Life at the Turn of the Twentieth Century by shimeiyan

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									Unit I – An Industrial
        Nation

        Chapter 5

 Section 3 – Life at the Turn of the
        Twentieth Century
  New Immigrants – A Nation of Immigrants

• 1800-1880- more that 10 million immigrants- “Old
  Immigrants”- from Northern and Western Europe.
• 1880-1910- some 18 million immigrants- “New
  Comers”- from Southern and Eastern Europe,
  including Catholics, Orthodox and Jewish faiths.
• Severe immigration laws limited East Asia.
• 1910- one out of every seven Americans was foreign
  born.
  Coming to America
• Reasons to immigrate- Political, Economic and Religious
• Ellis Island, New York Harbor- in 62 years over 12 million came
  through
• Angel Island, San Francisco Bay- newcomers from Asia.
• Hardships in America- crowded tenements, low paying unskilled
  jobs, ghettos.
• Ethnic neighborhoods tried to keep their cultures alive and build
  communities.
• Prejudice-
   – Nativists- American Natives who blamed immigrants for increases
     in crime and poverty. Stealing American jobs.
   – Chinese Exclusion Act- 1882- banned Chineses immigration for 10
     years.
   – Some Nativists wanted literacy tests to determine the ability to
     read. This Act was approved over President Wilson’s veto.
Reasons and Realities
         Coming to America               Prejudice Against Immigrants


• All came for a better life           • Immigrants faced crowding and
                                         low pay, but settled near others
   – Jews in particular fled eastern     from their country and started
     Europe to escape religious          communities and organizations
     persecution.                        to help themselves.
   – Southern and eastern              • Some native-born Americans,
     Europeans also fled from            known as nativists, saw
     severe poverty.                     immigrants as a threat to their
• In 1892 the government opened          jobs and safe communities.
  an immigration station at Ellis      • On the West Coast, prejudice
  Island in New York Harbor.             was directed against Asians;
   – Over the years, some 12             Chinese immigrants were
     million people passed through       restricted from jobs and
     Ellis Island. Doctors checked       neighborhoods, and
     them for diseases or                immigration was halted by
     disabilities.                       Congress through the Chinese
                                         Exclusion Act.
• After 1910, Asians passed
  through Angel Island in San          • Nativists wanted immigrants to
  Francisco Bay, but many were           pass a literacy test, and
  held like prisoners for weeks.         Congress approved the bill.
Reasons to Come to America
•   1830-1890
    – The reason for immigration in the period from 1830-1890 is quite clear. Land
      remained plentiful, and fairly cheap. Jobs were abundant, and labor was
      scarce and relatively dear. A decline in the birthrate as well as an increase in
      industry and urbanization reinforced this situation.
    – The United States, in the 19th Century, remained a strong magnet to
      immigrants, with offers of jobs and land for farms. Glowing reports from
      earlier arrivals who made good reinforced the notion that in America, the
      streets were, "paved with gold," as well as offerings of religious and political
      freedom.
•   1890-1924
         •   Jews came for religious freedom
         •   Italians and Asians came for Work
         •   Russians came to escape persecution
         •   America had jobs
         •   America had religious freedom
         •   America was hyped up in many countries as "Land of Opportunity“
•   1968- Present
         • The main reason why everybody wants to go to US is because if they would go
           somewhere like France of Japan although they would get higher wages, there
           is a much greater chance of getting harassed, arrested or deported in those
           countries as opposed to US.
Immigrants – 1:06
Irish Potato Famine and Immigration to America – 1:36
Ellis Island




Angel Island
Urban Life in America
• Architects used steel frames and elevators to build tall buildings in
  cities. New urban planning specialists redesigned cities and built parks.
• Settlement houses helped immigrants overcome poverty. Reformers
  who believed in social gospel, or expressing faith through good works,
  volunteered in the settlement houses.
• Lifestyles varied dramatically for those of varied social status.

       Wealthy                  Middle Class             Working Class
• Made their money in        • Made up of             • Poor, paid low
  industry and                 corporate                wages, faced
  business                     employees and            housing
                               professionals
• Showed off their                                      shortages, lived
  wealth                     • 1870s and 1880s:         in filthy, crowded
                               professional
• Built castle-like                                     tenements.
                               organizations
  homes in places                                     • Many women held
                               begin to set
  such as New York’s                                    jobs outside the
                               standards for
  stylish Fifth Avenue
                               some occupations         home.
Local and National Political Corruption

                         Local
• Urban problems such as crime and poor sanitation led
  people to give control of local governments to political
  machines, or organizations of professional politicians.
• Machine bosses were often corrupt, asking for votes
  in exchange for jobs and housing, taking bribes, and
  using fraud to win elections.
• William Marcy Tweed, or Boss Tweed, led a political
  machine called Tammany Hall in New York City and
  made himself and his friends very rich.
• Eight years later his corruption was made public,
  when he was sent to prison for fraud.
Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall – 1:35
Local and National Political Corruption


                    Federal
  Ulysses S. Grant’s presidency was caught up in
                 scandals, such as
     – Crédit Mobilier, scheme to funnel federal
       railroad money to stockholders.
  • Attempts at reform split the republican party.
     – In 1880 the party chose a reformer, James
       A. Garfield, who was assassinated shortly
       after his inauguration
     – His successor, Chester A. Arthur, supported
       reforms, and helped pass the Pendleton
       Civil Service Act, which required that
       promotions be based on merit, not politics.
    James A. Garfield (Republican)

1881- 20th President
    – Election of 1880- opponent- James G. Blaine “Plumed Knight” and
      a half breed republicans.
    – Assassination
        • Charles Guiteau - crazed lawyer and disgruntled party loyalist
          who failed to get a government job.
Death of Garfield
•   It is commonly believed that Guiteau's outrage was responsible for the Garfield's assassination. In actuality, it
    only played a small role.
•   Guiteau was a deeply religious man and believed that God had ordered him to kill the President. One bullet
    grazed his arm but the other one had lodged itself somewhere inside the President's body.
•   Garfield was rushed to the White House, having never lost consciousness. For the next eighty days, sixteen
    doctors were consulted regarding the President's condition. At least 3 surgeons probed the wound with
    unwashed fingers and non sterile probes and could not find the bullet. A naval surgeon actually punctured the
    liver while probing and caused the damage the bullet did not. But, Garfield didn't die the next day.
•   His fever rose and he was put on a diet of milk spiked with brandy. And the surgeons continued to probe with
    unwashed fingers.
•   Alexander Graham Bell rigged up a crude metal detector to help find the bullet. With Garfield's condition
    growing steadily worse, doctors decided to cut him open to remove the slug. It was not found. What Bell had
    actually located so deep in the body was the metal spring under the mattress! No wonder they couldn't find the
    bullet.
•   In the end, they managed to take a 3 inch wound and turn it into a twenty inch canal that was heavily infected
    and oozed more and more pus with each passing day. The deep wound with its massive infection, coupled with
    possible blood poisoning from the bullet, caused the President's heart to weaken. Garfield had a massive heart
    attack several days later, but these well trained physicians botched this diagnosis also. They attributed it to the
    rupturing of a blood vessel in his stomach!
•   At the autopsy, examiners determined that the bullet had lodged itself some four inches from the spine in a
    protective cyst. Their conclusion -Garfield would have survived if the doctors had left him alone.
•   The physicians had the nerve to submit a bill for their services of $85,000 to the Senate. The federal government
    paid $10,000 (a ripoff) and good old Doctor Bliss was forced to make a public apology.
Settlement House Movement
• Settlement House- volunteers offer
  immigrants services- language instruction,
  job training, social activities, clubs and
  sports.
• Over 400 settlement house in America by
  1910
• Social Gospel- faith is expressed through
  good works. Churches had moral duty to
  help solve social problems.
Jane Addams
      There is an old
        saying that says,
        “Behind every
        good man there
        stands a good
        woman.” But
        throughout
        history, was that
        man just standing
        in the way of the
        woman?
Jane Addams
       Birth: 1860, Cedarville, Illinois
       Death: 1935, Chicago, Illinois
       Founder of the Settlement House
        Movement.
       She and her friend Ellen Starr
        founded Hull House in the slums of
        Chicago in 1889.
       She wrote 11 books, numerous
        articles and headed various
        organizations.
       She participated in the
        International Congress of Women
        at the Hague in 1915
       First American Woman to receive
        the Nobel Peace Prize
Hull House, founded 1889
                       By 1893, Hull-House had
                 become a center for a wide variety
                 of clubs, functions, classes and
                 activities for the neighborhood.
                 Addams and her associates
                 championed the protection of
                 immigrants, child labor laws and
                 recreation facilities for children,
                 industrial safety, juvenile courts,
                 recognition of labor unions, woman
                 suffrage, and world peace.
                        Addams never drew a salary
                 from Hull-House, but instead used
                 her inheritance and the proceeds
                 from her many books and articles
                 to live on as well as to underwrite
                 these causes.
Hull House- National Historic
         Landmark
                   Around Hull-House, immigrants
             to Chicago crowded into a residential
             and industrial neighborhood. Italians,
             Russian and Polish Jews, Irish,
             Germans, Greeks and Bohemians
             predominated. Hull House provided
             services for the neighborhood, such as
             kindergarten and daycare facilities for
             children of working mothers, an
             employment bureau, an art gallery,
             libraries, and music and art classes.
             By 1900 the Jane Club (a cooperative
             residence for working women), the
             first Little Theater in America, a Labor
             Museum and a meeting place for trade
             union groups.
                   The original Hull mansion
             remains, a national historic landmark
             in June of 1967
Farmers Reform Movement
• In the late 1800s crop prices were falling and farmers began to
  organize into groups to protect themselves financially.

• The Order of Patrons of              • The Farmer’s Alliance
  Husbandry, or the National             wanted government to print
  Grange, wanted the state to            more paper money, thinking
  regulate railroad rates.               they could charge more for
                                         farm goods if more money
• The Supreme Court ruled that
                                         were circulating.
  only the federal government
  could regulate.                      • In 1873 paper money was
                                         placed on the gold standard,
• Congress then passed the
                                         reducing the amount of
  Interstate Commerce Act in
                                         money in circulation.
  1887, marking the first time
                                         Farmers wanted money to
  federal government regulated
                                         be backed by silver.
  industry.
• The Farmer’s Alliance started the Populist Party, calling for bank
  regulation, government-owned railroads and free coinage of silver.
• Their stand against powerful interests influenced later politicians.
              Farmers Organize
• Patrons of Husbandry 1867
   – Organized as a social and education society
   – Lodges called “Granges”
   – Farmers could discuss problems- absentee landlords, interest,
     railroads, elevator rates, etc.
   – Farmers organized cooperatives- mills and elevators.
   – Granger laws, setting or authorizing maximum railroad rates
     and establishing state railroad commissions for administering
     the new legislation. “Munn v. Illinois” (later to be overturned)

• Production soared- more farmland under cultivation, more
  machinery, and better yield. Farmers had to compete on an
  international level. This caused the prices to go down
  farther due to surplus.
 Farmers’ reform movements

• Interstate Commerce Act of 1887-
  – Banned Rebates.
  – Rates must be proportional to distance
    traveled.
  – Rate schedules must be public and open to
    inspection.
           Sherman Silver Purchase
                 Act- 1890
•   Required the U.S. government to purchase nearly
    twice as much silver as before, but also added
    substantially to the amount of money already in
    circulation.
     – The Treasury would purchase 4.5 million ounces (or
       281,250 pounds) of silver each month at market
       rates
     – The Treasury would issue notes redeemable in
       either gold or silver.

•   However, the increased supply of silver drove
    down the price. Many mine operators in the West
    tried to reduce expenses by cutting the miners'
    wages. Labor unrest and sporadic violence
    followed.
•   As the price of silver continued to decline,
    holders of the government notes understandably
    redeemed them for gold rather than silver-
    Leading to the Panic of 1893.
The 1896 Election
•   After the election of 1892, a major railroad company failed, triggering
    the Panic of 1893.
•   Stock prices fell and millions lost their jobs. President Cleveland
    blamed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, which required the
    government to buy silver with paper money redeemable in either gold
    or silver.
•   Silver was still an issue in the 1896 election, when Republicans
    nominated William McKinley, who favored the gold standard and
    Democrats chose William Jennings Bryan, who defended silver.
•   Bryan made a dramatic speech saying using the gold standard was
    like crucifying mankind on a “cross of gold.”
•   This speech won Bryan Populist support, but terrified business
    leaders gave money to the Republicans, and McKinley won the
    election.
                                   Grange
•   From the start, the grange organization was thought of
    as a secret society, much like the Masons. Membership
    was supposed to be open to only farmers and their
    families, although at one point, lawyers, businessmen
    and politicians joined.
•   There was a time in the not-too-distant past when the
    local Grange Hall was the center of community life in
    many small towns. It was a place of social gathering, a
    political rallying point, an economic cooperative, a
    fraternal order, a service organization and an
    agricultural forum. It instilled love of God, family and
    country. It helped farmers band together to protect
    their mutual interests. And, more than any other
    institution it embodied an American way of life.
•   The Grange is the nation’s oldest and second largest
    farm organization. It had its beginnings in Washington
    DC in 1867, founded by a group of farmers for their
    mutual support and to foster civic, moral and political
    responsibility. Grange members joined in various group
    ventures: buying and selling goods; legislative lobbying
    on behalf of farmers; and eventually, in protecting
    themselves through insurance.
The Populists – 2:48 min.
                    Populist Party
•   Farmers as a group did not share in the general
    prosperity of the latter nineteenth century, and
    believed that they had been marked out as
    special victims of the new industrial system
•   Agricultural areas in the West and South had
    been hit by economic depression years before
    industrial areas. In the 1880s, as drought hit the
    wheat-growing areas of the Great Plains and
    prices for Southern cotton sunk to new lows,
    many tenant farmers fell into deep debt. This
    exacerbated long-held grievances against
    railroads, lenders, grain-elevator owners, and
    others with whom farmers did business.

•   Party of the People- farmers and reformers-
    1892
•   Governors, Senators and even a presidential
    candidate- Gen. James B. Weaver.
Populist Party-                         The goal was not just to
relieve economic pressure on agriculture, but also to restore
democracy by eliminating what the Populists saw as the corrupt and
corrupting alliance between business and government.
                                   • Platform: Omaha
                                     1892
                                       –   Support Labor Unions
                                       –   Wealth belongs to those who
                                           make it
                                       –   Government ownership of
                                           Railroads, telephone and
                                           telegraph.
                                       –   Free Silver
                                       –   Graduated Income Tax
                                       –   Secret Ballot
                                       –   Shorten work hours.
                                       –   Initiative and Referendum
                                       –   Direct election of Senators
          Mary Lease                   –   Restriction of Immigration
William Jennings Bryan – 2:32
         Wilson-Gorman Tariff-
                 1894
•   It added a number of items to the
    free list, including sugar, lumber,
    coal and wool. Further, the duties
    on imported manufactured goods
    would be reduced while
    maintaining their protective
    nature.
•   To compensate for the revenue
    shortfall that tariff reform would
    create, Wilson’s bill called for the
    imposition of a two percent
    income tax, an idea recently
    heralded by the Populists.
•   In the end it was not an example
    of tariff reform and most was
    declared unconstitutional
                    Labor Discontent
• Panic of 1893- Depression- 500
    banks and 16,000 businesses declared
    bankruptcy, millions out of work, winter
    brought suffering.

• Coxey’s Army- 1894- 500
    workers (the Industrial Army) who
    marched from Ohio to Washington to
    protest the plight of the poor unemployed
    workers. He favored federally funded
    community public works and building
    programs as a solution to the panic.
•   Coxey wanted to increase the amount of
    currency in circulation, which would allow
    more money to be spend on public works,
    thus providing jobs for the unemployed.
    He and the other leaders were arrested in
    D.C. for trespassing (police arrested him
    for walking on the grass.)
Election of 1892
        •   Republicans- William Henry
            Harrison
        •   Democrats- Grover Cleveland.
        •   Populists- Gen. James B. Weaver.
        •   Campaign- nation torn up by labor
            strife. Homestead Strike, miners,
            and federal troops
        •   Outcome: Cleveland wins, Weaver
            got 1 million votes and Populist got
            3 Senators and eleven congressmen
            elected.
        •   One of the goals of the Populists in
            the South was to politically unite
            poor African Americans and poor
            whites.
 Populist Party
• Election of 1896
  – Republican William McKinley-
    supports gold standard




  – Democrat/Populist William
    Jennings Bryant- supports free
    coinage of silver. “Cross of
    Gold Speech” scared business
    leaders who helped McKinley
    win.
     Segregation and Discrimination

•   After Reconstruction, southern legislatures passed laws that restricted
    African Americans’ rights, but prejudice existed nationwide.
•   Some white southerners tried to restrict African Americans’ right to vote by
    requiring voters to pay a poll tax and pass a literacy test.
•   Southern legislatures passed the Jim Crow Laws to create and enforce
    segregation in public places.
•   One law requiring separate railway cars for African Americans and whites
    was tested by Homer Plessy, an African American. His case went to the
    Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson. They upheld segregation, saying
    “separate but equal” facilities didn’t violate the Fourteenth Amendment.
•   In addition to legalized discrimination, strict rules governed social and
    business interactions between black and white Americans.
•   The worst outcome of discrimination was lynching, or murder by a mob.
    Nearly 900 African Americans were murdered between 1882 and 1892 by
    lynch mobs.
Opposing Discrimination
• Two approaches to fighting racism emerged. Some advocated
  accepting segregation and learning skills to rise up, others believed
  African American should strive for full rights immediately.
• Two leaders represented these groups.



          Booker T. Washington                     W.E.B. Du Bois
    • Born into slavery                   • Believed that African Americans
                                            should strive for full rights
    • Believed African Americans had to     immediately
      accept segregation for the moment
                                          • Helped found the Niagara
    • Believed they could improve their     Movement in 1905 to fight for
      condition by learning farming and     equal rights
      vocational skills
                                          • Members of the Niagara
    • Founded the Tuskegee Institute to     Movement later founded the
      teach African Americans practical     National Association for the
      skills                                Advancement of Colored People
                                            (NAACP)
    Other Groups Face Discrimination
    Hispanic Americans       Asian Americans          Native Americans
•    Most Mexican            • In some areas,        • Native Americans
     immigrants were           Asian immigrants        had to endure the
     farmers, but there        lived in segregated     government’s
                                                       Americanization
     weren’t enough farm       neighborhoods.
                                                       policy, which tried
     jobs to go around.                                to stamp out their
                             • Many landlords
•    Spanish-speaking          wouldn’t rent to        culture.
     people often had to       them.                 • Living on
     take menial jobs for                              reservations gave
                             • A law passed in
     low pay.                                          Native Americans
                               1900 prohibited         few opportunities.
•    Many were trapped         marriages between
     by debt peonage, in       whites and Asian      • Many Native
     which they couldn’t       Americans.              Americans did not
                                                       have citizenship
     leave jobs until they                             until the Indian
                             • Some laws limited
     paid debts to their                               Citizenship Act of
                               Chinese
     employers.                                        1924.
                               immigration.

								
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