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					Intonation and Tone Sandhi
in Chinese Min dialect

         Hsiu-Hsueh Sylvia LIU

        Yuanpei University, Taiwan



           TIE, Sept 2004, Santorini   1
Chinese, a tone language

   All Chinese dialects feature 3~8 lexical tones
    in their phonological systems.

   Min dialect is mainly spoken in Fujian
    province, in the southeastern part of
    mainland China.
   There are several sub-dialects of Min, which
    are not mutually communicable.

                     TIE, Sept 2004, Santorini       2
TIE, Sept 2004, Santorini   3
Target dialects

   Fuzhou
       Eastern Min (Chen, 1998)
   Xiamen
       Southern Min (Xiamen dialect, 1996)
   Puxian
       (Putian County Record, Liu, Fuzhu 1994)
       (Xianyou County Record, Li, Rulong 2001)
       Field work data from four different towns in Puxian


                          TIE, Sept 2004, Santorini       4
Puxian, Eastern and Southern Mins

   Eastern Min and Southern Min are two major
    representatives of Min.
   Puxian could be viewed as a dialect contact
    product of Eastern Min and Southern Min,
    from its major lexicon and phonological
    behaviors. But it also shows something
    different from both.
   One of the unique features of Puxian is: the
    impact of intonation on its tone inventory and
    tone sandhi
                     TIE, Sept 2004, Santorini       5
Citation tone and sandhi tone

   In most Min dialects, there are 7 citation tones
    and 3-7 sandhi tones.
   Citation tone appears in the end of a
    phonological phrase, while sandhi tone
    elsewhere.

                                                   Citation tone
      Sandhi tone
                    [PhP …]

                       TIE, Sept 2004, Santorini                   6
Tone inventory in Southern Min

   7 citation tones in Xiamen
   Each citation tone has a correspondent
    sandhi tone




                    TIE, Sept 2004, Santorini   7
Tone Sandhi Table in Xiamen

Citation    Vls    Vcd     Climbing           Vls       Vcd     Vls     Vcd
tone       Level   Level                     Gone       Gone   Check   Check

           55      24        53                21       33       3      5


Sandhi
tone
           33      21        55                53       21      5       2



                            TIE, Sept 2004, Santorini                       8
Tone Inventory in Eastern Min
              VlsLevel   VcdLevel   Climbing        VlsGone     VcdGone   VlsCheck   VcdCheck
                44         53         31             213         242        13          5

VlsLevel 44     44         44          53              53         53        53         44
VcdLevel 53     31         31          31              21         21        21         31
Climbing 31     21         21          24              44         44        44         21
 VlsGone        44         44          53              53         53        53         44
     213

 VcdGone        44         44          53              53         53        53         44
     242

VlsCheck 13     21         21          24              44         44        44         21
VcdCheck 5      31         31          31              21         21        21         31


                                    TIE, Sept 2004, Santorini                                   9
Tone Sandhi in Eastern Min

   Besides the phrasal positions, the register of
    its following tone plays a decisive role.
   [+/- high, low]

        VlsLevel:   [ ][53]/ __[-high]
                    [ ][44]/ __[+high]
        VcdLevel:   [ ][31]/ __[-low]
                    [ ][21]/ __[+low]
        Climbing:   [ ][21]/ __[+ high]
                    [ ][44]/ __[+low]
                    [ ][24]/ __[-high, -low]



                       TIE, Sept 2004, Santorini     10
Tone Inventory in Puxian
       2nd $   VlsLevel   VcdLevel   Climbing      VlsGone       VcdGone   VlsCheck   VcdCheck
                 533         24         332           52           21          2         35
1st$
VlsLevel         24         33          33             24          24        24         33
    533
VcdLevel         24         11          11             55          53        53         11
    24
Climbing         24         53          11             24          24        24         33
    332
VlsGone          55         53          53             55          53        53         53
    52
VcdGone          24         11          11             55          53        53         11
    21
VlsCheck 2        5          5           5              5          5          5          5
 VcdCheck
                  1          1           1              5          5          5          3
       35


                                     TIE, Sept 2004, Santorini                               11
 Tone Inventory in Puxian
       2nd $   VlsLevel   VcdLevel   Climbing      VlsGone        VcdGone   VlsCheck   VcdCheck
                 533         24         332           52             21        2          35
1st$

VlsLevel       24-33       22-24     33-332         24-52         24-21      24-2       33-35
  533

VcdLevel       24-33       11-24     11-332         55-52         53-21      53-2       11-35
   24

Climbing       24-33       53-24     11-332         24-52         24-21      24-2       33-35
   332

VlsGone        55-33       53-24     53-332         55-52         53-21      53-2       53-33
   52

VcdGone        24-33       11-24     11-332         55-52         53-21      53-2       11-35
   21




                                      TIE, Sept 2004, Santorini                              12
Tone Inventory in Puxian

   26 out of 35 bi-syllabic tonal combinations
    are ended in falling tones.

   No level citation tones in Puxian.
   533, 24, 332, 52, 21

   Three falling tones: 533, 332, 52


                      TIE, Sept 2004, Santorini   13
Puxian Tone Sandhi and Intonation

   Falling or Rising-Falling is a symbolic feature
    of Puxian intonation.
   In Puxian, citation tones and bi-syllabic tonal
    combinations were modified to fulfill the
    “FALLING” intonation.
   55  533; 33  332
   533+53324-33,
   55+5524-55

                      TIE, Sept 2004, Santorini       14
Puxian Tone Sandhi and Intonation

   Tone Sandhi and tonal inventory in Puxian has been
    deeply influenced by intonation.
   IG CONS: an intonation group must be ended in falling.

    VlsLevel   VcdLevel Climbing VlsGone VcdGone VlsCheck       VcdCheck
     533         24      332         52                21   2     35


     Why not 24 242, and 35353? too similar to
     remain distinctions (332 ~ 342~242)


                               TIE, Sept 2004, Santorini                   15
Features of Southern Min’s Sandhi Tone
              Vls      Vcd     Vls          Vcd               Vls    Vcd      Vls     Vcd
             level    level   climb        climb             gone    gone    check   check
Shantou     33>23    55>21    53>35       35>21         213>        11>12   2>5      5>2
                                                        55
zhangzhou   55>22    13>22    53>24       *             21>53       22>21   3>5      12>3
zhangping   24>      11>      31>21       *             21>         53>21   11>      53>2
            33/55    33/55                              33/55               33/55
Quanzhou    33>33    24>22    55>24       22>22         41>55       41>22   55>24    24>2
Jinjiang    33>33    24>22    55>24       33>22         41>55       41>22   5>5      34>2
Nan’an      33>33    24>22    55>24       22>22         31>55       31>22   5>5      3>2
Tong’an     55>33    13>11    31>35,      *             11>51       33>11   3>5      5>1
                              33
Xiamen      55>33    24>11    53>55       *             21>53       33>11   3>5      5>1
Taiwan      55>33    13>33    51>55       *             11>51       33>11   3>5      5>1
Jinmen      55>33    13>11    51>35       *             11>51       33>11   3>5      5>1


                                 TIE, Sept 2004, Santorini                             16
Features of Southern Min’s Sandhi Tone

   Most sandhi tones with ancient voiced onset
    are low tone.
       the influence of voiced bar  tone lowering


   The influence of intonation is hard to detect in
    bi-syllabic tonal combinations.




                         TIE, Sept 2004, Santorini    17
Features of Eastern Min’s Sandhi Tone

   The sandhi tone value would vary with its
    following tonal registers.
            VlsLevel:       [ ][53]/ __[-high]
                            [ ][44]/ __[+high]
            VcdLevel:       [ ][31]/ __[-low]
                            [ ][21]/ __[+low]
            Climbing:       [ ][21]/ __[+ high]
                            [ ][44]/ __[+low]
                            [ ][24]/ __[-high, -low]



   The impact of intonation?

                        TIE, Sept 2004, Santorini       18
Influential factors of Min’s tone sandhi

   Intonation, voicing of consonants and
    adjacent tone value, all may have influence
    on tone change.
   Different languages or dialects may place
    emphasis on different parts.

   Intonation  Puxian
   Ancient Voiced Onsets  Southern Min
   Adjacent tone value  Eastern Min

                     TIE, Sept 2004, Santorini    19
Further study

   Collect longer spoken data of the three Min
    dialects to see the interaction of intonation
    and tone in a larger context.




                      TIE, Sept 2004, Santorini     20
Thank you for your attention.


                        sylviahhliu@yahoo.com


          TIE, Sept 2004, Santorini             21

				
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