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					What Will We Actually
 Do On the Moon?


    Brent Sherwood
    brent.sherwood@jpl.nasa.gov



      New Brunswick
        June, 2007
                                Purpose




   Demonstrate a method of communicating about the
           Vision for Space Exploration that could begin
                  motivating the public to support it




Sherwood, Jun07       Rutgers Symposium on Lunar Settlements 2007   2
                  Global Lunar Strategy
• NASA catalyzed global lunar-exploration planning

  – March 2006 workshop
    with 200 participants in
    seven teams
  – Open RFI
  – Gap-filling reviews by 10
    NASA centers, 14
    international space
    agencies, two commerce
    roundtables, young-
    professional and
    advocacy interest
    groups, MEPAG, LEAG



Sherwood, Jun07     Rutgers Symposium on Lunar Settlements 2007   3
          Global Lunar Strategy – Dec 2006
• ~800 ideas about “what” to do on the Moon

     – Yielded 188
       discrete
       objectives

     – 6 themes
       about “why”




Sherwood, Jun07      Rutgers Symposium on Lunar Settlements 2007   4
                         Theme Mapping
     Orange Team – 3/06                                       Global Strategy – 12/06

Enable increasingly sophisticated
                   lunar activities
                                                              Scientific knowledge

     Conduct science to gain new                              Global partnerships
                      knowledge

    Improve the human condition                               Public engagement

         Provide economic growth                              Economic expansion

 Enable deeper exploration of the
                   solar system                               Exploration preparation

       Ultimately establish human
                                                              Human civilization
             settlements off Earth

 Sherwood, Jun07        Rutgers Symposium on Lunar Settlements 2007                  5
                  Two Techniques
• Future history as a story

• Specific vignettes that provide glimpses




Sherwood, Jun07   Rutgers Symposium on Lunar Settlements 2007   6
             Pocket Guide to Lunar Activity
First we will reinstate the capability to land people there, sustain them for a few days, and return
     them. This time, we will not be fundamentally restricted to Nearside, near-equatorial sites. Small
     crews will explore their surroundings, collect samples, set up simple surface systems (for power,
     communications, and scientific and engineering experiments), and learn how their equipment
     really operates. We will use simple rovers to explore regions surrounding the landing site. We
     will use remote sensing and surface exploration to seek unique places where useful materials or
     scientific phenomena are concentrated.

After determining where it makes sense to “put down roots,” we will bring larger habitation and
    workshop elements, and construct radiation shields around them using assembled structure
    elements and lunar regolith. We will commission power plants that can operate through the two-
    week night time. We will explore the strange regions where permanent shadow and near-
    permanent sunlight are close together, where there may be ice resources, and locations on the
    Farside where Earth is never directly visible. We will grade and pave the surface locally to make
    it safer, cleaner, and more predictable for people, mobile equipment and automated machines to
    operate. Crew members will begin to specialize: experiments, exploration, construction,
    housekeeping, jury-rigging, and repair.

Among the engineering experiments will be some that test practical ways of operating, constructing,
   excavating, beneficiating, and ultimately producing useful products from lunar material: oxygen
   for propellant and life support; masonry, glass, and iron for making things; nitrogen and other
   light elements for air and nutrients. We will learn how to cultivate, protect, and harvest plants
   and animals. We will try a wide variety of solutions to these challenges, selecting and scaling up
   the ones that work well.

We will establish test sites where we can practice techniques being designed to explore near-Earth
   asteroids and Mars. We will build research facilities that Earthbound scientists use by proxy to
   perform unique astronomical observations, or uniquely dangerous experiments. If it turns out to
   be economically sensible, we will establish large-scale production of lunar-derived propellants
   and construction materials to enable cis-lunar development, and large-scale generation of energy
   for Earth. We will build destinations on the Moon for business and leisure visitors. Eventually
   the scale and viability of these activities will cross the threshold that defines settlement, and
   humanity will become a two-planet species.

Sherwood, Jun07               Rutgers Symposium on Lunar Settlements 2007                             7
                  Scenario Vignettes
• The “details double-paradox”

• Painting the picture…even without pictures!

• The value of novelty

• Get professional help to excite non-nerds




Sherwood, Jun07    Rutgers Symposium on Lunar Settlements 2007   8
                           Eleven Vignettes
                               Pave for dust control

                               Establish a colony of continuously active robots
    Enable increasingly
    sophisticated lunar        Kitchen science
        activities
                               Designer biology

                               Tend the machinery

                               Search for pieces of ancient Earth
 Conduct science to gain
    new knowledge              Build simple observatories that open new wavelength
                               regimes
    Improve the human          Establish a virtual real-time network to enable public
        condition              engagement
                               Institute a public-private lunar development
Provide economic growth
                               corporation
   Enable solar system
                               Rehearse planetary protection protocols for Mars
       exploration
     Establish human
                               Expand life and intelligence beyond Earth
   settlements off Earth
Sherwood, Jun07            Rutgers Symposium on Lunar Settlements 2007                  9
                           Eleven Vignettes
                               Pave for dust control

                               Establish a colony of continuously active robots
    Enable increasingly
    sophisticated lunar        Kitchen science
        activities
                               Designer biology

                               Tend the machinery

                               Search for pieces of ancient Earth
 Conduct science to gain
    new knowledge              Build simple observatories that open new wavelength
                               regimes
    Improve the human          Establish a virtual real-time network to enable public
        condition              engagement
                               Institute a public-private lunar development
Provide economic growth
                               corporation
   Enable solar system
                               Rehearse planetary protection protocols for Mars
       exploration
     Establish human
                               Expand life and intelligence beyond Earth
   settlements off Earth
Sherwood, Jun07            Rutgers Symposium on Lunar Settlements 2007                  10
Enable increasingly sophisticated
         lunar activities
                    Pave for dust control

• Lunar regolith + hard vacuum = !

• Design around mitigation of bad effects
     – Pave roadways and work areas

• Grade, then stabilize
     – Compaction vs. using the natural resource

• Paving alternatives
     – Compacted gravel
     – Paving blocks
     – Direct sintering

    Imagine an investigation that prototypes various methods to
              determine what works best to control dust


Sherwood, Jun07       Rutgers Symposium on Lunar Settlements 2007   12
      Establish a colony of continuously active robots

• Kurzweil singularity – what will we expect of robots by 2025?
     – Benefit-to-cost ratio
     – Human extension and enhancement

• How much of an outpost could be built robotically?
     – Shape a predictable environment
     – Establish, verify routine operations
     – Build radiation shelters

• Remote, dynamic construction site
     – Productivity
     – Public interest
     – No downtime during, between human visits

 Imagine “looking in on” a robotic colony as it changes every day


Sherwood, Jun07        Rutgers Symposium on Lunar Settlements 2007   13
                         Kitchen science

• How “normal” processes work on the Moon, and affect routine
  activities
     – Convection, mixing, drainage, evaporation…


• The practical things
     – How to cook, how to clean, how to live


• Must be done in situ

• Investigations akin to play
     – Inherently interesting: defining a new way for humans to live


   Make it personal: what do you do every day…and how will we
                learn to do these things on the Moon?


Sherwood, Jun07       Rutgers Symposium on Lunar Settlements 2007      14
                         Designer biology

• 1960s quiz: Which will occur first?
     –   Transgenic and knockout mice
     –   DNA fingerprinting as admissible evidence
     –   Cloned pets
     –   Moon base


• What biological “miracles” will be common by 2030?

• Plants and animals optimized for lunar conditions
     – Hard radiation, low atmospheric pressure, different partial
       pressures, long dark periods, strong ultraviolet, economical
       geometry, alien soil, nutrient concentration…


 Imagine a laboratory on the Moon devoted to developing a novel
                lunar ecology that meets our needs

Sherwood, Jun07        Rutgers Symposium on Lunar Settlements 2007    15
                     Tend the machinery

• You think YOU spend weekends working on your house…

• Economics will drive routine lunar ops to be machine-mediated

• “Highest and best uses” of humans
     – Exploration
     – Jury-rigging new solutions
     – Maintenance and repair


• Shirtsleeve workshop will emerge as critical need
     – Long night-time, diurnal rhythm


     Imagine the public appeal when “tending” grows to include
                       husbandry of living things


Sherwood, Jun07       Rutgers Symposium on Lunar Settlements 2007   16
Conduct science to gain new knowledge
              Search for pieces of ancient Earth

• Oldest Earth rocks miss the first 1/5 of Earth history
     – Tectonic recycling, weathering obliterate the record


• Lunar environment preserves solar system history

• If SNCs could come from Mars to Earth…
     – Lunar regolith must contain Earth rocks


• How would we recognize them?

  Imagine a scientific campaign using robots, humans, searches,
      modeling, sample recovery, and in situ and terrestrial lab
      analysis to gain insight into the missing history of Earth



Sherwood, Jun07       Rutgers Symposium on Lunar Settlements 2007   18
       Observatories to open new wavelength regimes

• Every new wavelength window has yielded new discoveries
  about how the universe works
     – Space flight opened several windows above Earth’s atmosphere

• Two unexplored windows remain: they require both a space
  location and very large detectors

• Low-frequency ( > 10m) radio
     – Large array of simple dipole antennas

• High-energy cosmic rays
     – Detector/regolith lasagna

    Imagine robotic preparation and deployment of new kinds of
      observatories…and imagine new discoveries being made


Sherwood, Jun07       Rutgers Symposium on Lunar Settlements 2007     19
Improve the human condition
       Virtual real-time network for public engagement

• Voters of 2030 will not be born for another 5 years
     – How much will they share our values?

• Today’s media world: interests are a click away

• Public will expect to be embedded in humanity’s lunar
  adventures via high-fidelity telepresence
     – Anytime-broadband infrastructure
     – Privacy challenges

• Not “Education and Public Outreach”
     – Digital-wallpaper live feeds of lunar wilderness or worksites
     – Moonwalks in immersive VR – in junior high
     – Lunar inhabitant blogs and chat

  Imagine how the issue of “relevance” will vanish as lunar living
             becomes just another part of our daily life


Sherwood, Jun07        Rutgers Symposium on Lunar Settlements 2007     21
Provide economic growth
         Public-private lunar development corporation

•    Public-private partnership is required to jumpstart viable
     commercial enterprise
     –    Sparse and frangible business opportunities
     –    High barriers to entry


•    Port authority model
     1. Insures core service continuity, predictable business conditions
     2. Promotes competitive growth via long-term, competitively-
        awarded service contracts
     3. Reinvests its own profits to improve the port infrastructure


      Accelerate commercial implementation of routine services
     –    Habitation, energy, communications, propellant production,
          consumables resupply, food production, waste management,
          construction, maintenance, housekeeping, recycling, security


Sherwood, Jun07         Rutgers Symposium on Lunar Settlements 2007        23
Enable solar system exploration
        Planetary protection protocols for Mars

• Mars is very different from the Moon
     – Yet, we can design lunar operations to validate Mars techniques


• Key feature of human Mars exploration is investigation of
  “special areas” where life might be
     – Paradox: require human field work, but most susceptible to
       contamination


• Can sub-optimize lunar ops to emulate Mars conditions
     – Far-side outpost + 6-mth orbital loiter + 1-yr base ops with Mars-
       type systems + 6-mth orbital loiter = simulation
     – Help is days away, rather than months


      Imagine rehearsing protocols for exploring “special areas”
     – Sterile robots, habitat gloveboxes, dust control, ops procedures


Sherwood, Jun07        Rutgers Symposium on Lunar Settlements 2007          25
Establish human settlements off Earth
      Expand life and intelligence beyond Earth
• Über-objective – focuses the others
     – Long-term purpose
     – Operations tailored for permanence, local supply, economic
       growth, self-sufficiency, survival, procreation, and new beginnings

• Settlement resonates with people
     –   A dwarf planet only three days away…with resources
     –   Opens alternative industrial space futures
     –   Strategic destination for passenger travel
     –   Noah’s Ark reassurance

• Key architecture and investment decisions
     –   Reusable hydrogen/oxygen transportation systems
     –   Sites selected to scale up resource production
     –   Regenerable life support, genetic modification
     –   Habitat construction
     –   Genuine economic development

  Imagine using settlement to focus what we do on the Moon now
Sherwood, Jun07        Rutgers Symposium on Lunar Settlements 2007      27
                  What Happens Next?
• More vignettes
     – Try this at home


• Engage visionary illustrators
     – Doesn’t matter if reality is different 25 years hence


• Get professional help

• Test-market

                                   Be bold


Sherwood, Jun07      Rutgers Symposium on Lunar Settlements 2007   28