chapter 2 by shimeiyan

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									                          Chapter Two (I)
               Edwards, Franklin, and Crevecoeur

   1. The Intellectual Backgrounds for the 18th Century:
   A. American Puritanism (still dominating)
   B. The Great Awakening in 1730s and 1740s
      Jonathan Edwards as one of the leading advocates
   C. Deism: a Compromise between Science and Religion
   Newton and his “Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica”
   (in which he put forward his famous principle of universal gravitation)
   D. The Influence of The Enlightenment Movement
   (in France: Montesquieu, Rousseau, Voltaire)
   (in England: Alexander Pope, Daniel Defoe)
         Chapter Two (2)
    Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)




         Man of God
                         Chapter Two (2)
                         Jonathan Edwards
   II. Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)
   1. Status: a puritan writer, theologian, colonial American preacher
    and missionary to Native Americans
   2. Comments:
      Edwards “is widely acknowledged to be America's most important
    and original philosophical theologian".
     He is known as one of the greatest and most profound of American
    theologians and revivalists. (born for religion and died for science)
   3. Works: The Freedom of the Will (1954); The Great Doctrine of
    Original Sin Defended (1758); The Nature of True Virtue (1765)
    “Personal Narrative” and “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”
     are his frequently anthologized pieces.
                         Chapter Two (2)
                         Jonathan Edwards
 4.   Criticism:
       His work is very broad in scope, but he is often associated with
    his defense of Calvinist theology, the metaphysics of theological
    determinism, and the Puritan heritage. His famous sermon “Sinners
    in the Hands of an Angry God,” emphasized the just wrath of God
    against sin and contrasted it with the provision of God for salvation;
    the intensity of his preaching sometimes resulted in members of the
    audience fainting, swooning, and other more obtrusive reactions.
     Chapter Two (3)
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)




        Man of Action
               Chapter Two (3)
          Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
 III. Benjamin Franklin
 A. Status:
 one of the greatest founding fathers of the American
  Nation
 a rare genius in human history
 Jack of all trades: essayist, autobiographical writer,
  printer, scientist, postmaster, almanac maker, orator,
  statesman, philosopher, political economist, ambassador,
  parlor man, almost everything
                  Chapter Two (3)
             Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
 B. Life and Career (Early Years):
 1.Calvinist background in Boston
 2.Candle-maker’s family – “poor and
  obscure”
 3.Little formal education
 Self-taught and self-made
 4.Apprentice to his half brother – composer
 His maiden writing in the pseudo-name
  Silence Dogood
 A runaway boy from Boston to Philadelphia
  to make his own fortune
                      Chapter Two (3)
                 Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
 B. Life and Career (A Story of Success)
 5.A successful printer who retired at 42
 6. He founded the Pennsylvania Hospital, the
  University of Pennsylvania, the American
  Philosophical Society, a subscription library,
  volunteer fire departments
 7. He invented a musical instrument called
  glass harmonica, the effective street lighting,
  the Franklin stove, bifocal glasses, efficient
  heating system, and lightning-rod for which he
  was praised as “the new Prometheus who had
  stolen fire from heaven by Immanuel Kant”
        Chapter Two (3)
       Benjamin Franklin
             (1706-1790)
   B. Life and Career (Public Career)
   8. A member of the Pennsylvania Assembly
   The Deputy Postmaster-General for the colonies
   Representative of the colonies in London for 18
    years; Minister to France; Minister to Sweden
   A delegate to the Continental Congress
   9. Member of the Committee of Five to draft the
    Declaration of Independence
   10. The only American to sign the four
    documents that created the United States: the
    Declaration of Independence, the treaty of
    alliance with France, the constitution
                      Chapter Two (3)
                 Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
   C. His Major Writings:
   Poor Richard’s Almanac
   1. Time: almost a quarter of century
   2. Content: Literary pieces such as poems and
    essays, a good many adages, commensense
    witticisms
   3. Sources: he borrowed them from such famous
    writers such as Rabelais, Defoe, Swift and Pope
    and tried to simplify these quotations
   4. Examples: Famous sayings such as “Lost time
    is never found again”, “God help them that help
    themselves”, “Fish and visitors stink in three
    days”, etc..
   5. Function: practical, instructive, and amusing
                Chapter Two (3)
           Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
   C. His Major Writings:
   The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin
   1. Nature: Probably the first of its kind in literature. A simple
    yet fascinating record of a man’s success. A faithful account of
    the colorful career of America’s first self-made man.                1. TEMPERANCE.

                                                                         2. SILENCE.
   2. Structure: The book consists of four parts, written at            3. ORDER.
    different times. Franklin was 65 when he began to write.             4. RESOLUTION.

   3. Content:                                                          5. FRUGALITY.

                                                                         6. INDUSTRY.
   (a) Puritanism: It is first of all a Puritan document, a record of
                                                                         7. SINCERITY.
    self-examination and self-improvement, a meticulous chart of
                                                                         8. JUSTICE.
    13 virtues to cultivate.                                             9. MODERATION.

   (b) Enlightenment: It embodies the new order of the 18th             10. CLEANLINESS.

    century Enlightenment. (Order and Moderation)                        11.TRANQUILLITY.

                                                                         12. CHASTITY.

                                                                         13. HUMILITY.
                 Chapter Two (3)
           Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)

 C.   His Major Writings:
 The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin
 4. Style: This work is written in the pattern of Puritan
  simplicity, directness, and concision. The most salient
  features are such as the plainness of its style, the
  homeliness of imagery, the simplicity of diction, syntax,
  and expression.
 5. Tone: Optimism
 The American dream began with the settlement of the
  American continent – the promised land – the Garden
  of Eden – optimistic about the future
                      Chapter Two (4)
                Hector St. John de Crevecoeur
   IV. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur
   A. Birth: born in a French noble family
   B. Settlement: Settled in America and hoped that
    the New World man would be able to shake off the
    shackles of the old and live the way mankind should.
   C. Works: Letters from an American Farmer (1775)
   He wrote 12 letters back to Europe, explaining the
    meaning of America to the outside world. The first
    8 letters reveal the pride of a man being an
    American, and, thereupon, optimistic. Starting from
    his ninth letter, he began to speak with the voice of
    a disillusioned man, rendering the last 4 letters
    pessimistic.

								
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