The Future of Afrikaans Die Toekoms van Afrikaans Taalbeleid by etssetcf

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        Consensus
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                    ‘N PUBLIKASIE VAN DIE FW DE KLERK STIGTING
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                                                                    consensus
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                                                                consensus consensus c
us consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus aims to publicise the
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                                                                work and the goals
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         VOLUME consensus
nsensus consensus 6 ISSUE 2 consensus consensus consensus consensusFoundation. Itconse
                                                               of the consensus
us consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensusprovides information
                                                                consensus consensus c
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                                                                on the Foundation’s
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         ■ The Future of Afrikaans                            activities and projects,
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us consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus and on the activities
           AT ThE UNIVERSITy OF STELLENBOSch                    consensus consensus c
                                                                  of its chairman,
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                                                                    FW de Klerk.
         ■ Die Toekoms van Afrikaans
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           AAN DIE UNIVERSITEIT VAN STELLENBOSch
                                                                    consensus
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                                                                    poog om die
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           DIE INTERNASIONALE KONFERENSIE OOR
nsensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus conse
                                                               ontwikkeling van die
         ■ Taalbeleid, -Beplanning
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                                                               Stigting te bevorder,
           en -Ondersteuning
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us consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus en om ‘n rol te speel
           IN hOËR ONDERWyS                                     consensus consensus c
                                                               in die ontwikkelende
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                                                              debat oor vraagstukke
         ■ The Impact of The Fall of
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                                                              van nasionale belang.
           The Berlin Wall
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           ON SOUTh AFRIcA AND ThE WORLD
                                                                   Daar is besluit
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                                                                    op consensus conse
nsensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus die naam
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           10Th WORLD SUMMIT OF NOBEL PEAcE LAUREATES               consensus,
         ■ Breaking Down Walls
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                                                                 wat die Latyns vir
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           FOR A WORLD WITh PEAcE AND JUSTIcE                      konsensus is,
nsensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus conse
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                                                              aangesien die Stigting
         ■ Seven Threats
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                                                               in essensie poog om
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           TO ThE cONSTITUTION                                      konsensus te
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                                                                  bevorder tussen
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         ■ The Enemy
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                                                                  Suid-Afrikaners
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           WIThIN OUR GATES                                        oor potensieel
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us consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensusverdeelbare kwessies
                                                                consensus consensus c
         ■ Die Vyand                                          van nasionale belang.
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           BINNE ONS POORTE
nsensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus conse
us consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus c
nsensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus conse
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nsensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus conse
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nsensus consensus
                       Instandhouding van Suid-Afrika se Nasionale Akkoord
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                                  EDITORIAL

        The Future of
        Afrikaans                                                    AT ThE UNIVERSITy
                                                                     OF STELLENBOSch
        WE IncLUdE In this edition of Consensus a report by our new colleague, Piet le
        Roux, on the recent International Conference on Language Policy, Planning and Sup-
        port in Higher Education. It was hosted by the Language Centre of the University
        of Stellenbosch at the Spier wine estate on 17 and 18 November. The Language
        Centre should be congratulated on its initiative and also for promoting debate on this
        important question.
        It emerged from the conference that the tendency for univer-           All of this creates particular problems for the university
        sities to shift to English is by no means limited to the former    management. They are caught on the one hand between
        Afrikaans universities in South Africa; it is a worldwide prob-    Afrikaans students, former students and parents who are
        lem that also threatens regional languages in other countries      increasingly vocal about the decline of Afrikaans at the US;
        - and particularly in Europe. There is throughout a tendency       and on the other, a majority of the deans and academic per-
        - particularly among lecturers - to lecture and publish increa-    sonnel who are in pursuit of academic excellence; who have
        singly in the world language - English - to ensure that they       no vocation to promote Afrikaans and who are not at all in fa-
        and their universities can compete successfully in the global      vour of having their language of tuition monitored. And there
        academic arena. International interaction also requires increa-    is also a third side in the form of pressure from the govern-
        sing exchange of academic personnel which usually means            ment to shed its white Afrikaner image and to become more
        that foreign lecturers are appointed who cannot speak the          demographically representative through the recruitment of
        local language and must thus teach in English. Academic per-       black English-speaking students.
        sonnel are normally cosmopolitan and naturally attach great-           The result is that the US’s language policy is increa-
        er value to the development of their areas of study than to        singly moving in the direction of dual medium tuition and the
        the maintenance and promotion of local regional languages.         reduction of single-medium Afrikaans tuition. Dual medium
        They are generally not hostile to the regional language - but      tuition means that English and Afrikaans are used in the
        believe that they have no special role to promote it - and it is   same courses on a 50/50 basis. In practice - and as experi-
        often academic personnel who play the key role with regard         ence has already proved - it means an inevitable swing in
        to the future of the language of instruction.                      the direction of English because of the proven impossibility
            On the other hand, all South Africans have a constitu-         of monitoring the system and because lecturers often have
        tional right to education in the language of their choice. They    to repeat everything for English-speaking students. US sur-
        are also the tax-payers who are ultimately responsible for         veys show that 40% of English-speaking students describe
        the payment of university subsidies. Opinion polls at the US       their language ability in Afrikaans as either quite weak or
        show that 80% of Afrikaans-speaking students prefer tui-           very weak. Dual medium tuition simply makes no pedagogic
        tion in Afrikaans. It is also not unreasonable that at least one   sense. In the final analysis the US administration is running
        of the four universities in a province in which Afrikaans is the   the risk of satisfying no-one: not the Afrikaans community;
        majority language should remain predominantly Afrikaans. If        not the English-speaking students; not the lecturers; not the
        this doesn’t happen what will the implications be for the lang-    government.
        uage and its speakers? Where will Afrikaans teachers and               The US Language Centre - and the broader Afrikaans
        journalists be trained? Without Afrikaans teachers, what will      community - should continue to encourage and broaden
        the future of Afrikaans schools be? And what then becomes          fair and open debate on the university’s language policy.
        of the constitutional vision of a multicultural community? If      Perhaps the US will be able to learn something from the
        Afrikaans, with its proud academic history, cannot continue        North-West University and its very successful simultaneous
        to make knowledge accessible for its speakers, what are            translation approach - which works excellently and which is
        the prospects for our other indigenous languages?                  not nearly as expensive as experts had thought.              ●




    1   VOLUME 6 • IS S U E 2
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                                 REDAKSIONEEL

        Die Toekoms van
        Afrikaans                                                    AAN DIE UNIVERSITEIT
                                                                     VAN STELLENBOSch
        OnS SLUIt In, in hierdie uitgawe van ‘Consensus’, ‘n verslag deur ons nuwe kol-
        lega, Piet le Roux, oor die onlangse Internasionale Konferensie oor Taalbeleid, -be-
        planning en -ondersteuning in Hoër Onderwys. Dit is van 17 tot 18 November deur
        die Taalsentrum van die Universiteit van Stellenbosch (US) by die Spier-landgoed
        aangebied. Die Taalsentrum moet gelukgewens word met hul inisiatief en ook met
        die bevordering van die debat oor hierdie belangrike aangeleentheid.
        Dit blyk uit die konferensie dat ‘verengelsing’ geensins                 Dit alles skep besonderse probleme vir die bestuur van
        beperk is tot voormalig Afrikaanse universiteite in Suid-            die universiteit. Hulle is vasgevang: aan die een kant tus-
        Afrika nie: dit is ‘n wêreldwye probleem wat streekstale in          sen Afrikaanse studente, oud-studente en ouers wat toen-
        ander lande - en veral in Europa - ook bedreig. Deurgaans            emend hul stem dik maak oor die duidelike agteruitgang van
        is die drang - veral onder dosente - om toenemend in die             Afrikaans aan die US; en aan die ander, ‘n meerderheid van
        wêreldtaal - Engels - te doseer en te publiseer om te versek-        dekane en akademiese personeel wat akademiese uitmun-
        er dat hulle en hul universiteite suksesvol in die globale           tendheid wil nastreef, wat geen roeping het om Afrikaans
        akademiese arena kan meeding. Internasionale interaksie              te bevorder nie en wat geensins wil hê dat hul onderrigtaal-
        verg ook die toenemende uitruil van akademiese personeel             benadering gemoniteer moet word nie. En daar is ook ‘n
        wat gewoonlik beteken dat buitelandse personeel aanges-              derde kant in die vorm van druk van die regering om meer
        tel word wat die plaaslike taal nie kan praat nie en wat dus         demografies verteenwoordigend te word deur middel van
        in Engels klas moet gee. Akademiese personeel is normaal-            die werwing van swart Engelssprekende studente.
        weg kosmopolitaans en heg natuurlik groter waarde aan die                Die resultaat is die US se taalbeleid wat toenemend in
        ontwikkeling van hul vakgebied as die behoud en bevorder-            die rigting van dubbelmedium-onderrig en die afskaling van
        ing van plaaslike streekstale. Hulle is, oor die algemeen, nie       enkelmedium Afrikaanse onderrig beweeg. Dubbelmedium-
        vyandiggesind teenoor die streektaal nie, maar glo dat hulle         onderrig beteken dat Engels en Afrikaans binne dieselfde
        geen spesiale rol het om dit te bevorder nie - en dit is die         kursusse op ‘n 50/50 grondslag gebruik word. In die prak-
        akademiese personeel wat dikwels die deurslaggewende                 tyk, soos daar reeds getuienis voor is, beteken dit ‘n onver-
        rol ten opsigte van die toekoms van die onderrigtaal speel.          mydelike swaai in die rigting van Engels - omdat dit feitlik
            Aan die ander kant het alle Suid-Afrikaners ‘n grondwet-         onmoontlik is om die stelsel te moniteer en omdat dosente
        like reg tot onderrig in die taal van hul keuse. Hulle is ook die    dikwels alles in elk geval vir Engelssprekende studente moet
        belastingbetalers wat uiteindelik verantwoordelik is vir die         herhaal. US-peilings toon dat tot 40% van voorgraadse, En-
        betaling van universiteitsubsidies. Meningspeilings aan die          gelssprekende studente hul taalvaardigheid in Afrikaans as
        US wys dat 80% van Afrikaanssprekende studente onderrig              taamlik swak of baie swak bestempel. Pedagogies maak dit
        in Afrikaans verkies. Dit is ook nie onredelik dat ten minste        eenvoudig nie sin nie. Op die ou einde loop die US-bestuur
        een van die vier universiteite in ‘n provinsie waar Afrikaans        die gevaar dat dit niemand tevrede sal stel nie: nog die Af-
        die meerderheidstaal is oorwegend Afrikaans moet bly nie.            rikaanse gemeenskap; nog Engelssprekende studente, nog
        Gebeur dit nie - wat is die gevolge vir die toekoms van die          die dosente; nog die regering.
        taal en sy sprekers? Waar sal Afrikaanse joernaliste en onder-           Die US Taalsentrum - en die breë Afrikaanse gemeen-
        wysers opgelei word? Sonder Afrikaanse onderwysers, wat              skap - moet voortgaan om die debat rondom die US-onder-
        sal die toekoms van Afrikaanse skole wees? En wat dan van            rigtaalbeleid op ‘n ordentlike en billike wyse aan te moedig
        die grondwetlike visie van ‘n multikulturele gemeenskap? As          en te verbreed. Moontlik kan die US kers opsteek by die
        Afrikaans, met sy trotse akademiese geskiedenis, nie kan bly         Noordwes-universiteit en hul baie suksesvolle gelyktydige
        voortbestaan om kennis toeganklik te maak vir sy sprekers            tolkdiens-benadering wat uitstekend werk - en wat glad nie
        nie, wat is die vooruitsigte vir ons ander inheemse tale?            so duur is as wat die kenners gedink het nie.              ●




                                                                                                                      VOLUM E 6 • I S S U E 2   2
eID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeR-
nIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng en
RsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeun-
LbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID,
nIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en
                                                                              -onDeRsTeunIng


                                         DIE INTERNASIONALE
                                         KONFERENSIE OOR

         Taalbeleid, -Beplanning
         en -Ondersteuning
                                         IN hOËR ONDERWyS, SPIER
                                         DEUR PIET LE ROUX




                                               dIE taaLSEntrUM van die Universiteit Stellenbosch
                                               (US) het tussen 18 - 20 November 2009 ‘n internasio-nale
                                               konferensie oor Taalbeleid, -beplanning en -ondersteu-
                                               ning in Hoër Onderwys by die Spier landgoed aangebied.
                                               Dit is bygewoon deur verskeie internasionale kenners en
                                               dosente en personeel van nie-Afrikaanse en voormalige
                                               Afrikaanse universiteite. Alhoewel die tema meer alge-
                                               meen was, het die konferensie vir ‘n groot deel gegaan
                    taalbeleid, -Beplanning




                                               oor die invoer van Engels in universiteite wat voorheen
                                               slegs in `n nasionale taal klas gegee het, soos byvoorbeeld
                                               die US tot die einde van die 1980’s. Uit die konferensie het
                                               geblyk dat Afrikaans skynbaar voorloop in ‘n internasionale
                    en -Ondersteuning




                                               agteruitgang van nasionale tale op universiteitsvlak.
                                               Soos te verwagte, was daar algemene           myn pragmatisme, waar die langtermyn-
                                               eensgesindheid oor die meriete van            voordele van plaaslike (taal)verbonden-
                                               “veeltaligheid,” maar minder sekerheid        heid agtergestel word. Die meeste
                                               oor stappe om te neem. Prof. Vic Webb         konferensiegangers was beswaard
                                               van die UP, ‘n voorste kenner van taalbe-     daaroor. Baie voormalig eentalige uni-
                                               planning, het as ere-spreker beklemtoon       versiteite het eers onlangs “veeltalige”
                                               dat veeltaligheid in Suid-Afrika in die al-   beleide aanvaar.
                                               gemene belang is en dat dit nie in die           ‘n Vername rede vir verengelsing is
                                               eerste plek hoef te gaan om die belang        klaarblyklik akademici se behoefte dat hul
                                               van spesifieke taalgemeenskappe nie.          universiteit internasionaal gereken moet
                                                                                             word, dat hulle erkenning van ‘n inter-
                                               DIe InTeRnAsIonALe                            nasionale gehoor kry deur publikasies in
                                               eRvARIng                                      Engels en dat kundiges aangestel word
                                               Universiteite hanteer die inbring van         al kan hulle nie die plaaslike taal praat
                                               Engels hoofsaaklik met ’n soort kortter-      nie. By implikasie is universiteitsbesture




    3    VOLUME 6 • IS S U E 2
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-bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnn
TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeL
-bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng
beLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -
pLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIn
en TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng
          en akademici dus skynbaar dikwels       meer was prof. Theuns Eloff die enig-
-onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRs
          van mening dat die subsidiëring van     ste vise-kanselier daar en het hy self
Ing en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -o
          die universiteite deur die plaaslike    ‘n aanbieding gedoen.
            TAALbeLeID, meer d.m.v. be-
sTeunIngtaalsprekers (onder -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIn
                                                     Potchefstroom tolk 700 lesings
TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeL
          lastings) dit nie regverdig om taaleise per week, hoofsaaklik van Afrikaans
-bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnn
          aan akademiese personeel te stel nie.   na Engels. Dit word deurgaans goed
en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onD
          Verwysings hierna was egter veral ter-  ontvang en hulle is reeds in die 5de
unIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TA
          loops - sonder ‘n deeglike ondersoek    jaar van uitrolling. Lopende koste
LeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng TAALbeLeID, -bepLAnnIng en -onDeRsTeunIng
         na die aansporings vir akademici om          vir hul volle taaldiens beloop sowat     er, het na afloop van die konferensie
         universiteite te verengels.                  R10m per jaar. Dit werk uit op on-       terloops teenoor my opgemerk dat sy
             Dit lyk asof die politieke klimaat in    geveer R300 – R400 per jaar per kon-     haarself nou steeds afvra hoe die US
         verskillende lande ook ‘n betekenis-         takstudent vir hulle – veel goedkoper    se beleid in die praktyk werk.
         volle rol speel: Die Estoniese univer-       as parallelmedium en (alhoewel hulle
         siteitsbestuur steun, byvoorbeeld, die       nie hul model openlik met Stellen-       Die konferensie versterk die ver-
         klem op die plaaslike taal met uitge-        bosch kontrasteer nie) verkies hulle     moede dat die verengelsing van
         breide akademiese vertalingsinisia-          dit duidelik bo dubbelmedium se          universiteite ook gepaardgaan
         tiewe en dit is skynbaar aanvaarbaar in      twee tale afwisselend in een klas.       met akademici en senior univer-
         die breë Estoniese politiek – anders as                                               siteitspersoneel wie telkens be-
         in Suid-Afrika. ‘n Deense verteenwoor-       veRDeDIgIng vAn                          roepsgewys bevoordeel word deur
         diger het weer gevoel dat die veren-         sTeLLenbosse DubbeL-                     ‘n meer Engelse universiteits-
         gelsing daar aangehelp word deur die         meDIum                                   omgewing. In die praktyk bepaal
         Deense regering (blykbaar liberaal) en       Dit lyk asof die US-verteenwoordigers,   hulle die taalomgewing – en dit
         het haar hoop geplaas op ‘n konser-          soos prof Leon de Stadler, Marianna      met ander mense se geld. Diegene
         watiewe regering wat ten gunste van          Visser, Brenda Leibowitz en andere       wat die meeste geld betaal, maar
         taalhandhawing sal ingryp.                   steeds sterk oortuig is dat dubbelme-    die minste die taalpraktyk bepaal,
             Die Deense Universiteit van Kopen-       dium die aangewese manier is om          is die belastingbetalers wat die
         hagen se verteenwoordiger het (ge-           veeltaligheid te hanteer. Die indruk     universiteite se subsidies befonds
         frustreerd) verduidelik hoedat hul be-       wat ek uit die aanbiedings gekry het     en die studente wat studiefooie
         leid daar buigsaamheid beklemtoon en         was dat dubbelmedium/T-opsie nou         betaal . Dit is egter juis hulle wat
         hoe Deens of Engels volgens die uni-         die voorkeur-opsie by Stellenbosch       ‘n veel groter belang het by onder-
         versiteitsbeleid na keuse gebruik kan        is en dat die US dubbelmedium eint-      rig in die plaaslike taal. Verengels-
         word. Sy het ook vertel hoe dit in die       lik reeds deurgaans gebruik. Uit die     ing is, so gesien, die gevolg van ‘n
         praktyk tot verdringing van Deens lei.       aanbiedings het dit voorgekom asof       skewe verdeling van mag en ‘n
         Ek het haar gevra waarom senior uni-         dubbelmedium op groot skaal uni-         botsing van belange tussen wie
         versiteitspersoneel aanhou beweer dat        versiteitsbeleid is en asof daar, wat    betaal en wie bepaal.
         so ‘n beleid nie tot die verdringing van     implementering betref, net enkele
         die plaaslike taal sal lei nie, ongeag die   haakplekke is wat uitgestryk word.       ‘n Taalstrategie vir Stellenbosch
         feit dat Engelse studente of personeel       Volgens wat ek verstaan het uit die      behoort die tolkdiensmodel van
         geen Deens hoef te verstaan nie. Sy          aanbiedings van die persone hierbo       NWU nou met prioriteit te onder-
         het geantwoord: “I suppose it sounds         genoem is dit blykbaar nie wenslik       soek. Die NWU se deure staan
         more beautiful [than to acknowledge          om noukeurige, fyn gekwantifiseerde      blykbaar oop vir belangstellendes
         or face the fact that you are choosing       monitering toe te pas nie.               hieroor en ‘n besoek daar sal ‘n
         to replace the local language].                  Ek kan nie met sekerheid sê wat      belangrike stap wees in die same-
                                                      die konferensiegangers se reaksie op     stelling van ‘n tolk-opsie vir die
         ToLKDIensTe AAn DIe                          die dubbelmedium-aanbiedings was         US. Gegewe die US se afskaling
         nooRDwes-unIveRsITeIT                        nie, behalwe dat dit oorskadu was        van die A-opsie en die publieke
         (nwu)                                        deur die, myns insiens, baie positiewe   weerstand teen dubbelmedium/T-
         Indrukwekkende aanbiedings is deur           reaksie op NWU se tolkdienste. Dr        opsie, lyk tolkdienste na ‘n opsie
         die NWU oor tolkdienste gedoen. Die          Anu Virkkunen-Fullenwider, van die       wat meerderheidsteun kan trek.
         vlak van toewyding en optimisme aan          Universiteit van Helsinki, ‘n bekende    Hiervoor moet ‘n loodsprojek-
         die NWU-kant was duidelik, onder             universiteitstaalkundige en ere-sprek-   voorstel opgestel word.          ●




                                                                                                                 VOLUM E 6 • I S S U E 2   4
f The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of
 wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The Im-
e fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The
LL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT
of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn
mpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The
 beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL

                                         SPEEch By F W DE KLERK TO
                                                       The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL


                                         ThE GLOBAL STRATEGy FORUM:
                                              LONDON, 16 NOVEMBER 2009


          The Impact of The Fall
          of The Berlin Wall
                                          ON SOUTh AFRIcA AND ThE WORLD



                                                   WE haVE jUSt celebrated the 20th anniversary of the
                                                   destruction of the Berlin Wall. I was fortunate enough to
                                                   be in Berlin for the occasion and to have discussed the
                                                   implications and consequences of the momentous events
                                                   of 9 November 1989 with two of the main protagonists -
                                                   Mikhail Gorbachev and Lech Walesa. We all agreed that
                                                   the fall of the Berlin wall was one of the turning points in
                                                   modern history.
                     the Impact of the Fall




                                                   The events of 9 November 1989 will             solutions to the challenges of human
                                                   reverberate through history with simi-         societies.
                                                   lar impact to those of 14 July exactly            The point of departure of ideologists
                                                   two hundred years earlier. The fall of         is that intellectuals have the ability to
                     of the Berlin Wall




                                                   the Bastille was only a single incident        construct utopia by shattering the old
                                                   in a lengthy and complex process. Ne-          order and then remoulding it nearer to
                                                   vertheless, it came to symbolise the           the heart’s desire. This often involves
                                                   success of the French Revolution. The          not only the redesigning of the institu-
                                                   French revolution, in turn, marked the         tions of society - but of human nature
                                                   beginning of the end of absolute mon-          itself.
                                                   archy in Europe and signalled the dawn            However, ideologists usually dis-
                                                   of a new approach to the government            cover that it is more difficult to remould
                                                   of society.                                    human beings than they imagined. Peo-
                                                       In the same way, the fall of the Ber-      ple have an obstinate habit of resisting
                                                   lin wall - although only a single event in     change; clinging to traditions and pursu-
                                                   a broad historic process - has come to         ing what they believe to be their self-in-
                                                   symbolise the collapse of international        terest. For ideologists the utopian ideal
                                                   communism and the end of the bipolar           is so imperative that they feel entitled
                                                   world. Perhaps, even more significant-         to enforce conformity on those who
                                                   ly, it signalled the failure of ideology and   disagree - usually by sending them to
                                                   social engineering to provide workable         gulags or re-education camps. Ideolo-




     5    VOLUME 6 • IS S U E 2
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fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The b
wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The Imp
of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL o
beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL T
ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of Th
of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn
         gists also insist that of The beRLInfrom the impact of globalisation.The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT o
The ImpAcT of The fALLbecause the rev-               wALL The ImpAcT of Even
fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The b
         olution is never really complete they     before the advent of the internet, fax
         have a historic The fALL of The machines and modern communica-
wALL The ImpAcT of mandate to remain in beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The Imp
         power The beRLIn wALL The tion technology began to inform Rus-
of The fALL ofuntil utopia has been attained ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL o
         - in The ImpAcT of Almost in-
beRLIn wALL other words, forever. The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL T
                                                   sians of global trends and fashions.
         variably, ideology and freedom are wALL The ImpAcT of The Ameri- of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of Th
ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLInir-                The new generation wanted fALL
                                                   can jeans, the Rolling Stones wALL
of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn and the The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn
         reconcilable.
             of The the Berlin Wall was              wALL not Marx and Lenin.
The ImpAcTThe fall offALL of The beRLInBeatles - The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT o
fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The b
         above all a victory for freedom. The         As with all collapsing empires, the
wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The Imp
         crowds who gathered day after day         main cause of the decline was simply
of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL o
         in Leipzig and in other German cit-       that the leadership began to lose faith
beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL T
         ies quietly and peacefully reasserted     in the political mythology on which
ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of Th
         their right to personal liberty. The con- their state had been founded. It had
of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn
                   countries of the Soviet em-
         stituent The fALL of The beRLInbecome increasingly obvious to new fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT o
The ImpAcT of                                        wALL The ImpAcT of The
         pire were able to assert their national   generations of of The beRLIn
fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALLleaders that commu- wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The b
         independence and in most cases
wALL The ImpAcT of -The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The Imp
                                                   nism was not delivering the utopian
         quickly The beRLIn wALL de-
of The fALL of established constitutionalThe ImpAcT of The fALL their The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL o
                                                   paradise that had inspired of pred-
         mocracies. At the same time, people       ecessors.
beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL T
         throughout the former Soviet empire          The other end of The fALL
ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL At theImpAcT of the Eurasian of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of Th
         were wALL The ImpAcT their
of The beRLInable to begin to exercise of The fALL of The communists were The ImpAcT of The primary strate-The beRLIn
                                                   landmass Chinese beRLIn wALL            the Warsaw Pact. The fALL of
         right to The fALL of The dec-               wALL similar conclusions. They
The ImpAcT of economic freedom. AfterbeRLIndrawing The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT o
                                                                                           gic threat was no longer the possibil-
         ades in the straightjacket of ImpAcT were fully aware of the beRLIn
fALL of The beRLIn wALL Thecommand of The fALL of Thespectacular wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The b
                                                                                           ity of a nuclear war or a conventional
                                                   success of the The ImpAcT of invasion of Western beRLIn wALL
wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALLChinese populations The fALL of The Europe. Soviet- The Imp
         economies, they were finally able to
         participate in beRLIn wALL The of Hong of and fALL They also
of The fALL of The the newly re-emergent ImpAcT KongThe Taiwan. of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL o
                                                                                           backed wars of national liberation no
beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL T
         markets.                                  knew that the critical success factor   longer dominated strategic considera-
                                                   of The ImpAcT of The fALL
ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALLthese societies was economic free- of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of Th
                                                                                           tions in the third world.
                                                                                               Within a few short months all of
of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALLtheseThe beRLIn
         ■ What factors contributed to             dom - but had noted that Hong Kong
                                                     wALL The ImpAcT of The
The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLInunder British rule was not a politically fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT o
         these momentous developments?                                                     factors - which had dominated the
         In beRLIn wALL
fALL of Thethe first place, it had become evi-     free democracy. They concluded that     strategic debate for forty-five years -
            dent to any rational observer that        the extension of economic freedom         evaporated. The world was left with
            free markets generated much greater       in China itself need not necessarily      the United States as the single, un-
            wealth and higher standards of liv-       threaten the position of the commu-       challenged, global super-power. The
            ing than rigid command economies.         nist party.                               mantle of sole global pre-eminence
            Western Europe was demonstrably a             One of the most astounding as-        came unexpectedly to the United
            better place in which to live than the    pects of the 1989 developments in         States. It was a role for which Ameri-
            drab and severely rationed East. Even     Eastern Europe was that they were         cans were not properly prepared ei-
            the most committed communist ap-          entirely unexpected and unpredicted.      ther by history or inclination.
            paratchiks staring across the wall at     No-one envisaged only two or three           The United States was now the
            the brash prosperity of West Berlin       years earlier that within a decade        only country that could effectively
            must have developed secret doubts.        Germany would be reunited; the Bal-       project its military power in any part
            Kruschev’s boast in his 1957 kitchen      tic republics would be independent;       of the world. Its political and eco-
            debate with Vice-President Nixon          Central Europe would be free and the      nomic system had emerged trium-
            - that the Soviet economy would           Communist Party would be banned           phant from its cold war engagement
            eclipse the American economy in a         in Russia. Anyone who had done so         with communism. Francis Fukiyama
            couple of decades - simply did not hap-   would have been taken away for psy-       wrote of the “End of History” based
            pen. Instead of overtaking Americans      chiatric assessment.                      on the proposition that free-market
            in terms of prosperity, Soviet citizens       The most important consequence        democracy was the culmination of
            fell further and further behind in the    of the events of November, 1989 and       mankind’s historic quest for the best
            consumer race. Ultimately, the Soviet     its aftermath was the end of the bi-      possible system of political and eco-
            Union did not have the resources to       polar geostrategic paradigm that had      nomic government.
            continue to compete in the arms race      characterised global politics since the      The result, inevitably, was a degree
            against the United States.                end of World War II. The central re-      of hubris. When Vice-President Gore
                Secondly, the citizens of the So-     ality in global politics was no longer    and Hilary Clinton came to South Af-
            viet Union could no longer be isolated    the confrontation between NATO and        rica in May 1994 to attend Nelson ➜




                                                                                                                   VOLUM E 6 • I S S U E 2   6
f The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of
 wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The Im-
e fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The
LL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT
of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn
mpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The
 beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL
          Mandela’s inauguration, they bought                                    insensitive to their of The and
                                                                         The ImpAcT of The fALLlanguages beRLIn wALL
                                              crisis. Everywhere, neo-Communists
            their own armoured limousines in gi-       are emerging from the woodwork                cultures; that they are subject to dis-
            ant military transport aircraft. When      and proclaiming that they were, after         crimination, repression and efforts to
            our security authorities asked why         all, right about the weaknesses of the        integrate them forcibly into the major-
            they had done so when we could have        capitalism. Nobel Economics Laure-            ity culture.
            provided perfectly good armoured ve-       ate Joseph Stiglitz has expressed his             This sense of alienation often
            hicles for them, the reply was simply      worry that “as they see more clearly          breaks out in conflict, rebellion, de-
            “because we can.”                          the flaws in America’s economic and           mands for secession and sometimes
                The United States could flaunt its     social system, many in the develop-           in acts of terrorism. Present or re-
            power. It no longer felt it necessary to   ing world will draw the wrong con-            cent conflicts in Chechnya, Sri Lanka,
            sacrifice its immediate national inter-    clusions.” He fears that “a variety of        Georgia, the Philippines, Thailand, In-
            ests to comply with multilateral initia-   forms of excessive market interven-           donesia and Darfur provide depress-
            tives such as the Kyoto Protocol.          tion will return” and that “these will        ing examples.
                The question that American intel-      fail”. He goes on to point out that               Religious and cultural alienation
            lectuals now asked themselves was          “There has never been a successful            are also among the main underlying
            what the United States should do           economy that has not relied heavily           causes of international terrorism.
            with its global military pre-eminence?     on markets.”                                  Most terrorists are motivated by a
            The answer was provided in part by             Of course, he is right. The problem       deep sense of religious and cultural
            a Neo-Conservative think tank, The         is not the proven performance vehi-           grievance. The rampant advance of
            Project for a New American Century.        cle of free markets, but the reckless         globalised consumer culture with its
            In its 1997 statement of principles it     manner in which the vehicle has been          attendant political and social ethos,
            asked whether the United States had        driven - often egged on by the traf-          pose a threat to conservative socie-
            the resolve “to shape a new century        fic police themselves! The answer is          ties and particularly to fundamentalist
            favorable to American principles and       definitely not to return to the donkey        Moslems.
            interests.” Those principles included      cart of command socialism.                        One of the great challenges of the
            the need to promote political and eco-                                                   new millennium will be to address
            nomic freedom throughout the world;        ■ the world after 1989 has been               cultural and religious alienation and
            and the need preserve a world order        dominated by new and unfore-                  to devise norms and approaches that
            that was friendly to America’s secu-       seen factors:                                 will enable different communities to
            rity, prosperity and principles.           The first is a virtual end of wars be-        live together in peace.
                                                       tween countries. Despite the con-                 Finally, the dominant development
            ➤ The result was the                       tinuing conflicts in Iraq and Afghani-        since 1989 has been the acceleration
              second Iraq War.                         stan, we are living in one of the most        of globalization. The process of global
                                                       peaceful periods in history.                  economic and information integration
            In the view of Neo-Con strategists             The second is that the most seri-         is creating a new framework for inter-
            Iraq presented an excellent opportu-       ous threat to peace now comes from            national relations. Events in even the
            nity to pursue their principles in prac-   conflicts within countries between            remotest regions can have an impact
            tice. They could bestow the benefits       ethnic, religious and cultural commu-         on the global environment. No one, no
            of American democracy on the Iraqi         nities.                                       community, no country can any longer
            people - and also secure the United            According to the Stockholm Inter-         be ignored. Who would have thought
            States strategic position in the world’s   national Peace Research Institute 25          ten years ago that Moslem fanatics
            main oil-producing region. As a result,    of the world’s 27 serious conflicts are       hiding in caves in Afghanistan could
            the Americans blundered into a tar-pit     between ethnic, religious and cultural        possibly threaten the United States or
            of conflict which they did not under-      communities within countries.                 downtown Manhattan?
            stand and from which they must still           A deep sense of cultural, religious           In the same manner, the fall of the
            extricate themselves. History has not      or ethnic alienation lies at the root of      Berlin wall in 1989 had dramatic re-
            ended - and the new American cen-          many of the nasty little wars through-        percussions for South Africa’s consti-
            tury lasted less than twenty years.        out the world - most of which seldom          tutional transformation.
               America discovered in Iraq and          impact on the evening news. Too of-               One of the South African Govern-
            Afghanistan - at an enormous cost -        ten, minority communities feel that           ment’s central political and strate-
            the limitations of its military power.     they are not sufficiently accommodat-         gic concerns before 1989 was the
            Its economic power and prestige            ed, politically or culturally, in the proc-   expansion of Soviet influence in
            has at the same time been seriously        esses by which they are governed.             southern Africa and the influence
            tarnished by the current economic          They feel that their governments are          of the South African Communist




      7     VOLUME 6 • IS S U E 2
The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT o
fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The b
wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The Imp
of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL o
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ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of Th
of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn
                                                    wALL The ImpAcT South Af-
The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLInduring 1989 reassured theof The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT o
         Party within the ANC.
              beRLIn wALL The govern-
fALL of TheFormer South African ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The b
                                                  rican government that it could secure
                                                  its core interests The ImpAcT of
wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALLthrough negotiations The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The Imp
         ments were deeply concerned about
                        beRLIn wALL The with its of The
of The fALL of Theinfluence in the ANC. ImpAcTopponents. fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL o
         Communist
         They knew that a large majority fALL         The beRLIn the Soviet Union
beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of Theof the of The collapse of wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL T
                                                  symbolized by the of The Berlin
ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT fall of the fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of Th
         members of the ANC’s National Exec-
of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn
         utive Committee were also members        Wall removed one of the major ob-
              of The fALL of The Par-               wALL The ImpAcT of The
The ImpAcTthe South African CommunistbeRLInstacles to a negotiated settlement fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT o
         of
fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The b
         ty. They knew that SACP cadres con-      in South Africa communism was in
wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The Imp
         trolled key functions within the ANC     headlong disarray; the South Afri-
of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL o
         alliance, most notably its armed wing    can Communist Party was in shell-
beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL T
         Umkhonto we Sizwe. They knew that        shocked retreat; constitutional de-
ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of Th
         the SACP proposed a two phased           mocracy and free
of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The market principles The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn
                                                                       beRLIn wALL
         revolution. During the first - national
The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLInwere triumphant.wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT o
         liberation - phase the The ImpAcT
fALL of The beRLIn wALL ANC would be of Never fALLwould the balance of wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The b
                                                      The again of The beRLIn
                                         lead all
         the vanguard party and wouldof The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The Imp
wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL                       forces be so favourable for an equi-
         forces The beRLIn wALL the
of The fALL ofopposed to apartheid toThe ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL o
                                                  table negotiated settlement. The de-
         goal of national liberation. During the  struction of the Berlin Wall opened a
beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL T
         second phase, of The would take
ImpAcT of The fALL the SACP beRLIn wALL The of opportunity through which of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of Th
                                                  window ImpAcT of The fALL
         over as the vanguard party and would     we unhesitatingly jumped. During the   economies;
of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn
                                                    wALL four ImpAcT of The              • of The is preferable to The
The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLInfollowingThe years we were able to fALLpragmatismbeRLIn wALLideol- ImpAcT o
         lead the country to the establishment
         of ‘people’s wALL The                                                           ogy of any kind: including The fALL
fALL of Thea beRLIn democracy’. ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of soviet com- of The b
                                                  negotiate a model democratic consti-
                                                                                         munism; of The beRLIn de-
wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALLVerwoerdian separatewALL The Imp
             Former National Party govern-        tution which has served as the basis
         ments The beRLIn they The for 15 years of stability and growth
of The fALL of did not feel thatwALLwere ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL o
                                                                                         velopment; and even the Neo-Con’s
                                                      The the many challenges ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL T
beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL ofdespitebeRLIn wALL The that
         under any moral obligation to accept     -                                      new American century;
                                                                                         • The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of Th
ImpAcT of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT of The fALL of we are increasingly interdependent:
         a one-man, one-vote process that         continue to confront us.
                         The ImpAcT of                       of The beRLIn wALL events anywhere The fALL of
of The beRLIn wALL lead to the demise ofThe fALL Africa is now a full participant The ImpAcT ofin the world can af-The beRLIn
         would quickly                                South
         democracy and the of The beRLInin the globalised world and of The fALL of The beRLIn wALL The ImpAcT o
The ImpAcT of The fALLestablishment of              wALL The ImpAcT economy.             fect countries all over the world;
         a totalitarian wALL
fALL of The beRLIncommunist regime – as           Our history will continue to be shaped • if we wish to address global prob-
           had already happened in a number of      by developments on the world stage.       lems - like global warming and third
           neighbouring states.                     Our economy is also suffering from        world poverty - we must work to-
              This was not a question of ‘reds      the effects of the global economic        gether;
           under beds’. The communist threat        crisis. The South African Communist       • the unipolar world has come to an
           was very real. The contest between       Party is trumpeting this as the long-     end - and we are about to enter an era
           the free world and the Soviet bloc       awaited failure of capitalism and is      of multipolarity;
           was taking place through third world     making a serious bid to re-establish      • the main threat to peace now comes
           liberation struggles. Throughout the     its influence over its ANC alliance       from conflicts between cultural, eth-
           1980s, South African Defence Force       partner. As with the rest of the world,   nic and religious communities within
           units were involved in direct conflict   relationships between our ethnic and      countries;
           with Soviet and Cuban-led forces in      cultural communities present a threat     • it is unwise - even for the most pow-
           southern Angola. The battle of the       to stability and must be managed          erful countries - to become involved
           Lomba River in September, 1987,          with sensitivity and toleration. Our      in protracted military adventures far
           was one of the largest set-piece bat-    future will also depend on mankind’s      from their shores and remote from
           tles in Africa since the Second World    ability to address the threat of global   their core interests;
           War. However, the tide was already       warming and to ensure sustainable         • in a rapidly changing world, the fu-
           turning: the following year the Soviet   development.                              ture is unpredictable; and
           Union and Cuba agreed to withdraw                                                  • there is no end to history.
           Cuban forces from Angola as the pre-     ■ What conclusions can we draw
           cursor for the implementation of UN      from the twenty years since no-              For us in South Africa, the fall of
           resolution 435 for the independence      vember 1989?                              the Berlin Wall showed how deeply
           of Namibia. The negotiations with the    • We have learned that countries          we are influenced by events on the
           Angolans and the Cubans and the          that enjoy economic freedom and           global stage - and helped us to break
           subsequent successful implemen-          free markets perform much better          down the walls between our own
           tation of the UN independence plan       than those with centralized command       people.                              ●




                                                                                                                 VOLUM E 6 • I S S U E 2   8
g Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down
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 bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAK-
 wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs
                           bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs



                                           10Th WORLD SUMMIT OF
                                           NOBEL PEAcE LAUREATES,
                                            BERLIN, GERMANy


         Breaking Down Walls
                                            FOR A WORLD WITh
                                            PEAcE AND JUSTIcE



                                                 Summit Final Statement
                                                 thE nOBEL PEacE LaUrEatES, representatives of
                                                 non-governmental organizations and youth representa-
                                                 tives, gathered in Berlin on 10-11, November, 2009, hav-
                                                 ing considered the historical implications of the fall of the
                                                 Berlin Wall and global developments during the 20 years
                                                 since then, call on the international community to break
                                                 down the national, international, personal, and institutional
                                                 walls,
                          Breaking down Walls




                                                 ■ walls that stand in the way of a nu-      agreement on nuclear disarmament and
                                                 clear weapons free world by                 its successful implementation,
                                                 • achieving a paradigm shift from coun-     • supporting the UN Secretary-Gene-
                                                 ter-productive and excessive militari-      ral’s five-point plan on nuclear disarma-
                                                 zation to collective security based on      ment,
                                                 cooperative initiatives to address global   • respecting the rules of international
                                                 threats,                                    humanitarian law and adopting the
                                                 • fully implementing the non-prolifer-      conventions banning indiscriminate
                                                 ation and disarmament obligations un-       weapons such as landmines and cluster
                                                 der the NPT, and all other international    bombs.
                                                 agreements on nuclear weapons by all        • addressing the root causes of regional
                                                 members of the international commu-         and global conflicts to assure that the
                                                 nity,                                       security of all states can be safeguard-
                                                 • negotiating a new convention for the      ed without nuclear weapons;
                                                 universal and verifiable elimination of
                                                 nuclear weapons,                            ■ walls between rich and poor by
                                                 • supporting the successful conclusion      • mobilizing all necessary national and
                                                 of the initiative of President Obama and    international resources to achieve the
                                                 President Medvedev of adopting a new        full implementation of the Millennium




     9   VOLUME 6 • IS S U E 2
bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKI
Ing Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Dow
wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs
bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKI
Ing Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Dow
wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs
bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKI
        Development Goals, and Down wALLs bReAKIngdialogue and com- bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Dow
Ing Down wALLs bReAKIngby                     • ensuring active Down wALLs
wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs
        • using the current financial crisis  munication between generations.
         Down wALLs global economic
bReAKIngto construct a new bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKI
        system that will be fair Down wALLs bReAKIng calls on the inter- bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Dow
Ing Down wALLs bReAKIngfor all man-           The Summit also Down wALLs
wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs
        kind and that lays the foundation for national community to build bridges
                                              based on our bReAKIng Down
bReAKIngaDown wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLsshared values, vision and wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKI
           strong, sustainable and balanced
                                              humanity. It also calls on all wALLs
Ing Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Downpeople to bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Dow
        growth through the creation of the
                                                                        bReAKIng
wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs and toleration Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs
        decent work                           show love, compassion
bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKI
                                              in their relations with one another. In
Ing Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Dow
        ■ walls between cultural, religious,  this spirit we recommit ourselves to
wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs
        and ethnic communities by             the Charter for a World Without Vio-
bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKI
        • calling on the UN General Assembly  lence which articulates our vision for
Ing Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Dow
        to convene an international confer-   a world with
wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Downpeace and justice.     wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs
        ence on minority rights, with a view
bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKI
        to strengthening protections of the
Ing Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Dow
         rights of religious, cultural and linguis-
         tic minorities;

         ■ physical walls or barriers that
         separate or isolate people in vari-
         ous parts of the world and limit
         freedom of movement and the pos-
         sibilities of communication by
         • breaking down walls and barriers
         such as those that divide Palestinians
         and Israelis;
         North and South Koreans; and the
         people of Kashmir as well as by
         • addressing the reality and percep-
         tion of the fears of aggression and
         terrorism upon
         which such walls and barriers have           ➤ ATTAchMENT TO ThE FINAL
         been constructed;
                                                      STATEMENT OF ThE 10Th WORLD
         ■ walls that stand in the way of             SUMMIT OF NOBEL PEAcE LAUREATES
         the crucial need to combat climate
         change by
         • ensuring the success of the upcom-         specIAL sTATemenT on envIRonmenT Issue
         ing Copenhagen conference in secur-
         ing firm international commitment to         statement to cop15 climate change meeting
         effective global action as expressed         copenhagen, December 2009
         in the (attached) special statement of
         the Summit, and by                           ■ the above nobel Peace Laureate Summit concluded that:
         • assuring sustainable development           • Climate change now poses an unacceptable risk of catastrophic and
         that will enable mankind to live in har-     irreversible harm at a global scale, possibly even within the next decade,
         mony with the fragile global environ-        threatening global peace, human security and development and putting
         ment and with each other;                    the sustainability of human society in jeopardy.
                                                      • Current negotiations are based on scientific information that is several
         ■ walls that stand in the way of             years out-ofdate. The latest science indicates that, on the balance of prob-
         inter-generation justice by                  abilities, we have badly underestimated both the extent and speed of
         • including youth and youth-led organ-       climate change, to the point that we now run a rapidly increasing risk of
         izations effectively in the decisions        sudden failure of some part of the climatic system, possibly via tipping
         concerning their future, and by              points which may prove irreversible.                                      ➜




                                                                                                                   VOLUM E 6 • ISS U E 2   10
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eAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng
 bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAK-
 wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs
                           bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs bReAKIng Down wALLs


          • Despite 20 years of negotiation, virtually nothing has been     manship which humanity has demonstrated in previous
          done so far to contain the problem and there is no sign of        emergencies.
          that changing at the forthcoming Copenhagen meeting.              • Every effort must be made to reach an agreement at Co-
          Excellent work is underway by concerned governments               penhagen built on the latest science, however unlikely that
          and organisations, but it is now clear that conventional          may be. If an unsatisfactory compromise does materialise,
          processes will not deliver the speed and extent of change         or no agreement is reached, the danger is that the pres-
          required to avert potentially catastrophic impacts.               sure for further change will evaporate, locking in potentially
          • New thinking is required to break through politics-as-usu-      catastrophic outcomes as carbon emissions continue to
          al. We have run out of time to take a graduated response          accelerate. From a global peace and security perspective,
          and we must now move to global emergency action. This             let alone from moral and ethical considerations, that can-
          will require cooperation across the spectrum, involving           not be allowed to happen.
          civil society, public and private sectors, bipartisan political   • In these circumstances, the Copenhagen process should
          involvement, on an unprecedented scale. As the world’s            be halted and global leaders immediately called into emer-
          poorest suffer most from but contribute least to climate          gency session to chart a new path for transformative
          change and as we bear responsibility for future genera-           change. Whilst this action may seem extreme, that is what
          tions, climate justice must be a guiding principle.               the considered science, and prudent risk management,
          • Successful resolution of our climate and sustainability         now implies.
          dilemma requires transformational change, not incremen-           • To be successful, this initiative must involve a very per-
          talism. It means almost complete decarbonisation of the           sonal commitment from key world leaders. In the interests
          global economy by 2050, a peaking of global emissions             of world peace and security, the Nobel Peace Laureates
          by 2015 and reduction of carbon dioxide already in the at-        urge global leaders to make that commitment without de-
          mosphere. This is a far greater task than is acknowledged         lay, as others have done in the past.
          politically, but it is achievable given the will and states-




                                                  pARTIcIpAnTs In The 10Th woRLD summIT
                                                  of nobeL peAce LAuReATes woRKs

                                                  Mikhail Gorbachev, Frederik Willem De Klerk, Lech Walesa, Muhammad
                            Breaking down Walls




                                                  Yunus, Mairead Corrigan Maguire, Thomas Stelzer from the United Nations, Mohan
                                                  Munasinghe from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Vappu Taipale and
                                                  Ehase Agyeno from International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War,
                                                  Urban Gibson from International Peace Bureau, Mary Ellen McNish from American
                                                  Friends Service Committee, Paolo Cotta-Ramusino from Pugwash Conferences,
                                                  Alexander Liebeskind from International Committee of the Red Cross, Morten Hovda
                                                  International Labour Organization, Walter Veltroni, Ahmed Kathrada representing
                                                  Nelson Mandela, Martin Frick from Global Humanitarian Forum, David Steward on
                                                  behalf od Frederik Willem De Klerk Foundation, Piotr Gulczynski on behalf of Lech
                                                  Walesa Foundation, Alexander Likhotal representing Green Cross International,
                                                  David Ives represeting Albert Schweitzer Institute, Maria Sachs, Mario Luis
                                                  Rodriguez Cobos aka Silo representing the World March for Peace and Nonviolence,
                                                  Giulietto Chiesa representing World Political Forum, Luisa Brunori representing
                                                  Italian Observatory on Microfinance, Peter Spiegel representing GENISIS-Institute
                                                  for Social Business and Impact Strategies, Prof. Franz Josef Radermacher from the
                                                  Club of Rome and Global Marshall Plan initiative, Jacob Romer being Member of the
                                                  Student Peace Bureau Heidelberg, Emily Büning being German Youth Delegate to
                                                  the UN General Assembly, Falko Mohrs being German Youth Delegate to the UN
                                                  General Assembly.                                                               ●




     11    VOL UME 6 • IS S U E 2
DonATIons sKenKIngs peRsonneL peRsoneeL DonATIons sKenKIngs peRsonneL peRsoneeL DonATI
Ings peRsonneL peRsoneeL DonATIons sKenKIngs peRsonneL peRsoneeL DonATIons sKenKIngs pe
soneeL DonATIons sKenKIngs peRsonneL peRsoneeL DonATIons sKenKIngs peRsonneL peRsoneeL
sKenKIngs peRsonneL peRsoneeL DonATIons sKenKIngs peRsonneL peRsoneeL DonATIons sKenKIn
neL peRsoneeL DonATIons sKenKIngs peRsonneL peRsoneeL DonATIons sKenKIngs peRsonneL peR
TIons sKenKIngs peRsonneL peRsoneeL DonATIons sKenKIngs peRsonneL peRsoneeL DonATIons s
sonneL peRsoneeL DonATIons sKenKIngs peRsonneL peRsoneeL DonATIons sKenKIngs peRsonneL

                                 DONATIONS
DonATIons sKenKIngs peRsonneL peRsoneeL DonATIons sKenKIngs peRsonneL peRsoneeL DonATI
Ings peRsonneL peRsoneeL DonATIons sKenKIngs peRsonneL peRsoneeL DonATIons sKenKIngs pe
             tO thE F W dE KLErK FOUndatIOn DonATIons sKenKIngs peRsonneL peRsoneeL
soneeL DonATIons sKenKIngs peRsonneL peRsoneeL and
sKenKIngs peRsonneL peRsoneeL DonATIons sKenKIngs peRsonneL peRsoneeL DonATIons sKenKIn
          thE cEntrE FOr cOnStItUtIOnaL rIGhtS
neL peRsoneeL DonATIons sKenKIngs peRsonneL peRsoneeL DonATIons sKenKIngs peRsonneL peR
         Defense of peRsonneL peRsoneeL
TIons sKenKIngs the Constitution and the rights it contains provides one of the best
        ways of ensuring the continuing success of the new South Africa. However,
        this function requires effective watchdog organizations. The F W de Klerk Foun-       PERSONNEL /
        dation is actively engaged in initiatives to uphold the independence of the judici-
        ary and the national prosecuting authority; to protect property rights; to work for   PERSONEEL
        balanced and effective transformation policies; to protect language rights and
        the right to mother-tongue education - amongst many other initiatives.

        shouLD You wIsh To heLp us conTInue AnD eXpAnD
        ouR wATchDog AcTIvITIes pLeAse DonATe To The
        founDATIon. donations are tax-deductible.

        ■ thE BanK dEtaILS OF thE FW dE KLErK FOUndatIOn
        BANK NAME:         Absa Private Bank
        AccOUNT TyPE:      Cheque                                                             ➤ In December we say good-
        AccOUNT NAME:      The FW de Klerk Foundation                                         bye to Kathryn SEraFInO-
        AccOUNT NUMBER:    4060092839                                                         dOOLEy, legal research assis-
        SWIFT cODE:        absazajj                                                           tant of the centre for constitu-
        BRANch cODE:       632005                                                             tional Rights. She has accepted
                                                                                              an internship at the constitution-
                                                                                              al court as law clerk in Judge
                                                                                              Nkabinde’s chambers, starting
                                                                                              January 2010. Kathryn made an
                                                                                              invaluable contribution to the
                                 SKENKINGS                                                    centre during her time with us
                                                                                              and we wish her every success
              aan dIE F W dE KLErK StIGtInG En
                                                                                              with this new and exiting chap-
           dIE SEntrUM VIr GrOndWEtLIKE rEGtE                                                 ter in her career.
        Die beskerming van die Grondwet en die regte wat dit vervat is een van die
        beste maniere om die voortdurende sukses van die nuwe Suid-Afrika te verse-
        ker. Hierdie funksie vereis egter effektiewe waghond-organisasies. Die F W de
        Klerk Stigting is aktief betrokke by inisiatiewe om die onafhanklikheid van die
        regbank en die nasionale vervolgingsgesag te onderhou; om eiendomsregte te
        beskerm; die beywering van gebalanseerde en effektiewe transformasie be-
        leide; om taalregte en die reg op moedertaalonderrig te beskerm - asook baie
        ander inisiatiewe.

        InDIen u ons gRAAg wIL heLp om vooRT Te gAAn
        meT ons wAghonD-AKTwITeITe en om DIT uIT Te bReI,                                     ➤ nOLUthandO ntLOKWana
        mAAK AssebLIef `n sKenKIng AAn DIe sTIgTIng.                                          dien sedert Oktober as assistent-
        Skenkings is belastingaftrekbaar.                                                     direkteur van die Sentrum vir
                                                                                              Grondwetlike Regte. Sy was
        ■ dIE BanKBESOndErhEdE Van dIE F W dE KLErK StIGtInG                                  voorheen verbonde aan Deneys
        NAAM VAN BANK:     Absa Privaatbank                                                   Reitz Attorneys waar sy as
        TIPE REKENING:     Tjek                                                               prokureur praktiseer het. Ons
        REKENINGNAAM:      The F W de Klerk Foundation                                        het volle vertroue in haar dat sy
        REKENINGNOMMER:    4060092839                                                         `n groot en waardevolle bydrae
        SWIFT KODE:        absazajj                                                           sal lewer tot die aktiwiteite van
        TAKKODE:           632005                                                             die Sentrum, en wens haar alle
                                                                                              voorspoed toe.                    ●




                                                                                                     VOLUM E 6 • IS S U E 2   12
ReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs
s seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs sev-
seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven
seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven
            ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs




         Seven Threats
                                     TO ThE cONSTITUTION



                                           F W dE KLErK haS identified the SACP’s Mid-Term Vi-
                                           sion of imposing working class hegemony over the state
                                           and all centres of power as one of seven threats to the
                                           Constitution. In a lecture this evening at the Potchefstroom
                                           Campus of North-West University he said that the Consti-
                                           tution is “the indispensible basis of our national unity and
                                           our best and abiding hope for continuing freedom, pros-
                                           perity and stability.”

                                           De KLeRK IDenTIfIeD The                     constrained ability to amend any provi-
                                           foLLowIng seven ThReATs                     sion that would undermine the basic
                                           To The consTITuTIon:                        institutions of democracy; the suprem-
                                                                                       acy of the law; and the values of non-
                                           1. Legal amendment. To its credit,          racialism, human dignity, equality and
                                           the Government had shown little in-         the advancement of human rights and
                                           clination to amend the Constitution.        freedoms.”
                                           The exceptions were the Constitution
                                           14th Amendment Bill in 2005 which           2. Erosion by ordinary legislation.
                                           would have seriously undermined the         Last year’s Expropriation Bill would
                                           independence of the judiciary and the       have undermined access to the courts
                                           Constitution 17th Amendment Bill rela-      by seriously limiting the role of courts
                                           ting to the powers of municipal govern-     in determining fair compensation for
                                           ment. The former bill was withdrawn af-     expropriated property. Fortunately, the
                                           ter it encountered vehement opposition      Bill was withdrawn. The legislation that
                                           from jurists and commentators across        abolished the Scorpions diluted the con-
                                           the political spectrum. The latter was      stitutionally guaranteed independence
                           Seven threats




                                           still before parliament - and if adopted    of the National Prosecuting Authority. In
                                           would give government at the national       the same manner, the recently adopted
                                           level the power to intervene in a wide      Films and Publications Amendment Act
                                           range of municipal functions. Accor-        undermined important aspects of the
                                           ding to De Klerk this “would undermine      right to freedom of expression.
                                           one of the key compromises in the
                                           Constitution”.                              3. Government neglect parts of the
                                               He said that it was important to note   constitution that it did not like. This
                                           that Parliament could amend the foun-       was particularly apparent in the manner
                                           ding provisions in Section 1 of the Con-    in which the Constitution’s language
                                           stitution only with a 75% majority. “In     provisions have been systematically
                                           other words, Parliament has only a very     ignored since 1994.




    13    VO LUME 6 • IS S U E 2
seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven
ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReA
en ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven Th
seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven
ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReA
en ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven Th
seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven
         seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATsroute for the
ThReATs4. dysfunctional service delivery.        ‘pre-determined singular seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReA
             seven ThReATs seven                 working class to ThReATs seven
en ThReATsconstitutional rights were under-ThReATs seven hegemonise power.” ThReATs seven ThReATs seven Th
       Key
                                                 It had also seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven
seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs quoted with approval the
       mined because of the state’s inability to
         seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs of the Com-
ThReATsassure them. Rampant crime deprived       long-standing instruction seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReA
                        ThReATs seven            munist party of ThReATs seven
en ThReATs seven right to life; their right toThReATs seventhe Soviet Union that ThReATs seven ThReATs seven Th
       people of their
seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven
       be free from violence; and their right to the SACP should concentrate on ‘deve-
         seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs leadership ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReA
ThReATsproperty. The right to equality had been  loping systematically the seven of
                                                                     ThReATs seven
en ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seventhe Communist Party” ThReATs seven ThReATs seven Th
       negated by the fact that South Africa     the workers and
seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven
       was still one of the most unequal soci-   with the ANC.
ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReA
       eties in the world. Similarly, children’s    F W de Klerk noted that COSATU
en ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven Th
       rights; the right to basic education and  and the SACP had recently launched
seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven
       speedy trial were all undermined by       a full frontal attack on Minister Trevor
ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReA
       the state’s inability to assure service   Manuel, because
                                                                     ThReATs that the
en ThReATs seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven they believed seven ThReATs seven ThReATs seven Th
         delivery.                                      Green Paper on National Strategic Plan-
                                                        ning presaged a return to the broad eco-
         5. an executive or sectionally-mind-           nomic policies of President Mbeki. He
         ed judiciary. De Klerk stressed that           said that the outcome of this struggle
         this had not yet happened. “The courts         would show where the centre of gravity      “... the Constitu-
         have, on the whole, given judgments            in the ANC now lies.                        tion is “the indis-
         that are independent and impartial. The            “COSATU and the SACP are making
         new Chief Justice has convincingly ex-         no secret of their intention of seizing
                                                                                                    pensible basis of
         pressed his commitment to uphold the           ‘working class hegemony in the State        our national uni-
         independence of the judiciary and of           and in all centres of power’ as the pre-
                                                                                                    ty and our best
         the Constitution.”                             lude to the establishment of a Marxist-
            Although it was acceptable that the         Leninist state. Needless to say, any        and abiding hope
         bench should keep pace with changing           such move would be a fatal blow - not       for continuing
         public values and attitudes, there were        only to our Constitution and our democ-
         limits to the political evolution of the ju-   racy - but to our economy to any pros-      freedom, prosper-
         diciary in multicultural societies. “If the    pect for peace and stability”.              ity and stability.”
         courts consistently deliver judgments in
         favour of just one side of the balance,        7. apathy. The most insidious threat
         the carefully constructed compromises          to the Constitution was “our own apa-
         at the heart of our constitution will be       thy … our unwillingness to support our
         destroyed. With them will go prospects         Constitution and to claim the rights
         for national unity and stability.”             that it guarantees”. De Klerk called on
                                                        South Africans to make the Constitu-        “We are prepared
         6. Political subversion. The ANC con-          tion a central part of their thoughts and
         ference at Polokwane had shown that            of their lives. “We are prepared to pay     to pay good mo-
         power did not rest with parliament or          good money to insure our homes, our         ney to insure our
         the executive but with the faction that        cars, our health and our lives. What are
         controlled the majority party. It was          we prepared to do to ensure our future
                                                                                                    homes, our cars,
         accordingly important to observe the           freedom, peace and prosperity?”             our health and
         power relationships within the ruling             F W de Klerk concluded by saying
         party and the ANC/SACP/COSATU alli-            that despite the threats to the Consti-
                                                                                                    our lives. What
         ance. In this regard, observers should         tution he remained an optimist. “I am       are we prepared
         take note of the COSATU/SACP’s Mid-            confident that many people in the ANC       to do to ensure
         Term Vision “to secure working class           leadership share many of the concerns
         hegemony in the State in its diversity         that I have expressed this evening.         our future free-
         and in all other sites of power”.              I am confident that great majorities        dom, peace and
            The SACP, which had 80 members              from all our communities support the
         in the last parliament elected on the          Constitution.”                          ●
                                                                                                    prosperity?”
         ANC’s list, had decided that “although
         elections are important, there is not a




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          The Enemy
                                                         emY DIe vYAnD The enemY DIe vYAnD


                                                                             WIThIN OUR GATES
          thE 10th SUMMIt of Nobel Peace Laureates took place in Berlin on 10 Novem-
          ber in conjunction with celebrations to mark the 20th anniversary of the fall of the
          wall. One of the highlights of the Summit was the presentation to the singer Annie
          Lennox of a special award for the work that she is doing to combat AIDS in South
          Africa and to help AIDS victims. Annie Lennox presented a heart-wrenching video
          that she had made of the reality of AIDS in South Africa: emaciated bodies; faces
          scarred by lesions; dismal funerals; pinewood coffins with string handles. She also
          showed what could be achieved with well-directed AIDS programmes. For a brief
          moment, in a far-off corner of the world, opinion was focused on South Africa’s
          dominant tragedy.

          Earlier that day I had watched the Sky News coverage of          defeat AIDS in all our communication. We must discuss
          the funerals of six British servicemen who had been killed in    it in our homes and in our schools. We must spread the
          Afghanistan the previous week. There were photos of each         message in our places of work and when we get together
          of the victims and extensive interviews with their grieving      for recreation. It must be sung in our songs and depicted
          families. Their deaths brought the number of British troops      in our paintings; it must be whispered into the ears of lov-
          who had died in the war to 229 - each of them covered by         ers; it must be shouted by children to one another in their
          the media, each of them mourned by the nation.                   games; it must be written on our walls and in our books.
             The same week 5 000 people died of AIDS in South Af-          Only if we are all totally committed to this struggle will
          rica. There were no reports in the media and no interviews       we succeed.
          with grieving relatives. AIDS deaths are no longer news              “We must show the compassion of Africa to those who
          - because 5 000 people have been dying each and every            become the victims of AIDS – either those who themselves
          week since the beginning of this decade. And yet each            succumb to the disease and to the millions of orphans who
          death is a tragedy. Each death brings with it suffering and      will be left in its wake. Where possible we must alleviate
          pain - not only for the victim but for the children, parents,    the symptoms and prevent the spreading of AIDS by ma-
          brothers, sisters and friends that they leave behind.            king anti-retroviral drugs available to those who suffer from
             Our problem is that we have lost all sense of the scale       the disease and particularly to pregnant mothers. We must
          of the disaster that is afflicting our country. More people      ease the passing of the dying and ensure that they leave
          die of AIDS every 18 days than were killed in the South          us and their families with dignity and with as little suffer-
          African armed forces during six years of the Second World        ing as possible. We must harness the spirit of ubuntu to
          War. More people die of AIDS every thirty-five days than         open our hearts, our homes and our communities to the
          were killed in political violence and conflict in the 34 years   millions of AIDS orphans. We must not allow them to grow
          between 1960 and 1994. We have already lost more than            up unloved and uncared for in the streets or in impersonal
          2.4 million people in the nine years since 2 000 - compared      institutions.”
          with 491 000 that Britain lost in World War II.                      That was nine years - and 2.4 million lives - ago. Accor-
             Why has there not been the same degree of national            ding to StatsSA there are 1.6 million people suffering from
          mobilisation that we witnessed in South Africa, Britain and      AIDS who require anti-retroviral therapy - but only 870 000
          other countries that we saw during WWII? The threat and          are receiving it. Another 3.5 million are HIV positive. There
          the loss of life is far greater. Why have we not mobilised       are 1.9 million children who have lost one, or both, parents
          every sinew of our resources to combat the enemy that is         to AIDS. One in every five women between the ages of 15
          already within our gates?                                        and 49 is HIV positive. Unless they receive treatment they
                                                                           will die within ten years of contracting the disease - which
          ➤ On 30 November 2000, F W de Klerk made the                     now accounts for 43% of all deaths in South Africa.
          following plea to a conference in Lagos, Nigeria:                    We need the kind of national mobilization that countries
                                                                           like Britain and the United States mounted in World War II.
          “We know what causes AIDS. We know how to stop it                Annie Lennox is mobilized: she cares and is working
          from spreading. We know how to protect our children and          tirelessly to help AIDS victims: Shouldn’t we all be doing
          ourselves. We must spread the message of how we can              the same?                                                   ●




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        Die Vyand
AnD The enemY DIe vYAnD The enemY DIe vYAnD The enemY DIe vYAnD The enemY DIe vYAnD


                                                                      BINNE ONS POORTE
        dIE 10dE SPItSBEraad van Nobel-vredespryswenners het plaasgevind in Berlyn
        op 10 November tesame met feesvieringe vir die 20ste herdenking van die val van
        die muur. Een van die hoogtepunte van die spitsberaad was die toekenning van `n
        spesiale prys aan die sanger Annie Lennox, vir die werk wat sy doen in die bekamping
        van VIGS in Suid-Afrika en die hulp wat sy verleen aan slagoffers van VIGS. Sy het `n
        hartverskeurende video aangebied wat sy gemaak het oor die realiteite van VIGS in
        Suid-Afrika: uitgeteerde liggame; gesigte vol littekens; droewige begrafnisse; denne-
        houtkiste met toue as handvatsels. Sy het ook gewys wat bereik kon word met goed
        bestuurde VIGS-programme. Vir `n vlietende oomblik, in `n verafgeleë uithoek van die
        wêreld, is die aandag gevestig op Suid-Afrika se dominante tragedie.

        Vroeër daardie dag het ek gekyk na die Sky News uitsen-           keer dat dit versprei. Ons weet hoe om ons kinders en
        ding van die begrafnisse van ses Britse dienaars wat dood         onsself te beskerm. Ons moet die boodskap versprei oor
        is in Afganistan die vorige week. Daar was foto’s van elk         hoe om VIGS te beveg. Ons moet dit in ons huise en skole
        van die slagoffers en uitgebreide onderhoude met hul ge-          bespreek. Ons moet die boodskap versprei in ons werk-
        broke families. Hul dood het die getal Britse troepe wat in       plekke en wanneer ons bymekaarkom vir ontspanning.
        die oorlog dood is, op 229 te staan gebring - waarvan elk         Daar moet oor gesing word in ons liedjies en uitgebeeld
        deur die media gedek is, elk gerou is deur die nasie.             word in ons skilderye; dit moet gefluister word in die ore
            Dieselfde week is 5000 mense dood aan VIGS in Suid-           van ons geliefdes; dit moet geskree word deur kinders
        Afrika. Daar was geen beriggewing in die media nie en             wanneer hulle speel; dit moet geskryf word op ons mure
        geen onderhoude met gebroke familielede nie. VIGS is nie          en in ons boeke. Slegs as ons volkome toegewyd is aan
        meer nuus nie - want 5000 mense sterf elke liewe dag              hierdie struggle sal ons suksesvol kan wees.
        sedert die begin van hierdie dekade. En tog is elke sterfte           “Ons moet die meegevoel van Afrika betoon aan die-
        `n tragedie. Elke sterfte gaan gepaard met lyding en pyn -        gene wat slagoffers is van VIGS - diegene wat daaraan
        nie net vir die slagoffer nie, maar ook vir die kinders, ouers,   dood is, sowel as aan die miljoene wesies wat agtergelaat
        broers, susters en vriende wat hulle agterlaat.                   gaan word. Waar moontlik moet ons die simptome probeer
            Ons probleem is dat ons uit voeling geraak het met die        verlig en die verspreiding van VIGS voorkom deur antiret-
        enorme ramp wat ons land in die gesig staar. Meer mense           rovirale medisyne beskikbaar te stel aan diegene wat met
        sterf elke 18 dae weens VIGS as wat gesterf het in die            die siekte besmet is en veral aan swanger moeders. Ons
        Suid-Afrikaanse gewapende magte gedurende ses jaar van            moet die afsterwe van lyers makliker maak en toesien dat
        die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Meer mense sterf elke 35 dae             hulle ons en hul families met waardigheid en so min lyding
        aan VIGS as wat dood is in politieke geweld en konflik in         as moontlik agterlaat. Ons moet vasklou aan die gees van
        die 34 jaar tussen 1960 en 1994. Ons het reeds meer as            ubuntu en ons harte, huise en gemeenskappe oopmaak vir
        2.4 miljoen mense verloor in die nege jaar sedert 2000 - in       die miljoene VIGS-wesies. Ons moenie toelaat dat hulle
        vergelyking met 491 000 wat Brittanje verloor het in die          sonder liefde en onversorgd op die strate of in onpersoon-
        Tweede Wêreldoorlog.                                              like instellings grootword nie.”
            Hoekom sien ons nie dieselfde graad van nasionale                 Dit was nege jaar en 2.4 miljoen lewens gelede. Volgens
        mobilisasie wat ons gesien het in Suid-Afrika, Brittanje en       StatsSA is daar 1.6 miljoen mense met VIGS wat antiretrovi-
        ander lande gedurende die Tweede Wêreldoorlog nie? Die            rale behandeling nodig het - maar slegs 870 000 ontvang dit.
        bedreiging vir en verlies aan lewe is immers baie groter.         Nóg 3.5 miljoen is MIV positief. Daar is 1.9 miljoen kinders
        Hoekom het ons nie mobiliseer met elke moontlike hulp-            wat een of albei ouers verloor het weens VIGS. Een uit
        bron om die vyand binne ons poorte te beveg nie?                  elke vyf vroue tussen die ouderdomme van 15 en 49 is
                                                                          MIV positief.
        ➤ Op 30 November 2000 het F W de Klerk die                            Ons kort die soort mobilisasie wat lande soos Brittan-
        volgende beroep gedoen tydens `n konferensie in                   je en die Verenigde State organiseer het in die Tweede
        Lagos, Nigerië:                                                   Wêreldoorlog. Annie Lennox is gemobiliseerd: sy gee om
                                                                          en werk voortdurend daaraan om slagoffers van VIGS te
        “Ons weet wat VIGS veroorsaak. Ons weet hoe om te                 help - moet ons nie almal dieselfde doen nie?              ●




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         Zeezicht Building, Tygerberg Office Park,
consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus con
         163 Hendrik Verwoerd Drive, Plattekloof 7500, South Africa
nsus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensu
         PO Box 15785, Panorama 7506, South Africa
consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus con
nsus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensu
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         Tel: +27 (0)21 930 3622
         Fax: +27 consensus
nsus consensus (0)21 930 3898 consensus consensus consensus consensus consensus consensu
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         E-mail: info@fwdeklerk.org
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         Website: www.fwdeklerk.org
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                                                                        sus consensus con
                        Upholding South Africa’s National Accord

								
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