glass ceiling theory by tvault

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									Gender Driven Communication


Presentation Given By:
Marco Esparza
Karissa Brisbin
Son Pham
Shanna Pettijohn


                 An American Idols Original   1
What is meant by Gender Driven
        Communication?




        An American Idols Original   2
                  Preview
•   History
•   Verbal
•   Nonverbal
•   Gender Differences
•   Studies
•   Problems
•   Solutions To The Problems
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    A quote by
Guy de Maupassant




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                  History
• What led up to gender differences in
  communication?
• Do we still encounter these problems?




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Women’s Fight For Equal Rights


   • Pre World War II
   • During World War II
   • After World War II




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           Pre World War II
• Began in 1789 with the Constitution
• In 1913 was the start of the women’s
  suffrage movement
• Nineteenth Amendment of 1920
• The 1923 Equal Rights Amendment
  failed


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             World War II



• Back at home, during the war
• The work force




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           After World War II
• The 1950’s unequal incomes
• In 1964 Civil Rights Bill passed
• Title VII called for the formation of the
  EEOC
• Affirmative action
• What changed during the 70’s and 80’s
• The dilemma we currently face
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      Glass Ceiling Theory


What is the meaning of “Glass
Ceiling”, and how does it affect
Women?




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      Glass Ceiling cont.


• Is discrimination the problem?
• If discrimination isn’t the problem
  then what is?




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 The Problem Causing The Glass
         Ceiling Theory


• Dysfunctional Communication
• Stereotypes
• Power Imbalance




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Verbal and Nonverbal
   Communication


Masculine and Feminine Styles




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                 Childs Play

• BOYS                          • GIRLS
• Play in large groups          • Play in pairs or
• Play games that are             typically small
  structured,                     groups
  competitive and               • Play house or school
  strategic




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     Male Communication Rules
• To use communication to assert
  yourself and your ideas
• To use communication to attract and
  maintain an audience
• To use communication to compete with
  others, so others do not gain more
  attention than yourself

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    Female Communication Rules
• To use collaborative, cooperative talk to
  create and maintain relationships
• To avoid criticizing, outdoing, or putting
  others down
• To pay attention to others and to
  relationships; interpret and respond to
  others’ feelings sensitively

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       Verbal Communication



• Male Communication Practices
• Female Communication Practices




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    Male Communication Practices



Goal of communication is to exert control,
 preserve independence, and enhance
 status




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          General Tendencies
• Establish and defend their personal
  status and their ideas
• Respect other’s independence and
  avoid communication they regard as
  condescending
• Speak to exhibit knowledge, skill, or
  ability
• Conversational dominance

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          General Tendencies
• Express themselves in absolute,
  assertive ways
• Communicate more abstractly
• Speech tends not to be highly
  responsive, especially not on the
  relationship level of communication


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  Female Communication Practices


Communication is a primary way to
 establish and maintain relationships
 with others and to share themselves
 and to learn about others




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            General Tendencies
•   Equality between speakers is important
•   Speech follows an interactive pattern
•   Show support for others
•   Conversational maintenance work
•   Responsiveness
•   Incorporate a personal, concrete style
•   Tentativeness
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      Nonverbal Communication


• Supplements Verbal Communication
• Regulates Interaction
• Establishes the Relationship Level of
  Meaning



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5 ways in which nonverbal behaviors
   supplement verbal messages
•   Repeat Words
•   Contradict a verbal message
•   Complement
•   Replace
•   Highlight



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       To Regulate Interaction


• The use of body posture and eye
  contact to signal others that we wish to
  speak or that we are through speaking




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To Establish the Relationship Level of
               Meaning

• Responsiveness
• Liking
• Power




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           Patterns of Nonverbal
              Communication
•   Artifacts
•   Personal Space
•   Touch
•   Body Gestures
•   Paralanguage
•   Physical Characteristics


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Men Are From Mars, Women Are
         From Venus




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Connotations of “Sex Differences” and
       “Gender Differences”
  How Do We Interpret Their Meanings?
• Sex- biological differences in genetic
  composition and reproductive anatomy
  and function
• Gender- society’s or cultural
  interpretations of or constructions
  based on the characteristics based on
  associated with biological sex
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       Three Levels of Gender
• Individual
• Interpersonal
• Societal




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      Gender Differences in Speech
            Men                             Women
•   Use of more jokes             •   Use of Correct form
•   Hostile verbs                     of Speech
•   Greater amount of             •   Wide range of pitch
    talking                           variations in
•   More interruptions in             loudness and rate
    cross-sex                     •   Polite and cheerful
    conversations                     intonations
•   Lower pitch levels            •   Higher pitch levels

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     Gender Differences in Language
           Men                                Women
•   Positive words                  •   Negative words
•   Power                           •   Weakness
•   Strength                        •   Inferiority
•   Prestige                        •   Immaturity
•   Leadership                      •   Trivial



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Something To Talk About
  A Study of Men and Women




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     Approaches to Study Gender
            Differences
• Biological- Difference due to genetic,
  hormonal, and physical factors
• Socialization- Behavioral differences as
  result of Learning
• Structural/Cultural- Differences
  observed are result of social structure in
  society

                An American Idols Original     34
      Advanced Teamware, Inc
• Collected data on individual
  effectiveness since 1988
• Goals are to develop high performance
  teams
• Efficiently assess the full scope of
  individual behavior in team or
  workgroup setting

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 TeamView/360 Results and Analysis
• Women outperformed men in 28 out of 31
  skill areas
• Women are considered better performers in
  both right and left brain skills areas
• Women scored higher evaluation in 28 of 31
  individual behaviors
• Men scored higher on Handling pressure and
  Coping with own frustration

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How Women and Men Performed




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THE WEAKEST LINK VAOCABULARY
            QUIZ




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                He Said/She Said
            Men                                 Women
•   Yes = Yes                       •   Yes = “Really!” Are you
                                        sure you don’t mean no?”
•   No = How am I going
                                    •   No = no (a crushing
    to turn this answer
                                        defeat)
    into a yes?
                                    •   Hope = “I wish”
•   Hope = (Not “I hope,”           •   Guilt = “The female
    but I want”)                        business executive”
•   Guilt = “doesn’t exist
    on the game field”
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The Problem




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          The Way We Speak
• Men tend to interrupt more than women
• Men do not ask questions, fearing the
  downplay of their status
• Men use more direct communication
• Men practice public speaking
• Women use more indirect communication
• Women practice private speaking
• Women seek intimacy and rapport through
  their verbal conversations
• Women downplay their authority
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  Differences

      Emotional
Processing Information
      Speaking

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• Men seek autonomy; they use ethic of
  justice
• Women seek connection; they use ethic
  of care



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• Women change the rules
  – in order to preserve relationships
• Men abide by the rules
  – and see relationships as replaceable




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• Women seek human connection
  – Friendships
  – Intimacy
  – Communion
• Men are concerned with status
  – Independence
  – Competitive accomplishment
  – Achievement


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• Women talk more in private
  – For connection
  – To disclose details of life
• Men talk more in public
  – To command attention
  – To convey information



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• Women actively listen and ask
  questions
  – Women use more nonverbals to
    acknowledge, “I’m listening”
  – Questions establish connection
• Men listen, but don’t ask questions
  – Nonverbals are not used because it would
    mean, “I agree with you”
  – Questions are not asked to preserve self-
    sufficiency and self-respect

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• Women avoid conflict
  – Threat to connection
• Men initiate conflict
  – More comfortable with conflict




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What Can Be Done?




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              Awareness


• Understand that there is a problem and
  prepare
  – Books
  – Classes




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      Corporations Involvement



• Make it a requirement for employees to
  take part in training
• Make training an ongoing process



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     Why Corporations Should Be
             Involved
• Create an empowering workplace where both
  men and women excel
• Better communication among colleagues,
  clients, and business contacts
• Competitive advantage by maximizing
  effectiveness
• Increase employee satisfaction and decrease
  turnover

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Seminars




• Gender & Diversity Experts
• Gender Institute



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        Gender & Diversity Experts
•   Group Alignment
•   Gender Behavior
•   Self Perpetuating Myth Cycle
•   Gender Differences
•   Gender and Stress
•   Win/Win Communication
•   Creating Balance
•   Stages of Awareness
•   Action Plans
                   An American Idols Original   54
            Companies Involved
•   Price Waterhouse
•   Motorola
•   Ford Motor
•   General Motors
•   UpJohn/Pharmacia
•   Campbell Soup
•   National Defense Nabisco Brands
•   US Military Law Firms
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Summary




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    ?
An American Idols Original   57

								
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