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non-formal education


non-formal education

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									                              id21 education highlights 4

    non-formal education
                        c o m m u n i c a t i n g i n t e rnational development research

                                                   currently available alternative.                   motivation, parental ‘ignorance’, child
Why is educating                                      The most important reason for low               labour and curriculum relevance.
                                                   enrolments in pastoral communities is                The authors urge educational planners to:
East Africa’s                                      mostly parents worrying that education             l do more to understand the role nomad
                                                   will lead children away from their                   children play in their household’s economy
nomads so hard?                                    traditional way of life. Non-formal and              and why they do not attend school
                                                   distance education can help to reduce              l take education to children, instead of only

N    omads make up around six percent
     of the population of Africa yet
most attempts to provide education for
                                                   these fears. The authors consider the
                                                   objectives, curriculum, delivery methods,
                                                   timetabling and relevance of a wide range
                                                                                                        offering distant schools – thus forcing
                                                                                                        them to abandon herding
                                                                                                      l provide a mixture of open and distance
them have been unsuccessful. Education             of programmes. They show that:                       learning with a short period of residential
for All targets cannot be met until the            l education may pose problems for                    schooling
twenty African states with nomadic                    nomads by being poor quality, culturally        l offer greater formal recognition of
populations do more to increase                       distant and delivered in a language that          achievements in non-formal education
pastoralists’ participation in basic and              is not familiar in an environment that is       l allow parents to remain involved with
non-formal education.                                 not welcoming                                     the physical and moral security of their
   A publication from the African                  l insensitive education can divide families:         children (especially girls)
Development Bank and UNESCO’s                         children may end up distanced from both         l realise that public policy can stimulate and
International Institute for Educational            l arguments that pastoralists either have a          reward change in traditional attitudes that
Planning assesses services to nomadic                 negative attitude towards education, or           devalue girls’ education.
children and adults in East Africa. It                have rejected it, are unconvincing
suggests ways to try to raise the proportion       l evidence on the impact of pastoral               Roy Carr-Hill
                                                                                                      Lifelong Education and International Development,
of nomadic children enrolled in school,               education projects is limited.                  Institute of Education, University of London, 20 Bedford
particularly girls, closer to national averages.   Increasing enrolments among pastoralists           Way, London WC1H 0AL, UK
   Most programmes for the education of            must become a priority. There is a                 T +44 (0)20 7612 6631 F +44 (0)207 612 6632
nomads have assumed that settlement                need for national strategies, developed  
is inevitable and beneficial. However,             together with representatives of pastoral          ‘The Education of Nomadic Peoples in East Africa.
policymakers need to realise that dryland          communities. Nomadic groups must                   Review of Relevant Literature’, International Institute for
pastoralism is not all inefficient and that        perceive what they are being offered as an         Educational Planning, by Roy Car-Hill and Edwina Peart,
not all pastoralists are chronically poor.         improvement to what they already have.             2006
Pastoralism is probably a more efficient           It is vital that education addresses issues        140563e.pdf
mode of exploiting arid lands than any             of mobility, remoteness, poor teacher

Flexible models for
                                                   programmes being established to meet the           l adopt a continuing plan and a flexible
                                                   growing demand for teacher training in               model integrating distance education and

primary teacher
                                                   Zambia, South Africa, Kenya, Ghana, Uganda           face-to-face delivery
                                                   and Malawi.                                        l use feasibility studies, audits and baseline

training in Africa
                                                      The study finds that a new model of               studies to determine what institutions and
                                                   teacher education – the field-based model            expertise already exist and could be pulled
                                                   – is emerging in sub-Saharan Africa.                 into a support system

I  n Africa, at least 20 countries are at
   risk of failing to meet the Education
for All targets. If reasonable student
                                                   Distance education is one element of this.
                                                   Characteristics of the new trend include:
                                                   l creating ministry-led national teacher
                                                                                                      l encourage governments to be transparent
                                                                                                        about the budget; consult all those
                                                                                                        involved; and negotiate the distribution of
to teacher ratios are to be put in place,             education strategies, framed in the context       resources, responsibilities and incentives
increasing the number and quality                     of reform of the entire sector                  l build the delivery and support network in a
of teachers in primary education is                l setting up teacher education directorates,         way that links all those involved
essential. A more flexible approach to                in-service training units and various           l prioritise student support as the key
training is emerging.                                 ministry bodies as independent cost               element for success and take time to
    The demand for teachers has risen                 centres which are responsible for                 ensure that delivery is effective.
substantially in sub-Saharan Africa due to            developing and managing central policy
Universal Primary Education targets,               l providing standardised, accredited pre-          Elizabeth Mattson
increasing enrolments and the loss of many                                                            International Research Foundation for Open Learning
                                                      service and in-service training                 (IRFOL), Von Hügel Institute, St Edmund’s College,
teachers to HIV and AIDS. In some countries        l implementing flexible open and distance          Cambridge CB3 0BN, UK
a substantial proportion are untrained or             learning (ODL) methods, designing new           T +44 (0)1223 741844 F +44 (0)1223 741843
underqualified teachers.                              roles for existing providers and transferring
    Research by the UK Department for                                                       
                                                      training and support tasks to the level of      Field-Based Models of Primary Teacher Training: Case
International Development looks at three              district, zone and school                       Studies of Student Support Systems from Sub-Saharan
aspects of distance education teacher training:    l common use of print-based materials and          Africa, Department for International Development
models of decentralised management;                   little use of ICT-based programmes.             Education Papers, Researching the Issues Series 63, DFID:
student support and assessment of                                                                     London, by Elizabeth Mattson, 2006
                                                   There needs to be local-level student support
classroom practice; and choice of technology.      and assessment. The report issues guidelines       teacher-training-63.pdf
It examines the range of new training              for distance education programme planners:                                                                                                                             March 2007
                           id21 education highlights 4                       non-formal education

Promoting peace
                                                Paolo Freire, and combines them with                      are addressed, the literacy component is
                                                methodologies used by Christian agencies                  reduced as the emotions take precedent.

through non-formal
                                                with a firm basis in healing and forgiveness.               The author calls on donor and
                                                Participants’ practical needs for literacy                humanitarian agencies to:

                                                and numeracy are addressed and they are                   l recognise the contribution of education,
                                                encouraged to undertake situational and                     adult education and adult literacy to
                                                conflict analyses in order to begin to address              reconstruction and peacebuilding

F   inancial constraints on post-conflict
    reconstruction programmes often
lead to the neglect of educational
                                                their circumstances. Materials written by
                                                learners are used.
                                                   Programme designers need to:
                                                                                                          l support integrated LCRP programmes for
                                                                                                            all refugee and IDP communities
                                                                                                          l move away from a set curriculum to
needs of the present generation in              l analyse the roots of the conflict as part of              one relevant to the local situation
favour of the next. Evidence suggests,             the conflict resolution process                          and determined by the participants
however, that improving adult literacy          l ensure that those mediating between                       themselves
and numeracy levels can help promote               parties are neutral and able to listen to              l introduce peace education and human
peacebuilding and reconciliation.                  the perceptions of both sides and to seek                rights into the school curriculum
   A paper from the University of Sussex           every possible point of agreement                      l realise that participating in educational
analyses projects in Guinea, Sierra Leone       l not use traditional literacy models, but                  programmes provides significant benefits
and Sudan and shows how combining                  instead focus on the aspirations and                     to adults – a feeling of progress, return
literacy, conflict resolution and peace            needs of learners                                        to normality, connecting with culture and
building (LCRP) initiatives can contribute to   l emphasise context-related literacy, critical              community history and taking control
personal healing, development, forgiveness,        analysis and problem solving, prioritising               of their destiny and the future of their
reconciliation and reconstruction.                 active and creative methods of learning                  community.
   Analysts have shown how traumatised             such as dialogue, discussion, group work
children can benefit from the routine              and role play.                                         Juliet McCaffery
                                                                                                          CTS Consultancy & Training Services, Sussex House,
and security provided by schooling. Few,        Literacy groups cannot take the place of                  Brighton, BN1 9RH, UK
however, have looked at the benefits for        medical, psychiatric and conflict resolution              T +44 (0)1273 291173 F +44 (0)1273 291173
adults or asked whether the education           services, but can provide a place of safety     
system may have contributed to the conflict     and a space for accepting the past and
by reproducing the values and prejudices of     daring to think of the future. Recognising                ‘Using Transformative Models of Adult Literacy in
                                                                                                          Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding Processes at
dominant groups.                                the physical, psychological and emotional                 Community Level: Examples from Guinea, Sierra Leone
   The study draws on models of adult           signs of trauma and post-traumatic stress is              and Sudan’, Compare 35 (4), pages 443–462 by Juliet
literacy and community development              important for both facilitators and literacy              McCaffery, December 2005
developed by the Brazilian educator,            participants. As trauma, grief and loss

How does distance
                                                  education produces credible and                          l Distance education promotes equal
                                                  competent teachers and promotes                             opportunities in education, which in turn

education for
                                                  change and development in the teachers,                     will create a demand that policymakers
                                                  their schools and communities.                              need to recognise and respond to.

teachers benefit
                                                l Distance education study was found                       l Distance education does not require
                                                  to promote family stability, which is                       much physical infrastructure, but there

                                                  considered to be very important, given                      is a need to redefine job descriptions for
                                                  the critical roles and obligations of                       positions that can offer support and skills
                                                  individuals in the extended family group.                   in delivery of training.

F   or four decades, distance education
    has helped reduce shortages of
primary school teachers. Distance
                                                l However, current students indicated that
                                                  they were spending less time with their
                                                  families, and that study strained their
                                                                                                           l Governments should consider giving their
                                                                                                              official approval and funding to support
                                                                                                              the distance education approach to
education allows teachers to train                relationships with their spouses.                           teacher training.
without leaving their homes, families           l Distance education-trained teachers
and jobs. How does this benefit their             became more involved in community                        Felicity Binns
wider community?                                  activities such as community development EID Department, Cambridge Education, Demeter House,
                                                                                                           Station Road, Cambridge CB1 2RS, UK
   Research has suggested that as many            associations, youth clubs, religious groups              T +44 (0)1223 463755
as half of the developing world’s teachers        and local politics.                            
may be unqualified by their own countries’      l Teachers who qualified through distance        
standards. Increasing the numbers of              education earned their communities’                      Teacher Education at a Distance: Impact on Development
qualified teachers is an enormous task,           respect, pride and confidence in                         in the Community, DFID Researching the Issues
especially taking into account the high cost      recognition of their success in training.                Series No. 64, The UK Department for International
of traditional teacher training. Governments    A wide range of people who benefited                       Development, by Felicity Binns and Tony Wrightson,
need to consider alternative, cost-efficient    indirectly were also identified, including       
ways to train sufficient numbers.               conventional teacher educators, local                      distance-64.pdf
   In the past ten years, distance education    head teachers, teachers, inspectors and
has become widely used. A number of             local administrators.
challenges remain for this form of teacher      The study lists a large     id21
training, such as how to train students in      number of implications Institute of Development Studies
the practical side of teaching, and what        for policy, including the University of Sussex
methods could better promote two-way            following:                  Brighton, BN1 9RE UK
interaction between students and their          l Policymakers              T +44 (0) 1273 678787
tutors. By exploring possible solutions           should think              F +44 (0) 1273 877335
to these issues, distance education               about integrating         E
programmes reach out into the community.          local community                                                             ISSN1746-8698
   A study by the International Extension         development                             id21 education highlights bring the latest research to
College examines how training teachers            initiatives: for                        education policymakers and practitioners with limited
                                                                                          internet access. Please photocopy and distribute them to
by distance education reaches beyond the          instance, planned use                   your colleagues. If you would like to subscribe free of charge,
students themselves and aids development          of distance education                   please send your contact details to the address above. id21 is
in the wider community. Local researchers         resource centres for                    hosted by the Institute of Development Studies and supported
undertook studies in Guyana, Uganda and           supporting other                        by the UK Department for International Development.
Nigeria. The research found that:                 community-based          Keywords: Non-formal education, peace, literacy, distance education, teacher training,
l Teacher training through distance               initiatives.             community, nomads, pastoralists, participation, access, flexibility                                                                                                                                      March 2007

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