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					CHAPTER 3
             Learning Outcomes

You Will Learn:
• to compare the characteristics of rural and
  urban settlements
• to describe settlement patterns on a
  topographical map
          Lead-in: Looking at Houses
             (Suggested Answers)
1. The houses are arranged
   differently in terms of spacing and
   order. In the top picture, the
   houses are spread out spaciously.
   The houses in the middle picture
   are arranged neatly along the
   road. The houses in the bottom
   picture are clustered together
   without any order.

2. The arrangement of such houses is due to the
   settlement in the area. For example, in farm
   areas where few people live in a vast area of
   land, houses are built far apart.
           Lead-in: Looking at Houses
Extension Activity
•   Why do you think buildings in most cities, for example,
    New York city, are located close to one another?

•   What are some differences
    you can notice between
    houses in densely populated
    cities as compared to houses
    in sparsely populated towns
    and villages?

                                     A panoramic view of New York city
                     What is a Settlement?
• A settlement is a place where people gather to live
  and carry out activities such as farming, trading
  and manufacturing.
• The size of a settlement grows with the increase of
  people and may evolve into a village, town or city
  depending on the population size and nature of
  activities carried out.

The people in an Eskimo village in the    A busy city filled with people leading
Arctic carry out simple activities like   fast-paced hectic lives and activities.
                Types of Settlements
• A settlement can be classified into rural or urban
• This classification depends on four factors:

Population size and density
- the number of people living in the settlement

Main function
- main activities carried out by the people within the settlement

- types of facilities available

Way of life
- how people live
                   Rural Settlement
A settlement where majority of the people are involved
in activities such as farming, mining and fishing.
Population size and density
• The population is often small and the population density is
  unusually low.
Main function
• The main function is usually
  fishing, mining, hunting, growing
  of crops or rearing of livestock.

                                       Farming is a common activity
                                       in rural settlements.
                   Rural Settlement
• There are usually few amenities such as schools, roads,
  clinics and post offices to cater to the daily needs of the
  people. Power supply and piped water are also not readily
Way of life
• The lives of people are closely related to the settlement’s
  main function and physical environment.
• These people usually meet and communicate only with
  people from their settlement and seldom travel out of it.

                                              A house in a rural
                                              settlement with minimum
                                              basic necessities.
                   Urban Settlement
A settlement where majority of the people are involved
in activities such as manufacturing and business.
Population size and density
• The population is often large.
• The population density is higher than that of a rural settlement
  and people live in buildings that are built close together.
Main function
• The main function is usually manufacturing or business.
• People gather to produce, distribute and sell goods and
  services in such places.

                      A shopping mall in an urban settlement
                      providing a variety of goods and services.
                 Urban Settlement
• A lot of facilities are available because a good system of
  transport, communications, power supply and water supply is
  needed for industries and businesses to run smoothly.
• A wide range of goods and services are also provided.
Way of life
• People are mainly involved in providing goods and services,
  and earn relatively higher incomes compared to people living
  in rural settlements.
• Their livelihoods do not depend
  as much on the physical
  environment as compared
  to a rural settlement.

                                 A good transport network is essential
                                 for the transportation of goods and
                                 people from place to place.
             Settlement Patterns
• A settlement pattern shows how buildings are
  arranged in a settlement.
• There are three types of settlement patterns –
  dispersed, linear and nucleated.

                                        House ------ ■
                                        Road ------ ___
                 Settlement Patterns
Dispersed settlement patterns
• Dispersed settlements are made up of individual
  buildings scattered over a wide area.
• Buildings may be separated by large open spaces,
  farmlands, forests or grasslands.
• In places where natural resources or fertile soil is limited,
  people spread out to ensure there is enough land to
  cultivate crops or to obtain resources from the ground.

                                      In hilly areas, people disperse
                                      to settle in the best places
               Settlement Patterns
Linear settlement patterns
• Linear settlements are located along main transport
   routes such as roads, railways, rivers and canals.
• They are made up of individual buildings arranged in a
   linear pattern taking after the pattern of transport
• Transport routes make
   travelling easy and also
   serve as a livelihood for
   the people living in such

                                Buildings arranged in a linear
                                fashion along the river.
               Settlement Patterns
Nucleated settlement patterns
• Nucleated settlements are made of buildings clustered
  together in a compact area, which is usually the
  meeting point of transport routes.
• The buildings are clustered together so that resources
  such as water and electricity can be shared.
• Sometimes this could also
  be due to a shortage
  of flat land for the buildings
  to spread out.

                                 Buildings clustered near a port.
Settlement Patterns on a Topographical Map
Describing settlement patterns on a topographical map
• Topographical maps provide useful information to help
  identify and describe certain settlement patterns in an
• They can reveal the history of a settlement, its dominant
  functions, the population density and the people’s way
  of life.
• As a country’s population grows and its human
  activities become more complex, the number and
  variety of settlements also increase. Thus a combination
  of the three types of settlement patterns can often be
  observed from the topographical maps.
       Skills Builder: Suggested Answers
1. (a) The dominant settlement pattern of the major cities
   of the world is likely to be nucleated with buildings
   clustered together.

   (b) A large population size and high population density
   in urban areas can result in the clustering of buildings
   because of a constraint in land resource.

2. (a) One can expect to find dispersed settlement
   patterns in rural areas around the world.

   (b) Dispersed settlements can be due to a small
   population size and low population density in rural

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