Cremation MSU Extension MontGuide 200201 HR Focus • Personal Concerns, Montana & Federal Regulations, Costs Marsha A. Goetting Professor & Extension Family Economics Specialist Claire DelGuerra Former Cascade County Extension Agent Karen Tyra Stillwater County Extension Agent Historical Info • First Crematory 1876 Pennsylvania Cremation Acceptance • Montana—2003 54.89% rate 4,625 cremations out of 8,426 deaths States Cremation Association of North America 2003 Confirmed • Washington 63.3% • Hawaii 62.97% • Nevada 62.5% • Oregon 60.57% • Arizona 57.39% • Alaska 55.47% National Rate • Year 2003 28.7% 695,637 Cremations Why?? • National Survey Within Worldwide 2005 Cremation Association of North America Why?? • Save Money 30% • Save Land 13% • Simpler 8% • Body not in earth 6% Why?? • Other reasons Preference No reason to save body Remains/ashes can be scattered Why?? • Some other reasons Less emotional Remains can be sent to more meaningful/some other place Convenient/Claustrophobia Questions? •Does my body have to be embalmed? Questions? •Is a casket required? Questions? • If I have in writing my wish to be cremated, can my family disregard my request? Questions? • What is the cost for a cremation compared to other alternatives? Questions? • Should I have my cremated remains scattered, buried, or entombed? If so, where? Who Regulates? • State Level Montana Board of Funeral Service Board of Funeral Service • Within Montana Department of Labor & Industry Montana Laws • Montana Board of Funeral Service Administrative Rules Standards Board of Funeral Service • Licenses & governs Crematories Crematory operators Technicians Board (con’d) • Licenses & governs Mortuaries Morticians Privately owned for-profit cemeteries Federal Level • Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Trade Regulation Rules Itemized Price Info Removal of body? • Vital Statistics Bureau DPHHS Form “Authorization for Removal, Transportation, & Final Disposition of a Dead Body” Signature of One: • Coroner • Mortician • Physician or Designee • Certified Advanced Practice Registered Nurse Where are crematories located in Montana? 23 Licensed Crematories • Billings, Bozeman, Butte, Columbia Falls, Great Falls, Hamilton, Kalispell, Livingston, Malta, Miles City, Missoula, Polson Question? • What is the cost for a cremation compared to other alternatives? Funeral Costs • January 2006 $5,500-$6,000 Cremation Costs • Cremation only $1,260 $ 80* $1,340 * Corrugated cremation container for transporting body. • Memorial Service without body: $1,930 • Chapel/Church Service— body present at service & cremation following: $2,925 Question? •Does my body have to be embalmed? Embalmed???? • Not required unless certain funeral arrangements selected. Private or public viewing Questions? •Is a casket required? Casket Required? • Not in Montana Nationwide 90% of cremations do not have casket Durable Cremation Containers • Urns: • Alternative Containers: $20 - $860 $80 -$1,125 Cremation Caskets • Montana $490 to $8,300 FTC Rules • Must disclose in writing to buy and make available: Alternative container Unfinished wooden box Authorization • Crematory must have written cremation authorization form Signed by authorization agent Authorizing Agent • Person legally entitled to determine final disposition of human remains Authorization for Cremation • MCA 35-21-810 • Unless other directions provided by deceased Priority Order • Spouse • Majority Adult Children (not all) • Parent • Close relative of deceased In absence of family • Personal Representative • Public Administrator • Others As designated by Montana Board of Funeral Service Preneed Authorization • Person can make prior to death: Funeral director Mortician Wait 24 hours • Signed Death Certificate • Crematory Authorization Before Cremation • Remove personal possessions of value: Jewelry Mementos Pacemakers • Remove Could damage Authorizing agent held responsible Cremated with body • Prostheses • Mechanical Devices Implants Cremation Time • Varies with size and weight 1.5 to 4 hours After Cremation • Remains allowed to cool • Human remains separated • Pulverized • Placed in container Cremains • Appear similar to: Crushed seashells Egg shells My ashes or others? • Identifying metal disc attached to each receptacle containing a body Identifying Disc • During cremation disc secured on control panel outside the chamber My ashes or others? • Disc placed with cremated human remains inside a receptacle My ashes or others? • Number of identifying metal disc written on outside of receptacle Which survivors are ashes given to? • Individual specified by authorizing agent on cremation authorization form What should family do with ashes? Businessman • Put my ashes in an envelope and mail them to IRS. Write on envelop…” Now you have everything! Urns • Cost $20 - $860 • Made of: Hardwood Stone or Marble Bronze, copper, or other metals Biodegradable What to do with ashes? •Bury •Scatter Urn Burial •Family Plot Urn Burial •Urn Garden Urn Burial •Columbarium niche Keepsake Memorial • Jewelry Pendant Keepsake Memorial • Miniature Cast Bronze Urn Sundial • Base contains sealed compartment for cremated remains Outdoor Birdbath • Base contains sealed compartment for cremated remains Windchimes • Water-resistant pewter compartment serves as keepsake urn Scattering • 59% preferred to be scattered rather than buried Scattering--Where • 30% water • 29% land • 18% preference of deceased Where to Scatter? • Privately owned lands • Legal Church-Owned Lands • Seek Permission City Lands, Parks, & Lakes • City Attorney • City Commissioner Permission? Forms? County Lands, Parks, & Lakes • City Attorney • City Commissioner Permission? Forms? School Trust Lands • Montana Department of Natural Resources & Conservation (DNRC) School Trust Lands • Sections 16 & 36 Township • Land use permit ($25) • Plus Area Office fee State Rivers & Lakes • Montana Department of Environmental Quality No permit required State Lands & Parks • Fish, Wildlife & Parks Commissioner Does not allow unless authorized by commissioner Tribal Trust Lands • 2.6 million acres • Contact Tribal Community Council General Council Bureau of Land Management Lands • No federal permits are necessary Unless commercial enterprises Federal Waters • At sea 3 nautical miles Burial/Scatter at Sea Notification Form EPA National Cemetaries129 • Veterans Spouses Dependent children Montana • Obtain List • VA Medical & Regional Office Center Fort Harrison, MT National Forests • Forest Service Does not authorize the scattering or interment of cremated human remains Existing cemeteries National Parks • Each national park has conditions for granting permission • Contact Superintendent of Park Yellowstone National Park • Special Use Permit--$25 Yellowstone Visitor Service Office Glacier National Park • Undeveloped areas Notify Chief Rangers Office Air • Federal Aviation Administration As long as no hazard to persons or property Creative Scattering • Fits the situation as defined by survivors Hub Wheelman’s Daughter • “I keep a small vial of his ashes in my glove compartment. I am nowhere near the driver he was, but at least he’s still spending a fair amount of time on the road.” Hot Air Balloonist • “….released my wife’s ashes from her balloon high in the desert where she broke the world’s record…I think she is smiling.” Shipping • U.S. Postal Service Registered Mail Return Receipt Services Shipping Container • Sift-proof • Montana Crematories $25 Do not allow shipment of cremated remains • United Parcel Service • Federal Express Prefer Cremation? • Place request in writing Preneed Authorization Prefer Cremation? • Share with family members Funeral Director • “When planning to honor and memorialize a person who has died, the family should plan a funeral, memorial, celebration of life or gathering that best suits their religious beliefs, traditions, lifestyle & budget.” Acknowledgements • Montana Board of Funeral Service • Montana Funeral Directors Association Montana Departments of • Public Health & Human Services • Environmental Quality • Fish Wildlife & Parks Further Info p. 6 • Montana Board of Funeral Service Consumer Information About Funerals Further Info • Montana Funeral Directors Association • Local Funeral Home National Info • Phone numbers • Websites • Mailing addresses Definitions of Terms Section p. 7 • Cremains: Cremated human remains National Info • AARP • Cremation Association of North America • Funeral Consumers Alliance National Info • Funeral Service Consumer Assistance Program • Funeral Service Educational Foundation National Info • International Cemetery & Funeral Association • National Funeral Directors Association • National Selected Morticians Cremation Questions?