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					                Nemy Banthia1 and Axel Meisen2
1 The   University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
          2 Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, Canada




                              18th CAETS , Calgary, Alberta,
                                       July 2009
Aviation
Bridges
Dams
Drinking Water
Hazardous Wastes
Roads
Energy
Schools
Navigation Waterways
Public Parks and Recreation
Security
Solid Waste
Transit
Waste Water
 Infrastructure Deficit Hypothesis: A
decline in the public capital formation
(i.e. infrastructure) lowers private
sector productivity and, therefore,
lowers a nation’s real income and
weaken its competitiveness.
Consider Our Vicinity



 The United States
 Canada
The U.S. Federal Reserve
 Board has concluded that the
 failure of civil infrastructure
 systems to perform at their
 expected level has reduced
 the US GDP by 1%.
It stated: “The state of
 infrastructure is indeed
 alarming in the US, and the
 financial burden is huge”.
 The American Society of Civil
Engineers (ASCE), assigned
an overall grade of D (Poor) to
the USA in its recent
Infrastructure Report Card
 It estimates that $1.6 trillion
are needed in the next five
years to alleviate potential
problems with the civil
infrastructure
                Bridges   C
                Dams      D
Energy    D

                Roads     D

Wastewater D-
                C: Mediocre
                D: Poor
27 % of US’s 590,750 bridges
are rated structurally deficient or
functionally obsolete.



It will cost $9.4 billion a year for
20 years to eliminate all bridge
deficiencies.
 Since 1998, the number of
unsafe dams has risen by
33% to more than 3,500.
 The number of dams
identified as unsafe is
increasing at a faster rate than
those being repaired.
 $10.1 billion is needed over
the next 12 years to repair
dams which pose a direct risk
to human life.
                       There is a newborn
                       interest in hydro-power
                       as a renewable source of
                       energy.
1970: Failure of the
Buffalo Creek Dam       Hydro-power accounts for 7% of
                        total energy produced in the US,
                        20% in China, 27% in India and
                        more than 60% in Canada!

                       Unsafe dams are a
                       serious concern from
2003: Failure of the   power generation point
 Silver Lake Dam
                       of view.
 Poor road conditions cost U.S.
motorists $54 billion per year in
repairs and operating costs: $275
per motorist.

 Americans spend 3.5 billion
hours a year stuck in traffic, at a
cost of $63.2 billion a year to the
economy.

  Total spending of $59.4 billion
annually is well below the $94
billion needed annually to improve
transportation infrastructure
conditions nationally.
59% of Canada’s
infrastructure is more
than 40 years old
As per Statistics
Canada, 37 years is
the expected average
life of a structure in
Canada.
Infrastructure in Canada
          There are approximately
        10,000 deficient bridges with
        a total repair /strengthening
        cost of $44 billion.

          There are 4000 parking
        garages needing immediate
        attention.
                                        Infrastructure Backlog
 Canada’s current                       ($ Billions)
                               0.0
infrastructure deficit is
$125 billion (and
                             -75.0
growing annually by
                                        Prediction 2002
$2 billion), which is 6-    -150.0
10 times the level of                   Actual 2009

all annual government       -225.0
                                        1985       2002   2009      2027
infrastructure budget
                                     Estimate              Actual
combined.                            Poly. (Estimate)      Poly. (Actual)


                            Prediction in 2002 which has
                              already proven to be an
                                  underestimation
Increase in atmospheric CO2 levels from 370
ppm to 1000 ppm
  Increased Corrosion Rates
   Increased Carbonation
Increase in temperature by over 50C
  Increased Shrinkage
  Porous Microstructure and High Permeability
  Increased Corrosion Rates

Increased Water Levels
  Increased Saturation
  Greater Scour
Why are we in such dire straits?
 Deterioration and aging of structural
 systems due to
 weather, fatigue, pollution, structural
 settlement and now global warming;
 Construction mistakes;
 Code changes (structural
 dynamics, seismic design, etc.);
 Loading changes; and
 Functional Obsolesce.
Infrastructure Concerns
Canadian Research in Sustainable
Infrastructure


      Canadian Network of Centers of
      Excellence: Intelligent Sensing for
      Innovative Structures (ISIS)

      Canada Research Chairs
 Develop Zero Carbon Footprint
 Concrete                                           Canada Research
                                                        Chairs

Fact: Cement industry accounts for 8% of total
green house gases. Every ton of cement
production releases 1 ton of CO2 and
consumes 4GJ of energy.

Bio-Inspired, Green Concretes with Zero Carbon
Footprint
Dream: Concrete with up to 50 % cement replaced by industrial
by-products such as fly-ash, silica fume and blast furnace slag
and virgin aggregate replaced by recycled aggregate, recycled
automobile tires, and other post-consumer wastes.
 Reinforced against cracking by recycled cellulose, polymeric
and natural fibers.
                      Canadian Network of Centers of
                      Excellence: Intelligent Sensing for
                      Innovative Structures (ISIS)
   Network of 18 Universities with over $100 million in funding
   Objective: To make structures last 100 years+ instead of 50
    years


    How is this accomplished?
    1.   Replace steel with Non-Corrosive Fiber Reinforced Polymers
         (FRPs) for both New Construction and Strengthening of Old
         Structures
    2.   Structural Health Monitoring using Advanced Sensors (e.g.
         Fiber Optic Sensors and Piezoelectric/ Piezoresistive Sensors
         with Nano-Tubes) and Continuous Interrogation over the
         Internet.
         ISIS Canada
         Research


Replace Steel Rebar
with
Fiber Reinforced
Polymers for New
Construction and
Repair
Crossbow Tri-
    Axial       Wide Angle Web   Fibre optic
Accelerometer      Camera          sensor




                    Tilt-Beam
Thermocouple         Sensor
                                  Wind Monitor
    Beddington Trail Bridge, Calgary, Alberta
(Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Tendons -- instead of steel)




                                ISIS Canada
                                Research
        Beddington Trail Bridge, Calgary, Alberta
    (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Tendons -- instead of steel)




                                        Recessed Fibre
                                          Optic Port

                               Armoured Cable
                                                             Optical Fibre   FRPFRP
                                                                                Tendon
                                                             Connectors      Tendons


                                                             Bragg
                                     FRP Tendon          Surface Bonded or
                                     Recessed in
                                                            Grating
                                                          Recessed Fibre
                                      Concrete              Sensors
                                                           Optic Sensor




Dynamic Sensor Response
  to 3-Axle Truck Load
           Bridge Decks




Wotton Bridge, Que
Provencher Bridge, Winnipeg,
         Manitoba
•   Abutments and Bearings
     – Four High Precision Inclinometers
•   Pylon
     – 2 High Precision Inclinometers
     – 30 Electric Strain Gauges
     – 18 Fibre Optic Sensors
     – 6 Tri-Axial Accelerometers
     – Wide Angle Web Camera
•   Bridge Deck
     – 13 Unidirectional Accelerometers
     – 2 Tri-Axial Accelerometers
     – 24 Thermocouples
     – Wind Monitor
•   Center Plaza
     – Tri-Axial Accelerometer
•   Cable Stays
     –   6 Unidirectional Accelerometers
Strengthening and Rehabilitation of Structures


                                       Gentilly-1 :
                                       Upgrade Ring-
                                       beam of nuclear
                                       containment
                                       structure with
                                       externally bonded
                                       FRP

               Externally Bonded FRP
Seismic Strengthening of Structures




                           Externally Bonded FRP
Imperatives for a Sustainable
Infrastructure:
Green Concrete with a Minimal Carbon
Footprint.
Replacing Traditional Materials with
Advanced, High Performance, High Durability
Materials
Development of Intelligent Infrastructure with
Integrated Sensors and Continuous Health
Monitoring
Cost Effective Repair/Strengthening Strategies
for Existing Structures
Life Cycle Engineering
Education and Codes
But Most of All: We Need Interdisciplinary Team
                     Work




            Thank You!

				
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posted:3/10/2010
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