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Name of School: Nazih Al-Biziri High School
Name of teacher: Maged Khoury
Grade: 12th grade, Life Sciences, English section
Group: Ahmad Al-Lababidi, Ali Nasser, Ahmad hleihel.
Title: How to avoid Earthquakes
N.B: This following text is part one of an English project “precautions to take during a natural
1. Definition of an earthquake:
arthquake, shaking of the Earth’s surface caused by rapid movement of the Earth’s rocky outer layer. Earthquakes occur when
energy stored within the Earth, usually in the form of strain in rocks, suddenly releases. This energy is transmitted to the
surface of the Earth by earthquake waves. The study of earthquakes and the waves they create is called seismology (from the
Greek seismos, “to shake”). Scientists who study earthquakes are called seismologists.
2. How to be ready for an earthquake
-Before an earthquake:
1. Potential earthquake hazards in the home and workplace should be removed and corrected. Top-heavy furniture and
objects, such as book cases and storage cabinets, should be fastened to the wall and the largest and heaviest objects
placed on lower shelves.
2. Prepare a disaster supply kit for home and work:
Store water in plastic containers such as soft drink bottles. Avoid using containers that will decompose or break, such as milk
cartons or glass bottles. A normally active person needs to drink at least two quarts of water each day. Hot environments and
intense physical activity can double that amount. Children, nursing mothers, and ill people will need more.
Store one gallon of water per person per day.
Keep at least a three-day supply of water per person (two quarts for drinking, two quarts for each person in your household for food
Store at least a three-day supply of non-perishable food. Select foods that require no refrigeration, preparation or cooking, and little
or no water. If you must heat food, pack a can of sterno. Select food items that are compact and lightweight. Include a selection of
the following foods in your Disaster Supplies Kit:
Ready-to-eat canned meats, fruits, and vegetables
Staples (salt, sugar, pepper, spices, etc.)
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High energy foods
Food for infants
First Aid Kit:
Assemble a first aid kit for your home and one for each car.
(20) Adhesive bandages various sizes.
(1) 5" x 9" sterile dressing.
(1) Conforming roller gauze bandage.
(2) Triangular bandages.
(2) 3 x 3 sterile gauze pads.
(2) 4 x 4 sterile gauze pads.
(1) Roll 3" cohesive bandage.
(2) Germicidal hand wipes or waterless alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
(6) Antiseptic wipes.
(2) Pair large medical grade non-latex gloves.
Adhesive tape, 2" width.
Scissors (small, personal).
CPR breathing barrier, such as a face shield.
Aspirin or no aspirin pain reliever
Antacid (for stomach upset)
Syrup of Ipecac (use to induce vomiting if advised by the Poison Control Center)
Activated charcoal (use if advised by the Poison Control Center)
Tools and Supplies:
Mess kits, or paper cups, plates, and plastic utensils*
Emergency preparedness manual*
Battery-operated radio and extra batteries*
Flashlight and extra batteries*
Cash or traveler's checks, change*
Non-electric can opener, utility knife*
Fire extinguisher: small canister ABC type
Matches in a waterproof container
Plastic storage containers
Shut-off wrench, to turn off household gas and water
Map of the area (for locating shelters)
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Toilet paper, towelettes*
Soap, liquid detergent*
Personal hygiene items*
Plastic garbage bags, ties (for personal sanitation uses)
Plastic bucket with tight lid
Household chlorine bleach
Clothing and Bedding:
*Include at least one complete change of clothing and footwear per person.
Sturdy shoes or work boots*
Blankets or sleeping bags*
Hat and gloves
Remember family members with special requirements, such as infants and elderly or disabled persons
Heart and high blood pressure medication
Contact lenses and supplies
Extra eye glasses
Games and books
3. One or more family members should have a working knowledge of first-aid measures because medical
facilities nearly are always overloaded during an emergency or disaster, or may, themselves, be
damaged beyond use.
4. All family members should know what to do to avoid injury and panic. They should know how to turn
off the electricity, water and gas. Discuss Earthquake Safety With Your Children Earthquakes strike
suddenly, and without warning. Children are particularly at risk if they don't know what to do. Teach
your children about protecting themselves during earthquakes. Be sure to point out places of safety in
every room, and for fun, have them practice diving for cover under a heavy table or desk. Explain to
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your children that if they are inside when they feel a tremor, they should stay in the building and away
from windows and glass doors. If they are outside, they should move quickly into an open area.
-During an earthquake:
DO NOT Panic. Please remain calm. Be prepared for more shaking. It will be at least 72 hours before outside help
can get into the area. Local emergency resources may be overwhelmed, be prepared to help your neighbors!
Tune your radio to (Station Call Sign) the local Emergency Alert Station - EAS - (formerly EBS Station) in your local area.
Put on sturdy shoes to avoid cutting your feet.
Be prepared for more shaking. Stay Calm! If you are indoors when the shaking starts, stay indoors, away from windows
and other hazards. If you are outdoors, stay in the open. Be alert for falling objects, glass and debris.
Take Inventory of your food and water supplies. Gather non-perishable food and your stored water and put in a safe
location. You may be able to remain in your home depending on the severity of the aftershocks. If your home is
uninhabitable, bring your food, water and clothing to a shelter site.
Water, Water, Water - gather our stored drinking water into one location. If you do not have stored drinking water, fill our
bathtub with water. Do not flush your toilet! If your water heater was strapped to the wall, you will still have 20-40 gallons
of drinking water depending on the size of your water heater tank. Melted ice cubes are also a drinking water source. If you
have an older toilet, the water tank will have approximately 3.5 gallons of water, the newer versions have 1.6 gallons of
water that can be used for drinking. Don't use the water in your toilet tank if you use a cleaning agent such as Tidy Bowl.
Use flashlights only for light turning light switches on or off may ignite leaking gas. DO NOT use matches, lighters or
Turn off utilities ONLY if you smell smore or gas. If you smell gas or smoke, get everyone out of the house then turn off
your gas and electricity at the main meters. If your utilities have not been damaged, leave them alone. Gas utilities can only
be relit by certified utility repair people.
Water line ruptures. Know how to turn off your water at the incoming valve if the water lines are ruptured. It is important
that you know how to turn off our utilities at the source to keep damage to your home to a minimum.
Check on the other people in your household. If they are hurt, use first aid. Make sure breathing passages are open! Stop
bleeding above the pressure points. You can tear clean sheets into strips to make bandages.
If there's a fire and you can fight it without getting hurt, put it out with the proper extinguisher. DO NOT use water on
electrical or gas fires.
Do not use the telephone. It must be reserved only for life-or-death situations.
If you go outside to an open area - stay away from buildings. Watch for fallen power lines; many lines may be down and
they can severely injure you if you touch them. If someone is in contact with a downed line, push the downed line away
with a piece of wood.
If you're in a car, pull over and stop. Stay away from bridges, overpasses, power lines or other hazards. Stay in your car
and listen to the radio. Keep the road clear for emergency vehicles.
*How to contact family members if we are separated in an earthquake?
Part of your earthquake preparedness should be to decide in advance on meeting place. It could be your home - or
a place that's more central to the places you and your family work or go to school in case the earthquake strikes
during a workday.
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Agree on one out-of-area person that everyone will phone to report they are safe. Get every family member in the
habit of carrying identification, medical alert information and emergency phone money and numbers at all times.
If you live alone or need extra assistance because of a disability, make arrangements in advance for someone
living nearby to check in with you if there is an earthquake. Keep a whistle on hand for signaling.
-After an earthquake:
1. After an earthquake the most important thing to do is to check for injuries in your family and in the
neighborhoods. Seriously injured persons should not be moved unless they are in immediate danger of
further injury. First-aid should be administered, but only by someone who is qualified or has a working
knowledge of first-aid.
2. Evacuate the building as soon as the shaking stops. Carefully inspect the exterior of the building for cracks in walls,
shifted posts and pillars. If you see anything other than minor cracks do no re-enter the building until it has been inspected
for safety by a professional.
3. Check for safety-hazards - gas, water sewage breaks; downed power lines and electrical short circuits, damaged and
weakened buildings and foundations, fires and fire hazards.
4. Turn off appropriate utilities. Do not use matches, lighters or open flame, appliances or electrical switches until you are
sure that there are no gas leaks.
5. Do not use the telephone except in extreme emergency.
6. Wear shoes and protective clothing, for example, hard hats and gloves, to avoid injuries while clearing debris.
7. Keep battery-operated radios and listen for emergency bulletins.
8. If electrical power is off for any length of time use the foods in your refrigerator and freezer before they spoil. Canned
and dry foods should be saved for last.
9. Co-operate with all public safety and relief organizations. Do not go into damaged areas unless authorized by
10. Be prepared for additional earthquake shocks.
3. Examples of devastating earthquakes:
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In the United States(1995): The New Madrid Seismic Zone caused the three largest earthquakes in
the continental United States in 811-12, while earthquakes in Alaska and Washington have been in the
news the past two years, Southeast Missouri experiences over 200 tremors yearly that can be felt by
residents. News media often focuses on the damage caused by California earthquakes, yet an
earthquake along the New Madrid Seismic Zone could impact six other states besides Missouri. Those
other states are: Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee and Mississippi. Eastern States
could also by interstate transportation disruption or natural gas pipeline disruptions.
In the United States (1988): A total of 3,232 children have suffered from the earthquakes in
Armenia in 1988. Of these, 2,007 (62.1%) sustained various damages to the locomotor’s apparatus. Of
these, 653 (32.5%) sustained closed fractures, 286 (14.2%) sustained open fractures, and 377 (18.8%)
children had crush-syndrome. The medical care was provided in two stages: (1) prehospital first aid
(control of bleeding, application of aseptic bandages, anesthesia, immobilization, and transport) was
implemented at the place of incident; and (2) The full complement of the aid to victims at the site not
always was implemented because the crews providing the first aid did not have adequate supplies of
medical equipment. In this series of cases, some victims were delivered to a hospital without having
any first aid. The greatest difficulty with the treatment has arisen for those victims not treated in
specialized clinics. The errors in treatment for this group of the patient have resulted in development
of contractures of joints, high-gravity palsy of extremities, deformity of segments, and quite often, led
to amputations. Many errors were made at rendering assistance to children with high-gravity, open
fractures, and with the syndrome long-time compression (LTC). The vast cuts of extremities made in
last cases, complicated the condition of the patients due to secondary wound infections and padding
intoxication. We were forced to perform amputation in five of them. We performed fasciotomies only
when ischemia of extremities was threatening and definite intoxication from several small approach.
Three patients with the high-gravity form of LTC developed of an aseptic necrosis the head of the hip.
Analysis of results of treatment LTC of extremities has shown the ineffectiveness of using during the
first days, compression-distraction apparatus or fulfillment of a submerged osteosynthesis in
connection with increased swelling of an extremity.
The following is a brief description of the effects of a magnitude 7.5 quake, courtesy
of the Washington State publication "To Survive in Earthquake Country.”
· Loud sounds like the rumbling of a heavy truck may precede the quake.
· The ground will shake and roll, perhaps for thirty seconds or longer, giving the sensation of walking or
standing on a ship in rough weather.
· The ground surface may rupture and sections may rise or fall twenty feet or more.
· Sandy and silted soils may liquefy, turning into quicksand (swallowing homes in seconds). There will
probably be landslides in hilly areas.
· There will probably be extensive structural damage (to homes and local infrastructure).
· Chemicals, fuels and other hazardous materials may cause fires and release toxic clouds from damaged
· Tsunamis (a series of giant ocean waves) may strike coastal areas.
· Fire, police and medical personnel will be overwhelmed by the demand for their services.
· People will be injured and die.
· Buildings will collapse, trapping people and leaving others homeless.
· People may be separated from their family, friends and neighbors by collapsed roads, bridges and phone
· People may have to survive without additional food, water, shelter and utilities for several days.
4. Supply kit contents:
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5. A Picture of a devastating earthquake:
Table of contents:
1 DEFINITION OF AN EARTHQUAKE:
1 . HOW TO BE READY FOR AN EARTHQUAKE
,21 BEFORE AN EARTHQUAKE
4 II-DURING AN EARTHQUAKE:
5 III-AFTER AN EARTHQUAKE:
6 3. EXAMPLES OF DEVASTATING EARTHQUAKES:
7 THE EFFECTS OF A MAGNITUDE 7.5 QUAKE, COURTESY OF THE WASHINGTON STATE PUBLICATION
7 A PICTURE OF A DEVASTATING EARTHQUAKE:
Made by: Ahmad Al-Lababidi.