University of Alberta Interpersonal Communication Skills for - PowerPoint

Document Sample
University of Alberta Interpersonal Communication Skills for - PowerPoint Powered By Docstoc
					        University of Alberta
Interpersonal Communication Skills
       for Project Managers
       ENG M 657- Fall 2008

         Lecture No. 1
 Understanding Communication
                 By
     Sami Fahmy, PhD, P. Eng. PMP
                                    1
                Agenda
• Definition
• Project environment and its impact on
  communication and relationships
• Importance of communication
• The nature of communication
• The Communication model or process;
• Formal and informal communication
  networks
• Ethical dimension of communication
• Face to face and electronic communication
• Characteristics of good communication
                                          2
          Learning Objectives
• Identify common communication problems that
  are impacting on your performance
• Develop speaking skills that will help you get
  your message across effectively and efficiently.
• Develop skills in listening actively and
  empathetically to others
• Learn what your non-verbal messages are
  telling others
• Know how your assumption influence your
  perception and feelings
                                               3
   You will specifically learn
• Why misunderstandings happen and how
  to prevent them
• When to stop talking and start listening
  interactively
• How to use the speaking and listening
  skills to achieve your goals
• How to interpret the non-verbal messages
  you receive from others

                                             4
             References
• Conflict Management for Project Managers
  (PMI) by John Adams & Bryan Campell

• Team Building for Project Managers (PMI) by
  John Adams & Bryan Campell

• Roles and Responsibilities of the Project
  Manager (PMI) by John Adams & Bryan Campell

• Managing Projects in Organizations, by Dr.
  David Frame
                                                5
        References (cont.)
• The Art of Communication, 50 minutes
  Series book by Decker Bert
• Effective listening, how to profit by tuning
  into the ideas and suggestion of others, by
  Kevin J. Murphy.
• Difficult people. how to deal with
  impossible clients, bosses and employee
  by Roberta Cava
• Human Resources Skills for Project
  Managers, by Vijay Verma
                                            6
   The Learning Process
How Do We Form New Habits?

                                           Unconscious
                                           Competence

                              Conscious
                              Competence

               Conscious
               Incompetence

Unconscious
Incompetence



                                                         7
       Opening Exercise

• In your teams, List seven common
  communication challenges that comes
  up in a project team environment
• Think of way to reduce or eliminate
  their occurrence
• Use table



                                        8
       The first problem
for all of us men and women
is not to learn but to unlearn
          Gloria Stelmen




                                 9
How to Maximize Your Benefits from
           this course

 •   Have an open mind
 •   Participate
 •   Ask questions
 •   Take notes
 •   Teach someone
 •   Use what you learn – Apply immediately


                                          10
   Application Areas
• Office environment: dealing with
  colleagues, team members, other project
  manager, boss and subordinates
• Site offices: talking to superintendents
  and subcontractors
• Dealing with Contractors, consultants
  and clients
• Home environment, dealing with
  spouse and family members
                                             11
Warning, as you practice the new
             tools
• Let others know what you are doing( I am
  different now)
• Commitment to apply the tools and
  techniques
• Choosing appropriate situation for trying
  your new skills
• Expect occasional failure
• Be persistent

                                              12
       What is the
      ROOT CAUSE
          of
         ALL
the problems and the troubles
       that we face
   at home and at work
                            13
   POOR
COMMUNCATION



               14
       Class discussion
For the same culture and language,
               60 to 70%
         of communication

              are
misunderstood and misinterpreted

Add to this, that we only hear almost
      50% of what is being said
                                        15
   The Goal
      is
  to Become
      A
   Skillful
Communicator
               16
                Focus on key Areas
        Effective                          Active
        Speaking                          Listening




   Gender                  Skillful               Cultural
communication            Communicator           Intelligence




    Recognize & Appreciate     Eliminate Assumptions &
       Body Language              Confirm Perceptions

                                                         17
        Opening Exercise
  Self awareness/self discovery
• Circle of Influence
• Your life experiences will influence every
  communication encounter that you face
• We all view life experiences through our
  own filters
• Now you know your filters, How often do
  you clean your filters?


                                               18
             Values           Culture
Education                                   School
                                             years


Religion
                                          Parents’
                                        Relationship
                 YOU

Family                                     Birth
                                           Order


First job     Grand Parents
                Influence              Life
Experience                          Experience19
     Class Discussions
        We see the world
       through own filters
These can sometimes be a barriers
     to good communication.
             How?



                                    20
         Project Environment

•   Temporary environment
•   Matrix Organization
•   Team work
•   Project management, you are not the boss
•   You are not involved in the hiring process




                                             21
What is Communication
      An exchange of
 information and meaning
   from one individual to
           another
             or
    to a group of people
                            22
   How good are you as a
     communicator?
• How good are you as a communicator?
• How do you handle bad news and good
  new? Do you kill the messenger?
• How do you handle conflicts,
  negotiations?
• How do you handle problems?
• Do you listen to your team?
• How do you run your meetings?
• Do you give clear messages            23
The biggest problem in
    Communication
            is
      the illusion
          that
      It has been
     accomplished
       (George Bernard Shaw)
                               24
Why Communication is Important:
• We spend 80 to 90 % of the day
  communicating
• Poor communication is the major cause of
  problems in family and business life
• Technical skills/communication skills you
  can not separate
• Increases your personal power
• Decides if you win or lose in life
• A prerequisite for success in business life
                                            25
Communication Characteristics
1. We are always communicating
2. Communication happens at three levels
3. Communication is irreversible
4. Communication is not a panacea
5. Communication demands the receiver to act
6. Communication Context is very important
  (physical, chronological)
7. Communication is a process
                                          26
  Class Discussions

        We see the world
       through own filters
These can sometimes be a barriers
     to good communication.
              How?

  Do you ever clean your filters

                                    27
I know you believe that you understand

         what you think I said

  But, I am not sure that you realize

                 that

  what you heard is not what I meant




                                        28
Sender        Dictionary Filters                           Filter      Dictionary    Receiver




                                              M
                                              E
Idea or                                                                             Idea or
                                              D
Meaning                                                                             Meaning
                                              I
                                              U
                                              M




   IDEA                    W ORDS + EMOTION        WORDS    EMOTION                 IDEA
    meaning                                                 & W ORDS                (meaning)

              ENCODING                    MEDIUM                             DECODING



              The Communication Model                                                      29
Noise: Barriers to Communication
    DICTIONARY        PERSONAL               ENVIONMENTAL
                      Filters                Filters
•   Language
                  •   Emotions               • Physical barrier
•   Experience    •   Perception
•   Subject       •   Attitude               • Wrong medium
    Knowledge     •   Hidden agenda
•   Background    •   Personality conflict   •   Noise Level
•   Assumptions   •   Ego
    Education     •   Prejudice
•   Cultural
•   Values

                                                               30
Communication Filters/ Barriers

    Experience        Emotions
    Background         Attitudes
      Culture     Subject Knowledge
     Prejudice          Mood
     Wording          Education
    Noise Level        Ambiguity
    Perceptions   Non-verbal message


                                       31
Who is Responsible?
    The sender

         Or

    The receiver
                      32
Communication Model Exercise
    (Individual/group)
• Individually, think of a situation where a
  communication/interaction went wrong or
  did not accomplish the intended goal
• Diagnose the problem using the table in
  the next slide.
• Think of a way to prevent this
  communication error from happening
  again in the future
• Share with the rest of the team
• Share with the rest of the class
                                               33
          Identify the possible cause for the
                   misunderstanding
     Speaker             Medium          Noise           Listener

Wrong words         Wrong          Emotional      No feed aback
Wrong               medium          barrier         Attitude
assumptions          Wrong          Hidden         Experience
                                     agenda
Cultural issues     context         • Personality   level
Attitude             Noise Level   conflict        Language
Ego                                 • Physical      Back ground
                                     barrier
Biases                              • Radio or TV   Value
Messages unclear,                   on              Ego
imprecise,                           • Overcrowded   Biases
                                     place
incorrect,                                           Hearing ability
incomplete                                           Illness
Ignored the                                          did not seek
receiver                                             clarification34
   Communication Blockers

• A Communication Blocker is a behavior
  or an action of a the speaker that
  interrupts the flow of communication
  between two individuals or an individual
  and a team.
    (research done by Tahir Siddique)




                                             35
    Examples of Communication
            Blockers
•   Long delays in responding to emails/ messages
•   Conducting meetings without agendas
•   Lack of trust among team members
•   Lack of trust between staff and management
•   Negative feelings towards team members
•   Concealing information from others
•   Personal rivalries among team members
•   Sabotaging others' success
•   Workplace bullying
•   Management's arrogant/ superior attitude

                                                36
     Examples of Communication
             Blockers
•   Don't care' attitude when asked to complete a task
•   Backstabbing work mates
•   Making assumptions/ judgments about others
•   Fear or intimidation around sharing ideas, thoughts or
    feelings.
•   Using imprecise language resulting in ambiguity and
    vagueness
•   Lack of recognition of employee's hard work
•   Not listening effectively or ignoring staff issues
•   Failing to ask for / or provide performance related
    feedback
•   Cultural differences in communication
•   Discrimination / prejudice / racism                      37
            Messages Elements
     Content             Feeling         Motives
•What you are       • How the
talking about       message is           • Reputation
                    being
                    communicated         • Ego
•The issue or
the subject
                +   • Value free     +
                    (no right or         • Social
Outcome                                  issues
                    wrong feeling)

•Win/lose                                • Need
situation


                                                    38
Message Effectiveness
 1. Process - mechanism for message
    delivery
 2. Skills - context in which message is
    given
 3. Environment - selected method of
    communication, meduim
 4. Application - when and how to
    facilitate message delivery
 5. Audience who is present
                                           39
Barriers to effective Interpersonal
          communication
•   Emotions
•   Filters
•   Overloaded with information
•   Defensiveness
•   Cultural differences
•   Not listening
•   Use of jargon

                                  40
 Making your massage count

Message failures can be attributed to:
  – Message misinterpreted due to deficient
    in tone, wrong words or medium or
    timing.
  – The message arrived too late to be
    effective.
  – Message ended up in the wrong place/
    person.

                                          41
    Message impact

• Words           7%
• Tone of voice   38%
• Body language   55%




                        42
 How to convey information and
meaning effectively to the listener
 1. Organize the information in your mind
    first
 2. Plan your talk
    Decide on What, When, How, Why,
        and where
 3. Get the person attention
 4. Deliver the message
 5. Check for understanding
 6. Get agreement
                                        43
Ways to Improve Communication
 •   Be a Good listener
 •   Be patient and positive
 •   Do not become defensive
 •   Take responsibility for your actions
 •   Have an open-minded
 •   Pay attention to emotions
 •   Reduce assumptions


                                            44
 ETHICAL COMMUNICATION

• Ethics center around a sense of
  responsibility to others or the rest of the
  world
• How do you judge your actions or others
  to be unethical
• Doing the ethical thing is not always easy,
  it may be costly.
• What you believe is right and what is
  practical or realistic

                                            45
             Five Tests
    for Ethical communication
1. The categorical test (every one else)
2. The utilitarian test (most good for most
   people for most of the time)
3. The golden rule ( As I would like to be
   treated)
4. The professional test( other
   professionals people )
5. The publicity test( Radio or TV)
                                              46
  Communication Networks

1. Formal
  1. Downwards( Top down)
  2. Upward (bottom up)
  3. Horizontal (lateral)




                            47
   Communication Networks

2. Informal
These are pattern of interaction based on
   friendship, shared personality , common
   interest, career interests

Which is more dependable?



                                             48
    Face-to-face communication
• Richness
• Speed
• Control
• Personal quality
• It is not always the best way to communicate
• Some times it is expensive and difficult to
  arrange
• It is time consuming: most of the meeting take
  most of the afternoon

                                                   49
Other communication channel
•   Hard copy, forma letter
•   By phone
•   Teleconferencing
•   Instant message               What are the
                                advantage and
•   Teleconference             disadvantages of
•   Voice Mail                    each method
•   E-Mail                     When do you use
                                 this approach
•   Short Notes
•   Informal Visits
•   Formal Meetings
•   Formal Reports and Memos
•   Faxed Messages
•   Formal Presentations                          50
Choose the Appropriate Medium
      for your message
 • Real issues to resolve
 • Make proposal
 • Routine messages and day-to-day work on the
   project
 • Give praise
 • Give constructive criticism
 • Consider the culture and the personality of
   people involved


                                                 51
            Final Comments
• You are IN CHARGE.
• PERSONAL TOUCH is very powerful.
• PLAN, plan, plan
• learn to know what is really going on in your
  team (USE THE SIX SENSE).
• NEVER send a message that has more
  Negative than positive potential.
• Use TACTful approach. (Thank, Acknowledge,
  Correct, Thank)
                                            52