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                                       A New Question for
                                       Science & Theology
      The Puzzle of Existence

 0                 1               
Nothing         Somethin          Everythin
 Exists          g Exists          gExists

          Theology’s Theology’s
             old        new
          challenge: challenge:
            Why 1      Why 1
           instead    instead
             of 0?      of ?
    Meeting the Old Challenge

            Reason + Observation
                            Science


 MAGIC                                 MECHANISM


            Reflection + Revelation

                            Theology

MECHANISM                              MEANING
    Meeting the New Challenge

• How do we address the puzzle of existence?
  – Reality checks
• Why is there a new challenge?
  – Bottom-up
  – Top Down                  QuickTime™ and a
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• Does everything exist?
• What are its implications?
  – For Science
  – For Theology
• Where next?
   Putting the Puzzle Together
Theology’s Approach:
                       In the Beginning God
                       Created the heavens and
                       the earth (Gen 1:1)

Science’s Approach:

                       Necessity
                       and/or
                       Chance
                           Reality Checks




       Closed                 Undetectably Open              Detectably Open

The material universe is    The material universe is     The material universe is
all that exists             not all that exists          not all that exists

Science can provide all     Science can provide          Science can provide
relevant information        relevant information about   relevant information about
about this universe         this universe                this universe and any
                                                         possible extra-natural
Faith is irrelevant         Faith is necessary to        (designing) influence
                            appreciate extra-natural
                            openness                     Faith is optional
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           Thinking of Everything
                             We live in on a planet orbiting a
                             star in a galaxy that is in
                             expanding universe that began
                             explosively about 13 billion
946,728,000,000,000,000 km   years ago
   = 100,000 light years




                 Why do we believe this?     We are here
                   • We see the expansion
                   • We see the heat from the explosion
                   • We see the debris from the explosion
 Cosmic Theology



Injection


                         Selection
             Direction
Are we special?

• Is our universe a typical specimen?
• The answer appears to be no!
• The Bottom-Up Reasons
  – Cosmic Fine tuning
  – Biophilic Selection
• The Top-Down Reasons
                                        Selection
  – Cosmic Inflation
  – String Theory
• What is the significance of cosmic
  selection?
          #1 Cosmic Fine-Tuning
• Flatness problem                                                                QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a
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    so flat?

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• Horizon Problem                                   Too dilute                 Just right!                    Too dense

  – Why is the universe so
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Flatness Problem                                                    QuickTime™ and a
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• Universe underdense
• Gravity too weak
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• Dilution!                                                            Too dilute

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• Gravity just right
                       Size

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                                                                        Just right!

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• Recollapse!
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                              Time
                                                                          Too dense
Flatness Problem
        Size




                                           Time
 For the universe as old as ours to have the structure of stars
 and galaxies that we see, the density 1ns after the Big Bang
 has to be near its critical value to within
                                                                                           Horizon Problem
                                                                           History




Why so uniform?




Foreground-cleaned WMAP map from Tegmark, de Oliveira-Costa & Hamilton, astro-ph/0302496
                                        • Information cannot travel faster
Horizon Problem                         than the speed of light

                                        • Hence any particular point in the
                                        universe has a limited region of space
                                        that it can be in (thermal) contact with
                                        -- the “communication zone”
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                                        • The extent of this region depends on
                                        how long the universe has existed

                                        • In our universe the communication
                                        zone of any point is 1088 times smaller
                                        than the hot plasma from the
                                        primordial fireball!
 Communication zones
 Causally disconnected                  • So how do distant communication
                                        zones come to have almost the exact
                                        same temperature?
         #2 Biophilic Selection
                    Does the existence of intelligent life             QuickTime™ and a
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Basic idea:         about the properties of the Universe
                                as a whole?
                                                                Brandon Carter


1) Compare our universe with a set of possible universes
that are allowed by the known (or mathematically possible)
laws of physics.

2) Ask the question: “Are the life-permitting features of our
universe typical or special?”

3) Answer – Our universe appears to be very special – finely
tuned for the existence of many things that make it
hospitable for life.
The Structure of Matter
                        H       H
                            O
                                    are made of
           is made of
  Coffee                                                        are
                        Molecules                   Atoms
                                                                made
                                                                of

                             are made of
           Neutrons & Protons            Nuclei
                                           &


           are each                   Electrons (& Neutrinos)
           made of

                                         Quarks

                                              The End of the Line??
Many Unexplained Numbers

                           Quark Masses:      6

                           Lepton Masses:     6

                           Force Strengths:   4

                           Mass Mixings:      8

                           Higgs Mass:        1

                           Vacuum Energy:     1

                           Vacuum Mixings:    1
                           Free Parameters:   27
                   Why these values?
What we measure:
Our universe obeys laws of physics that depend upon
these numbers that we measure in experiments:
Con stant of Nature       Notation         Experimental Value
                                                              -11         3
Gravitational Con stant   G                6.67259(85) x 10         m /kg/s
Speed o f Light           c                299792458 m/s
                                                                    -34
        s
Plan ckÕ constant         h                6.6260755(40) x 10 Joule-sec
Cha rge of electron       e                -1.60217733(49) x 10 -19 Coulombs
Mass of electron          me               9.1093897(54) x 10 -31 kg
Mass of neutron           mp               1.674692712(13) x 10 -27 kg
Mass of proton            mp               1.67262158(13) x 10 -27 kg


Consider                             If the neutron were just 0.2% lighter
an atom:                                     all protons would decay
                                             No atoms! No molecules! No life!
                                     If the neutron were just 0.2% heavier
                                             Hydrogen can’t form
                                             No water! No DNA! No life!
    Other Strange Coincidences

  Too                                                         Too
  big/fast                                                    small/slow

Expansion too fast           •Vacuum energy             Expansion too slow
Galaxies can’t form     •Expansion of the universe      Galaxies can’t form
Only bound states          • Spatial dimensions            No bound states
Too much matter         • Particle/antiparticle ratio      Too little matter
No stable nuclei         • Neutron/proton mass             No stable nuclei
Molecules can’t form         • Electron mass               Atoms unstable
Only hydrogen forms • Strength of Radioactivity         Only helium forms
Stars too cold        • Strength of Electromagnetism          Stars too hot
              Anthropic Accolade
• We can only live in a universe whose
  –   Laws permit our kind of life
  –   Structure permits our kind of life
  –   Initial conditions allowed our kind of life
  –   Obvious when you think about it
• Life needs SPECIAL PERMISSION
  – Laws, structure and initial conditions are all special
  – Not obvious -- discovered over the last 50 years
• Out of all possible universes, ours is NOT TYPICAL
• A (divine) lottery, where life is the grand prize?
         #3 Cosmic Inflation
• Basic idea: very shortly after the Big Bang
  there was something called a false vacuum
• This generates a period of extremely rapid
  (exponential) expansion of the universe
  Universe doubles in size every 10-34 sec
• If this happens for only 10-32 sec, expansion is
  by a factor of 2100=1030
       Size




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                                                        Time
                                 Pre-inflation chunk of a
                                 communication zone:
                                 temperature nearly uniform

                                 inflation            Observable
                                                      universe
Communication zone expands
to 1020 cm and our observable
universe to 20 cm

                                   13 billion years of expansion

                               Today’s observable universe of
                               13 billion light years has nearly
                               uniform temperature




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           General Predictions of
                 Inflation
• That the density of the universe is close to the critical
  density, and thus the geometry of the universe is flat

• That there should be, on average, equal numbers of hot
  and cold spots in the fluctuations of the cosmic
  microwave background temperature.

• That the fluctuations in the primordial density in the early
  universe had the same amplitude on all physical scales

• An ecbatic (non-telic) smoothing mechanism replaces
  special initial conditions!
Evidence for Inflation?                           March 7, 2008
February 2003


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Circumstantial evidence
• Upper limit on energy of inflation
• Physical structure approximately the same on all length scales
             #4 String Theory

               Shorter
 T
               Distance
 I
 M
 E
     point particle       open string      closed string

Basic idea: All known forces and particles are
different kinds of vibrations of one kind of particle --
a string!

Regarded by many as best way of uniting gravity
Remember those Unexplained Numbers?

                                 Quark Masses:       6
                                 Lepton Masses:      6
                                 Force Strengths:    4
                                 Mass Mixings:      8
                                 Higgs Mass:         1
                                 Vacuum Energy:      1
                                 Vacuum Mixings:    1

                                 Free Parameters:   27



Original hope: String theory (TOE?) would      A unique and
predict the value of these (and all other)       necessary
physical constants in our low-energy          single-universe
universe via symmetry and dynamics                 theory!
 Today …
• Vast generality
  – Very large variety of mathematical structures
  – Nothing unique about any of them
• Vast number of particles
  – Infinitely many unobserved particles
  – No pattern to the known particle masses
• Vast number of ground states
  – At least 10500 possible low-energy solutions
  – Which one is our universe, and why?
• Troubling Problem of the Vacuum Energy
  (cosmological constant)
  – All calculations indicate that it is 1050 -- 10120 times larger
    than observation
 Thinking of Nothing
How can we obtain a small  (cosmological
 constant)

• Symmetry that gives 
  – No examples
• Dynamics that gives 
  – No examples
• Selection of out of an array of
  possibilities?
  – Maybe
        Does this mean a multiverse?
                   Our Cosmic Origins
                               String Theory
                                 Inflation
                                               Top Down




                                           Mechanisms for Evidence for
                                            generating a  existence of a
                                            multiverse?    multiverse?

                                                                Bottom
                                                                  up
Coroborated by:
                                                          Cosmic Fine-tuning
• Age of Globular Clusters
                                                          Biophilic Selection
• Age of Brown Dwarfs
• Age of the oldest elements

 Age  13.73  0.12   10 9 yrs
         as of March 7, 2008
Does Everything Exist?
     From                         To The Multiverse
  Inflation…




Our observable universe   is a very tiny part of a much larger structure
Multiple Universes?
        Inflation: We are 1 tiny patch in an enormous
        cosmos – Our visible universe is no bigger than
        1/101,000,000 of the entire cosmos.

   How?

                               False Vacuum
                                      True
                                     vacuum

                                                Our universe is a
  Our visible universe is a tiny part of a     quantum creation
  region of true vacuum in a sea of false     of true vacuum out
  vacuum                                          of false vacuum
  False Vacuum
• Vacuum energy density is constant
because there is nothing for it to depend on


Pull out piston             More vacuum

              More energy                 Needs force        Tension pulls piston in




    expands VERY rapidly
            big
       False Vacuum
         Energy = Tension
                                                 Time
                                                                              Our big
               True                                                           bang: a
              vacuum                                           inflation
                  small
                                                                             quantum
                                 Quantum creation of the false             creation of
                                       vacuum out of nothing             true vacuum
  From Inflation to Multiverse
The basic idea:

• our observable universe was once the
size of a grapefruit

• shortly after the big bang it grew by a
factor of 1027 in size due to some (as yet
unknown) mechanism
                                             Life can exist here

• As spacetime cools, different spatial
regions have different constants of
nature (different laws of physics!)

• The unlikely prospect that the
constants have biophilic values will
occur if space is sufficiently large
                                                   Our big
Time




                                                    bang

               Another big
                     bang                One big
                                           bang

                                       No Special conditions
                                           because ALL
                                        conditions happen
       Quantum creation of the false
             vacuum out of nothing      somewhere (in the
                                          false vacuum)!
Multiverse level 1: other Hubble volumes
                   beyond our cosmic horizon




                                  FALSE VACUUM



  Features:
 • Same (effective) laws of physics everywhere
 • Different initial conditions
Multiverse level 2: Parallel Universes
                 in a False Vacuum
               Cmbgg OmOl




                        FALSE VACUUM
                             Big bang
Big
bang
                                                Our level 1 multiverse
  Level 2 multiverse

  • String Theory’s 10500 solutions all exist someplace: each coloured
  bubble represents a different solution
  • Different effective laws of physics
    (physical constants, particles, symmetrics, dimensionality)
  • Perhaps even uncountably infinite
Multiverse level 3:
Many Quantum Worlds                               Maybe both happen?

Quantum Decay of a radioactive
nucleus triggers hammer
After 1 hour: 50% chance of decay




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                                             Hugh Everett
Is the cat dead or alive after 1 hour?
Multiverse level 4: Mathematical Multiplicity

               Big Bang Zoom




All possible mathematical
structures are physically
instantiated
 4 Levels of Multiverse
          Level 1: All possible initial conditions
                         (inflation)


          Level 2: All possible laws of physics
                         (string theory)

                   Level 3: All possible outcomes
                               (quantum mechanics)

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                                       Level 4: All possible logical
                                                      structures
       Max
                                               (mathematics)
     Tegmark
 Implications of the Multiverse
• Scientific           • Theological
   –   Elegance          –   Free-will
   –   Testability       –   Justice
   –   Duplication       –   Problem of Evil
   –   Creationism       –   Purpose
   –   Unboundedness     –   Divinity
            #1 Elegance: A Loss of Innocence?

  • Cosmology becomes Environmental Science
  • Universe is a Rube Goldberg machine
  • Must give up the dream of a “no-free
    parameter” theory
  • Our scientific efforts have been misguided all
    along         The laws of
                                     physics are
                                    neither unique
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     Leonard
     Susskind
#2 Testability: Measuring Mediocrity?
                                              If this observer is in a typical
      Pick a random                           region of the multiverse, then
   observer from the                          the physical constants in that
          multiverse                          region that he/she measures
                                              can be predicted from a
                                              statistical distribution




                                Number of true vacua
                                 Number of men
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                                                         0.01 0.05 1.00
                                                         1.63 1.77 1.90
                       false                           Neutrino metres
                                                       Height in mass (eV)
                       vacuum
                                         If you walked out at random
                                        If you were pickedfrom church
                                        you the multiverse, you would
                                       from would expect the first man
                                        expect to be between 1.63 and
                                       you see to measure a neutrino
                                                 1.90 metres tall
                                       mass somewhere in the middle!
Mediocrity Strategy
• Consider constants of nature that are bio-irrelevant            QuickTime™ and a
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                           normal distribution?
• If most do -- multiverse?




                                                                 ?
   #3 Duplication: Dept of Redundancy Dept?

                                           Giordano Bruno (executed 1600)
                                                      Ellis & Brundrit 1979,
                                                    Q.J.R. Astr. Soc. 20, 37
                                         Garriga & Vilenkin 2001, Phys.Rev.
                                                               D64, 043511




                          Features:
                         • Same (effective) laws of physics
                         • Different initial conditions
• Size of our Hubble volume ~ 1026m,
• Closest copy of you ~ 1010 m
                             29


• Closest 100 lightyear bubble like ours ~ 10  1091m

• Closest Hubble volume like ours ~ 10   10118m
   Life’s Winning         and here
                                                   and here
       Ticket?
 and here




              and here
                                      Life can exist here


               and here

and here



                                     and here
       Be Fruitful and Multiply?
• Ifone biophilic region can exist, why not two?
• If 2 regions can exist, why not many?
• Why not infinitely many?

• The logical extension of the argument is that infinitely many
biophilic regions exist (somewhere/when)

• Infinitely many earths (+ duplicates) with all possible variations

•All possible social/psychological/experimental outcomes occur

• Unlikely outcomes can’t be ruled out on the basis of chance

• Absurd: everything that occurs is reasonless
    #4 Creationism: Boltzmann’s no-Brainer?

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    of a universe
  – More likely to quantum
    fluctuate a brain than an
    entire universe
  – Quantum brains more
    likely than bio-brains
• Creationism’s Comeback
  – 6000-year old earth
  – Species creation via                                              QuickTime™ an d a
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  quantum fluctuation
  – Our earth?????
  #5 Unboundedness: The Sky’s the Limit?
• Multiverse Mechanism
  – Employs unbounded physical resources
  – Once you start, you can’t stop
• Occam’s Razor
  – Economy of Assumption vs Economy of Resource
  – Likelihood vs. Simplicity
• Foundational Fuzzification
  – System is no longer closed
  – Undermines principle of induction
  – Time travel? Magic? Anything?
• Emergence of Level 5 Multiverse
  – Universe as a simulation?
  – Fake universes outnumber real ones
The Trouble with Everything
                                  DANGER!
                                UNBOUNDED
Problem:                        MULTIVERSE
                                   AHEAD
How to bound the multiverse?




                       • No experimental guidance
                       • No compelling theoretical priors
                       • No firm philosophical foundation
  #1 Justice: Moral Mayhem?

• Do some universes have different principles of
  justice?
• Are the apparently deep moral principles of the
  universe merely local by-laws?
• Can there be a theological foundation for
  morality in a multiverse?


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   Also a SETI
    Problem
  #2 Free-will: Choice without Choice?

• Multiverse
  – Every potentiality is an actuality
• Free-will
  – If every choice is realized somewhere/when is any
    choice meaningful?
• Problems with many theological concepts
  –   Creativity
  –   Love         Must select
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                   alternatives
  –   Sacrifice

                                   A new DaVinci Code?
  Creativity or
  Chaos?
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   Creativity from (mindless) repetition?
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    Christology Conundrum

                                                                    Jesus
                                                                   Dies on
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                                                                   Jesus
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                                                                   Rejects
Also a SETI                                                        Cross
 Problem
  #3 Theodicy: Evil Unbounded?

• Bad things are more likely than good ones
• Populated landscape will have far more evil
  than good
• Implications
  – Holocaust replications
  – Tyranny without limit
• Can we tolerate limitless evil?
• Or is evil an irrelevant concept?
• Does Imago Dei make any sense?
#4 Purpose: Elusive     Why do we live
Eschaton?                in a cosmos of
                                change?
                      I am God, and
                      there is none like
                      me.
                      I make known the
                      end from the
                      beginning, 
from
                      ancient times,
  Direction           what is still to
                      come. 

                      I say: My purpose
                      will stand

                      (Is 46:9-10)
Purpose?



                                Laws of the Universe
             laws in the lab




       purpose in our lives
                               Purpose in the Cosmos
Purpose in the Multiverse?




                       A new Heaven for each?

                       Map into a single Heaven?

                       Is there room for Heaven?
  #5 Divinity: Fake Gods?

• Recall: Fake universes are more probable
  than real ones
• Hence fake gods are more probable
• Implications
  – Some universes have gods, some don’t
  – Some universes are the result of collaborative
    projects between gods
  – Infinite regress of gods creating gods
• Does a transcendent God make sense amid
  such theological chaos?
                     Where Next?
  I am the way and the                                     In my Father's house
    truth and the life.                                      are many rooms;
  No one comes to the                                         if it were not so,
Father except through me.                                  I would have told you.



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   Jesus affirms a                                            Jesus affirms a
   single universe                                              multiverse
              The God Hypothesis
• We can only live in a universe whose
   –   Laws permit our kind of life
   –   Structure permits our kind of life
   –   Initial conditions allowed our kind of life
   –   Obvious when you think about it
• Life needs SPECIAL PERMISSION
   – Laws, structure and initial conditions are all special
   – Not obvious -- discovered over the last 50 years
• Out of all possible universes, ours is very special!
• This suggests the existence of a Cosmic
  Superselector -- God!
     Ingredients for a Theistic
             Cosmos
            B
 A
            C
Teleology
                          Morality




                Science
           B
A
                  Teleology: Altiverse Antidote
           C



    • The observable universe is embedded in an
      altiverse: a set of possible alternatives that
      logically exist but that are not physically
      realized
    • Change from one state to another depends
      on
       – the necessity of physical law
       – the statistical likelihood of random processes
       – the desires of intelligent agents (natural and
         supernatural) to achieve particular ends
    • This last idea implies that the altiverse has
      causal gaps -- it can reach situations in which
Altiverse Gaps
 • Quantum Mechanics
     – actual causal connection between a given initial state
       and a given final state cannot be determined
     – altiverse is the set of all possible outcomes of a given
       quantum-mechanical system
 •   Chaotic Phenomena
     – not possible to predict the outcome of any such
       system with arbitrary accuracy for arbitrarily long
       times
     – altiverse to include the vast range of possibilities that
       a chaotic system could realize
 • Compact Spatial Topology
     – WMAP data may suggest our universe is of finite
       spatial size, consisting of 12 curved pentagons joined
       together in a sphere about 30 billion light years
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Identify opposite faces of a                                      QuickTime™ and a
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Could this explain our universe?
                                                                          J. Weeks et.al.
 A Small                                                        Astronomy & Astrophysics
                                                                         October 3 2007
 Dodecahedral Universe?
Three Predictions
                                                                QuickTime™ and a
1. Weak large scale CMB                                TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
                                                          are neede d to see this picture.
   fluctuations
2. Matching circles in the sky
3. A slight curvature of space
   


                                                                                 QuickTime™ an d a
                                                                             TIFF (LZW) decomp resso r
                                                                          are need ed to see this picture.
                           QuickTime™ and a
                       TIFF (LZW) decomp resso r
                    are need ed to see this picture.




CMB at 6o
resolution                                                  Dodecahedral viewpoint
         Morality: Cosmic Kenosis

• Universe is fine-tuned for life
• Universe is fine-tuned for morality   N. Murphey
                                            G. Ellis
• Self-renunciation for the sake of the
  other is humankind's highest good
    Personal Kenosis

• An ethic of Stewardship                         love
    – Caring for the earth                 patient
                                                      peace
•   An ethic of Non-violence               gentle
                                                      good
    – Peace is the MEANS to by which we joy
      achieve our goals                                faithful
                                          QuickTime™ and a
                                       kind
                                              self-controlled
• An ethic of personal commitment to see this picture.
                                TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
                              are needed
     – To our families
     – To our friends
     – To our communities
• An ethic of celebration
     – To cherish what is best in life
 Christianity’s Amazing Hypothesis




                                    Identify




 Superintelligence                               The God manifest
Behind the Cosmos                              in Jesus of Nazareth


 The Lord brought Wisdom forth
 as the first of His works before                  Christ is the image of the
 his deeds of old; Wisdom was                  invisible God, the firstborn of all
     appointed from eternity                                 creation
          Proverbs 8:22                                 Colossians 1:15

				
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