Gaius Octavius Thurinus Gaius Iulius Caesar Octavianus Imperator Caesar Augustus • 63: birth (grandnephew of Julius Caesar) • 44: named in Caesar’s will as principal heir & adopted son • 43: forms 2nd Triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus proscriptions (e.g., Cicero) Octavian succeeds Caesar & defeats Antony 42: Caesar proclaimed a god, making Octavian divi filius – son of a god 34: Octavian breaks with Antony 31: Octavian & Agrippa defeat Antony & Cleopatra at Actium Coin of Augustus celebrating the triple triumph in 29 BCE: Dalmatia, Actium, Egypt “It was the will of our ancestors that the gateway of Janus Quirinus should be shut when victories had secured peace by land and sea throughout the whole empire of the Roman people; from the foundation of the city down to my birth, tradition records that it was shut only twice, but while I was the leading citizen the senate resolved that it should be shut on three occasions” (RG 23). Closing of the Doors of the Temple of Janus Quirinus: 29 BCE Augustan aureus, 28 BCE: Augustus seated on the sella curulis LEGES ET IURA P(OPULI) R(OMANI) RESTITUIT “He restored the laws and the rights of the Roman people” “ … I transferred the republic from my power to the dominion of the senate and people of Rome” (RG 34) (27 BCE) 27 BCE: First “settlement”: auctoritas, Imperator Caesar Augustus & princeps “In my sixth and seventh consulships *28-27 BC], after I had extinguished civil wars, and at a time when with universal consent I was in complete control of affairs, I transferred the republic from my power to the dominion of the senate and people of Rome …. After this time I excelled all in influence [auctoritas], although I possessed no more official power [potestas] than others who were my colleagues in the several magistracies” (RG 34). 23 BCE: Second “settlement”: maius imperium & tribunicia potestas “My name was inserted in the hymn of the Salii by a decree of the senate, and it was enacted by law that my person should be inviolable for ever and that I should hold the tribunician power for the duration of my life” (RG 10). “… the consulship was also offered to me, to be held each year for the rest of my life, and I refused it” (RG 5). Augustan aureus post-23 BCE: corona civica (“civic crown”) made of oak leaves OB CIVIS SERVATOS “for saving the citizens” “… the door-posts of my house were publicly wreathed with bay leaves and a civic crown was fixed over my door … on account of my courage, clemency, justice and piety” (RG 32) Augustus of Prima Porta (Livia’s villa), post-20 BCE Imperator in adlocutio pose (“addressing the troops”) “I compelled the Parthians to restore to me the spoils and standards of three Roman armies and to ask as suppliants for the friendship of the Roman people” (RG 29) Details on the cuirass: •Tiberius(?) receives the standards of Crassus and Antony from a Parthian •Deities represented include Apollo / Sol •Provinces represented include Hispania, Gaul •Personification of Tellus (Mother Earth) with horn of abundance (cornucopia) “I found Rome a city of bricks and left it a city of marble” (Suetonius Life of Augustus 28) “I built …” (RG 19-21 “I built the temple of Mars the Avenger and the Forum Augustum on private ground from the proceeds of booty” (RG 21) •Vowed in 42 BCE after Philippi (defeat of Caesar’s Republican assassins) •Begun in 20 BCE after Parthian standards recovered •Inaugurated in 2 BCE Temple of Mars Ultor (Avenger) Venus & Mars & Iulius Caesar Aeneas & Romulus Augustus Augustus as Pontifex Maximus after 12 BCE “I declined to be made pontifex maximus in the place of my colleague who was still alive, when the people offered me this priesthood which my father had held. Some years later, after the death of the man who had taken the opportunity of civil disturbance to seize it for himself, I received this priesthood, in the consulship of Publius Sulpicius and Gaius Valgius [12 BC], and such a concourse poured in from the whole of Italy to my election as has never been recorded at Rome before that time” (RG 10) Augustan “complex”: •Ara Pacis Augustae •Horologium Augusti •Mausoleum Augusti Ara Pacis Augustae, 13-9 BCE Res Gestae 12 on the Ara Pacis “When I returned from Spain and Gaul, in the consulship of Tiberius Nero and Publius Quintilius, after successful operations in those provinces, the senate voted in honour of my return the consecration of an altar to Pax Augusta in the Campus Martius, and on this altar it ordered the magistrates and priests and Vestal virgins to make annual sacrifice.” Processional Frieze: Augustus, Lictors, Marcus Agrippa Augustus’ Horologium (obelisk pointed towards Ara Pacis on his birthday, Sept. 23rd) Augustus’ Mausoleum Res Gestae would have been displayed on the doorposts Reconstruction of Mausoleum How did Roman historians and poets assess Augustus? • How does Velleius Paterculus assess Augustus’ impact on Rome? • How does Tacitus assess Augustus’ impact on Rome? • How do Horace and Ovid assess Augustus’ impact on Rome? • As you read the Aeneid, how does Vergil assess Augustus’ (future) impact on Rome? How do we assess Augustus? • What are the values that matter to Augustus? • What values does he scorn? • How does he present himself to the reader? • What does he consider his most important accomplishments? • How does this autobiography compare with the correspondence and philosophical works of Cicero? That is, do we get a complete picture of either man from the literary works they left behind?