not to be confused with careful qualification
  Example: Save up to 40% (when typical savings will be less)
  Example: It’s easy to go all the way...on the phone. (real ad!)
              Downplayer
A word, phrase, or punctuation that subtly
 diminishes a concept or weakens a claim
May overlap with weaseler
                   Downplayer
A word, phrase, or punctuation that subtly
 diminishes a concept or weakens a claim
May overlap with weaseler
  Example: Today’s “patriots” are just looking for a way to
  make a quick buck in Iraq.
                   Downplayer
A word, phrase, or punctuation that subtly
 diminishes a concept or weakens a claim
May overlap with weaseler
  Example: Today’s “patriots” are just looking for a way to
  make a quick buck in Iraq.
  Example: I understand your wages are low, but it’s normal
  for some full-time workers in any modern society to be below
  the poverty line. (Notice how the individual’s particular
  situation is effectively submerged.)
                    Downplayer
A word, phrase, or punctuation that subtly
 diminishes a concept or weakens a claim
May overlap with weaseler
  Example: Today’s “patriots” are just looking for a way to
  make a quick buck in Iraq.
  Example: I understand your wages are low, but it’s normal
  for some full-time workers in any modern society to be below
  the poverty line. (Notice how the individual’s particular
  situation is effectively submerged.)
  Example: Interest rates are at their the lowest point in years,
  though only customers with excellent credit will qualify.
  Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm
An attempt to weaken a claim or undermine
 credibility by making an idea or person
 appear ridiculous
  Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm
An attempt to weaken a claim or undermine
 credibility by making an idea or person
 appear ridiculous
May make use of other devices, e.g.,
 hyperbole, slippery slope
  Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm
An attempt to weaken a claim or undermine
 credibility by making an idea or person
 appear ridiculous
May make use of other devices, e.g.,
 hyperbole, slippery slope
 Example: One thing I can say for Schwarzenegger, I bet he’s
 not a complainer. So now we won’t have to listen to a lot of
 complaining from the governor’s office while Bush’s friends
 are looting California.
  Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm
An attempt to weaken a claim or undermine
 credibility by making an idea or person
 appear ridiculous
May make use of other devices, e.g.,
 hyperbole, slippery slope
 Example: One thing I can say for Schwarzenegger, I bet he’s
 not a complainer. So now we won’t have to listen to a lot of
 complaining from the governor’s office while Bush’s friends
 are looting California.
 Example: You don’t like how the PATRIOT Act expands
 police powers? How about the next time you need help, try
 calling a hippie.
               Hyperbole
Use of exaggeration to make an impression of
 greater importance or deviation from
 expectations
                Hyperbole
Use of exaggeration to make an impression of
 greater importance or deviation from
 expectations
May show up in other devices, e.g., ridicule,
 slippery slope, straw man, poisoning the well
                    Hyperbole
Use of exaggeration to make an impression of
 greater importance or deviation from
 expectations
May show up in other devices, e.g., ridicule,
 slippery slope, straw man, poisoning the well
 Example: What I need is a vehicle that can go anywhere.
                     Hyperbole
Use of exaggeration to make an impression of
 greater importance or deviation from
 expectations
May show up in other devices, e.g., ridicule,
 slippery slope, straw man, poisoning the well
 Example: What I need is a vehicle that can go anywhere.
 Example: “While this framework does a good job of catering
 to environmental extremists, it falls alarmingly short of
 addressing the rising threat of wildfires facing our forests.”
 (Rep. Wally Herger, on the Sierra Nevada Framework, 11/03)
            Proof Surrogate
An assertion or strong suggestion that good
 evidence exists somewhere out of reach to
 support a claim
            Proof Surrogate
An assertion or strong suggestion that good
 evidence exists somewhere out of reach to
 support a claim
May make use of listed, but unchecked or
 unverifiable references
                Proof Surrogate
An assertion or strong suggestion that good
 evidence exists somewhere out of reach to
 support a claim
May make use of listed, but unchecked or
 unverifiable references
 Example: Unnamed sources report that...
 Example: Experts agree that...
 Example: I read on the Internet that... (if used as evidence)

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:571
posted:1/4/2008
language:English
pages:36