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					Foods with a high fat quality
are essential for healthy diets

 Dr. H. Zevenbergen
 Unilever Research&Development
Agenda




 Main dietary sources of fat
 Basic technology and production of oils,
 margarines and cooking products
 Improving their nutritional characteristics
 Impact of modern fat and oil products on
 diet and health
 Conclusions

               Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09   2
Main dietary sources of fat
Many different fat-rich products

 Primary:
   Vegetable/plant oils
   Butter/milk fats
   Lard/tallow/suet/dripping (derived from animals)
   Marine

 Secondary: (made from one or more of the above)
   Margarines, Melanges, Reduced fat spreads
   Butter and Ghee
   Vanaspati
   Cooking fats/white fats/shortenings
   Mayonnaise

               Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09   4
Main dietary sources of fat


 Major contributors to intake of saturated fat
    Dairy (cheese, butter, milk)
    Meat
    Baked goods and snacks
    Cooking fats/oils


 Major contributors to intake of polyunsaturated
 fat
    Vegetable oils
    Margarines and mayonnaise


                Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09   5
Fatty acid composition of common
fat rich products
100%
 90%
 80%
 70%
 60%                                                          PUFA
                                                              MUFA
 50%
                                                              SAFA
 40%
                                                              TFA
 30%
 20%
 10%
  0%
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                    Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09      6
 Oils and fats in perspective

   6.5 b people consume about 120 m tons pa
          That is almost 20 kg per capita
                                                  Olive oil       Margarine
                                                     3%              6% Butter
                                                                           6%
        Tropical oils
            30%
                                                                    Edible Tallow
                                                                         7%

                                                                              Ghee/Other
                                                                                 3%




                                                              Industrial Lard
                 Seed oils                          Vanaspati      7%
                   33%                                 5%



Annual value of oils and fats market over €120b
                        Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09                            7
   Regional consumption patterns




                                     Marine oils -


Liquid Oils -   Lard -        Ghee/Vanaspati/Cooking -             Margarine/Butter -



                         Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09                        8
Basic technology and
production of oils,
margarine and cooking
products
 Vegetable oil sources
 Soybean oil      Sunflower oil                    Canola oil     Corn oil




    Palm Oil                        Olive Oil                    Coconut Oil




               Palm Kernel


Palm Fruit          Palm Fruit



                       Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09                 10
  Vegetable oil products - farm to table
agriculture
              oil milling
                                                                             selective
                                                                            removal of
                                              crude oils                   undesirable
                                               and fats                    components




                                                                OIL
                                                            PROCESSING

                 Table oil


                                                                         modification
                     Mayonnaise                       Margarine             of the
                                                                           physical
                                                                          properties


consumer
                  Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09                               11
What is a margarine ?
A structured water-in-oil emulsion with properties
like spreadability, stability and mouthfeel




                    Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09   12
          Consumer requirements of solid fat content
          in margarine

                    40
                                             Stable on
                                             the table
                                                                         Desired curve
Solid Fat Content




                    30
                                                                                         Melting in
                                                                                         the mouth

                    20
                           Easy to
                         spread from
                         refrigerator
                    10


                                   10                20                  30         35
                                                                                  Temperature ºC
                                        Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09                       13
          Consumer requirements of solid fat content
          in margarine
                                                                                      Fat
                    40


                         Oil                                     Desired curve
Solid Fat Content




                    30




                    20




                    10


                           10                20                  30         35
                                                                          Temperature ºC
                                Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09                    14
Modifications and blending of oils for
optimal margarines

                           Full
                      Hydrogenation




 Liquid oils


                     Interesterification



                                                          Trans-free
                                                          basis for
Tropical oils                                             margarine


                        Fractionation

                Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09                15
   Modification of natural fats and oils

• Partial or full hydrogenation
      cis-unsaturates                 trans-unsaturates           saturates




        Full hydrogenation does not lead to trans !

• Interesterification




        Interesterification leads to rearrangement of the
        fatty acids on the glycerol backbone
                        Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09               16
Improving the nutritional
characteristics of products
made from oils and fats
Drivers of nutritional improvements for
food industry


 Replace SAFA by MUFA or preferably PUFA
 Practically eliminate TFA
 Ensure delivery of essential Omega 3 and 6
 Fortify with fat soluble vitamins A and D
 Preserve natural antioxidants (e.g. vit E)




             Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09   18
   Improvements in margarine



           50
                                                                 PUFA
           40
% of fat




           30
           20                                                    SAFA

           10
                                                                 Omega 3
           0                                                     TFA
                1960 1990 1995 2000 2005 “Best”
                                       margarines

                       Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09          19
 Trans fat removal: example of industry
 action for better health




• Based on reports showing an untoward effect of trans on blood lipids
  in 1990 (studies sponsored by Unilever) Unilever started an
  extensive development program
• Margarines with very low trans fat content were developed 1993
• Implemented by 1995 in most regions using tropical oils and in US
  with non – tropical oils.
• Unilever led; most of industry followed
                      Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09      20
Normal heating does not affect
the nutritional quality of oils


 shallow frying for 20 mins at 150-180 C
   Relative loss of linoleic acid < 1%
   and α-linolenic acid < 2%
   No formation of trans-isomers




 As long as excessive temperatures are avoided,
 EFA survive cooking.

                  Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09   21
Impact of modern fats and oils
products on diet and health
Impact of modern fat products on health:
three examples


1. Oils, margarines and mayonnaise are nutrient-
   dense sources of essential fats

2. Significant contribution to the required intake of
   vitamins A,D and E via margarines

3. Relevant impact on LDL-cholesterol level and
   hence on CHD incidence by soft margarines

    Potentially significant impact on public health from
    oils, margarine and mayonnaise


                  Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09   23
         1. Margarines, mayonnaise and vegetable
         oils are nutrient-dense source of ALA
 Alpha-linolenic acid content (g/100 kcal)



                                             1.60


                                             1.40


                                             1.20


                                             1.00


                                             0.80


                                             0.60


                                             0.40


                                             0.20


                                             0.00
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                                                                                                        Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09                                                                24
1. Role of margarine recently confirmed by
the Netherlands Nutrition Centre

 Intake of ALA for large part of the Dutch population is below
 recommended level



   Margarines (40% fat) are nutrient-dense source of ALA

   Margarine is also nutrient-dense source of fat soluble
 vitamins

    Therefore Dutch nutrition policy makers have increased the
 recommended amount of margarine (40% fat) from 20g/d to
 30-35g/d (6-7 slices of bread with margarine every day)


Based on Guidelines good nutrition, Oct 2007 www.voedingscentrum.nl
                         Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09      25
2. Margarines can be significant providers
of fat soluble vitamins in the diet


  Finnish men 25-64 years

  Vitamin A                      Vitamin D                             Vitamin E




      Meat dishes                                      Margarines, oils, dressings, gravies
      Vegetables and vegetable dishes                  Milk and dairy products
      Fish dishes                                      Cereals and Bakery
      Other

From National FINDIET 2007 Survey, 2008
                         Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09                              26
3. Assessing the impact of fat products
on blood cholesterol
                                    Meta-analysis of Mensink et al. 2003
                         0.5
                                                                                   TFA
                         0.4
  change in LDL mmol/l




                         0.3
                                                                                   SAFA
                         0.2

                         0.1

                           0

                         -0.1                                                      MUFA
                         -0.2                                                      PUFA
                         -0.3
                                0                             5                       10
                                              change in fat intake (en%)
                                              (replacing carbohydrates)

Mensink, Zock, Kester, Katan. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:1146-55.

                                         Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09           27
3. Butter and fats raise LDL-cholesterol;
soft premium margarines and mayonnaise don’t
Fat composition of foods influences their ability to lower or increase
blood cholesterol: predicted effect of consumption of 20 g per day

                       5 Vanaspati
 LDL-cholesterol (%)




                                     Butter
                       4
                                                Palm oil
                       3
                       2
                                                              Soft premium
                       1                                       margarine
                       0
                       -1                                                  Heart health
                                                                            margarine
                       -2
                                                                                       Premium
                       -3                                                            mayonnaise
                                                                                              Canola oil

        Adapted from Mensink, Zock, Kester, Katan. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:1146-55.
                                              Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09                      28
3. Switching butter, vanaspati and palm oil for
soft margarines can reduce the risk of CHD


  Per year nearly 8 million people die of CHD
  1% reduction in LDL-cholesterol level translates to
  ~1-2 % reduction in CHD risk (NCEP, 2001)

  Switching 20 g /day soft margarine for butter or
  cooking oils/fats is predicted to lower LDL-
  cholesterol by 3-4%

  using soft margarines instead of butter or cooking
  fats worldwide could mean a reduction of annual
  CHD deaths by more than half a million !

                 Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09   29
Conclusions

 Oils and fats and products made thereof play an
 important role in our diets worldwide
 The food industry has made significant improvements
 to the nutritional quality of products like margarines
 and cooking products
 Switching products from animal fats or cooking fats
 to soft margarines or oils contributes positively to a
 healthy diet
 Despite wide differences in dietary habits, modern
 products made from fats and oils are essential for
 healthy diets for children and adults worldwide
 Many people are not aware of the benefit of soft
 margarines and cooking products:
    time to educate and motivate for better health !

                Hans Zevenbergen, Unilever R&D,28/01/09   30
Thank you