Industrialization_ Immigration _ Urbanization

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Industrialization_ Immigration _ Urbanization Powered By Docstoc
Urbanization, and
       Industrial Growth
• Between 1865 and 1900, the u.s. experienced
  unprecedented economic growth
   • 1860 manufacturers had about $2 billion in value by
     1900 they had over $11 billion
   • Iron ore production nearly quadrupled from 7 million
     long-tons to 27 million long-tons
   • Steel output rose from less than 1 million tons to over
     11 million tons
   • GNP tripled during that time
   • Railroad mileage increased from 30,000 to 250,000
          Rise of Big Business
• By 1900 the American economy was dominated by business
  monopolies or trusts, huge business empires that virtually
  controlled key sectors of the economy and dominated social
  and political life
• Trusts in sugar, cotton, tobacco, meat, flour, and even whiskey
• Number of industrial combinations rose from 12 to 305
  between 1887 and 1903
   • 2,600 smaller firms disappeared
   • By 1900, 1 % of all companies produced 40% of the
     manufacturing output
• GAPE saw the rise of the modern corporation
   • Used 14th Amendment to gain “personhood” and rights
  Immigration Statistics

• 1860-1920 -- aprox. 30 million European
• 1880-1920 -- appox. 27 million European
• 2 “Waves” of immigrants
  • 1860-1890 -- (approx. 10mil) Britain, Ireland,
    Germany, Scandinavia, Switzerland, Holland
  • 1890-1920 -- (approx. 20mil) Italy, Greece,
    Austro-Hungary, Russia, Romania, Turkey
  Immigration Statistics

• Compare 1882 and 1907
  • 1882 -- peak of “old” immigration
     • 788,992 total immigrants
         250,630 - German (highest ever)
         179,423 - Britain and Ireland
         105,326 - Scandinavia
         32,159 - Italy
         29,150 - Hapsburg Empire
         16,918 - Russia and Baltic States
     • 87% from NW Europe and 13% from southern and
       eastern Europe
  Immigration Statistics

• 1907 -- peak of “new” immigration
  • 1,285,349 total immigrants
     • 19.3% from NW Europe
     • 80.7% from S&E Europe

• Although migration from NW Europe
  continued throughout the GAPE by 1890s
  so-called “new” immigrants dominated
  immigration statistics
What Did They Know About the
  • Heard of opportunities for employment through:
     • “travelers’ tales
     • Advertisements
     • Guidebooks
     • Pamphlets and Newspapers
     • Where to Emigrate and Why
         • Informed migrants on where, why, and how to go
         • After 1867 virtually all migrants came over on steamships
               Cheaper and faster
               By 1880s primarily British and German steamers
     Where did they go?
• No area of the U.S. completely escaped immigration (Butte
• But “new” immigrants were decidedly urban and mostly in
  northeast and upper Midwest
   • 80% of immigrants settled in places like NYC and Chicago -- New
     England, New York, Illinois, Michigan, Missouri, Iowa,
     Wisconsin, Ohio proved especially attractive, because of jobs,
     transportation, and support network (explain).
       • 1890 - 56% of industrial laborers were foreign born or children of
         foreign born
        Support Network

• Ethnic neighborhoods or “ghettos”
  •   Mutual aid societies
  •   Native language businesses and newspapers
  •   Job networks
  •   Churches and synagogues
  •   In some cases (Irish) local political machine
         Chinese Immigrants
In 1851, a racist from NC named Hinton Helper left his home
state to get away from what he referred to as the “diversity of
color” in America’s more settled regions.

He traveled to California and was shocked to find Chinese
people living there—so much so that he wondered out loud if
the “copper” of the Pacific would cause as much discord and
dissension as the “ebony” had on the Atlantic.

Between 1850 and 1882 the Chinese pop in the U.S. soared
from 7,520 to 300,000. Chinese comprised 8.6 percent of
California’s total pop and an impressive 25% of its wage
    Chinese Immigrants
• By 1870, 26% of California’s Chinese population lived in
  San Francisco and represented 46% of the labor force in
  SF four key industries; boot and shoe making, woolen
  cloth, cigar and tobacco manufacture, and sewing.

• By 1880, Chinese comprised 52% boot and shoe. 44%
  brick makers, 85% cigar makers, 33% of woolen mill
   Chinese Immigrants

• Like the Irish and the Italians, Chinese
  faced what one scholar has referred to as a

• the NYT ran editorials arguing that free
  blacks and Chinese posed a direct threat to
  American republicanism, not to mention a
  mongrolization of the “race”
            Chinese Exclusion

In calling for Chinese exclusion, one San Francisco paper
referred to them as morally inferior heathen savages who were
overly lustful and sensual. Chinese women were condemned as
a depraved class, which was attributed in large part to their
physical appearance. Critics thought they looked like Africans.
Chinese men were portrayed as a sexual threat to white women.

Chinese also compared to Indians and referred to as the “new
      Chinese Exclusion

• In 1882, Congress passed the Chinese
  Exclusion Act, which made it unlawful for
  Chinese laborers to enter the country and
  declared Chinese already living in the
  United States ineligible for U.S. citizenship.
  (10 yrs)
• Renewed in 1892 (10 yrs)
• Made permanent in 1902
• Remained in effect until 1943
End of “New” Immigration

• Immigration declined significantly after
  • World War I
• “New” Immigration ended almost
  completely in 1924
  • Congress passed the National Origins Act or
    Immigration Restriction Act
     • Limited number of entrants to 2% of 1890 census

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