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					Chinese Engagement
     with Africa


  Challenging US Global Hegemony

                 Horace G. Campbell
                  Syracuse University
        Themes of Presentation
   War in Iraq and strategic importance of Africa
   Changed Global Situation
   War and Transformation
   Psychological warfare and US Citizens
   African Natural Resources
   US Policies Towards Africa-AGOA +ACRI
   Competition with Europe
   Competition with the Chinese
   Relations between Chinese Peoples and African
    peoples – mutual respect
Hence to fight and conquer in
all your battles is not supreme
      excellence; supreme
     excellence consists in
     breaking the enemy's
 resistance without fighting.
                      Sun Tzu
China is a sleeping giant. Let
 her lie and sleep, for when
   she awakens she will
     astonish the world.
      Napoleon Bonaparte, 1803
     African Point of View on Global
                 Context
   Concerns with respect to Unilateralism
   Democratization
   The Social Forces ranged for Peace
   Democratization of International
    Institutions
   Middle East and Self-Determination Project
   Global Warming and its impact on Africa
   Revolutionary Changes in Technology
   Rise of BRIC Economies – Brazil, Russia, India, China
        China as a Global Force
   China in Asia and
    ASEAN
   China and engagement
    with Latin America
   Strategic Partnership
    with Russia
   Shanghai Cooperation
    Organization – (SCO)
   Forum on China –Africa
    Cooperation (FOCAC)
        The Writing on the Wall
   Between 2004 and 2006, Chinese GDP grew by
    a Third
   Fixed Investment tripled from $400b-$1.3t
   Exports grew in 2006 to over $900b
   Foreign Exchange Reserves has surpassed $ 1
    trillion in 2006
   Chinese Trade Surplus expected to be over
    $200b
   US debt over $8.5 trillion
   Together with Japan and other Asian Countries –
    largest holders of US Treasury Bills
          Shanghai Cooperation
           Organization (SCO)
   Chinese Diplomatic Clout
   Members of the SCO
   China
   Russia
   Kazakhstan,
    Kyrgyzstan,
    Tajikistan
    Uzbekistan
           One Per Cent Club
   Top 400 billionaires of
    Fortune 500
   Over 250 billionaires
    USA
   Asia’s top 100
    billionaires
   Billionaires and
    celebrating
    exploitation
   China surpassing
    Japan
   Neo-liberalism and
    trickle down
    economics
European Response to FOCAC
      ‘We Europeans should not leave
         the commitment to Africa
          to the People's Republic
                 of China …

         We must take a stand in
                Africa."
          Angela Merkel – German Chancellor
        US and EU Competition
   US Challenge to the EU in Africa
   African Growth and Opportunity Act - AGOA
   US domination of IMF, IBRD and WTO
   US Military Commands
   Euro and the Dollar
   US military and the dollar
   Britain and US – Pound and the Dollar
   Need for new Financial architecture
   US principal beneficiary of present international
    system
         Analytical Framework
   Fractal Analysis
   Old is dying and the new is to be born
   Human intentionality
   Recursion
   Break and new Iterations
   Beyond simplicity and determinism
   Emancipatory methodology
     'Our first objective is to prevent
    the re-emergence of a new rival.
 ..that poses a threat on the order of
   that posed formerly by the Soviet
                  Union. …
   Our strategy must now refocus on
                 precluding
the emergence of any potential future
            global competitor .

                 US National Security Policy Paper 2002
Military bases
            Managing China
   The World after the World Conference
    against Racism
   US National Security Doctrine -2002
   Neo-conservatism and neo-liberalism
   Aggressive militarism
   Managing China or Encircling China
    Militarily
   War In
    Iraq
   Military
    Base in
    Djibouti
   Indian
    Ocean
    Bases
   Diego
    Garcia
   Africa
    and
    Palestine
       China and New Allies

   Revolutionaries in the
    Caribbean and Latin
    America
   Horizantalism - Argentina
   Bolivarian Revolution
   Bolivarian Alternative and
    New Institutions
   Telesur and Bank of the
    South
   Chinese Relations with
    Cuba
    China Forging New Alliances

   China and Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela,
    Peru, Panama, Ecuador, Chile, Argentina
    and Uruguay
   roads, railways, ports and housing,
    including assistance for the widening and
    modernization of the Panama Canal
   invest over $100 billion in the next ten
    years
   Trade grew from $200 million in 1975 to
    over $40 billion by the end of 2004.
         Chinese Revolution and
             Reconstruction
   Chinese History and Revolution
   China in Africa – support for liberation
   China in Africa and the Tanzam Railway
   Chinese political struggles after Mao
   China and new class struggles
   Chinese influence since Bandung
   Chinese demand for Raw Materials
   Need to create jobs in China and in Africa
  Africa is one of the richest
  continents in the world …
                   Africa's mine ral re se rv e s as % world re se rv e s

100
      89
 90
 80
 70        60
 60                  53
 50
                                 37
 40
                                          28
 30                                            23
 20                                                 15   14   12   10         7        7
 10                                                                                            6
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            But it’s people are
          amongst the poorest …

   33 of the world’s least developed countries
    are to be found in Africa
      Economic growth and FDI
   Slow growth rate of economy up to the
    1980s, steady decline since as a result of
    structural adjustment programmes
   Declining share of FDI:
      4.6% in 1970s
      1.6% in 1990s
      2.2% since 2000

     Economic Retrogression and Structural Adjustment
WORLD BANK PARADIGM            PEOPLE’S CONCEPTION
1) MAINSTREAMING GENDER        1) WOMEN’S EMANCIPATION
2) POVERTY ERADICATION         2) ENDING EXPLOITATION AND WEALTH
                                  CREATION
3) CONFLICT RESOLUTION         3) BUILDING PEACE AND JUSTICE-
                               PEACE AS A PROCESS
4) ACCOUNTABLE GOVERNANCE      4) DEMOCRATIC PARTICIPATION
5) INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY       5) DEFENDING INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE
RIGHTS                         and SHARING KNOWLEDGE
6) STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT       6) SECOND SLAVERY
7) DEBT CRISIS                 7) ODIOUS DEBT
8) HIGHLY INDEBTED POOR        8) NEW SLAVERY
COUNTRIES INITIATIVE (HIPC)
9) LIBERALIZATION              9) FREEDOM OF CAPITAL
10) PRIVATIZATION              10) MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR
                               WORKERS, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT
11) SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT    11) STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATION
12) ENVIRONEMTAL DEGRADATION   12) - TOXIC IMPERIALISM
                               - TOXIC RACISM
                               - DOMINATION OVER NATURE
13) CAPACITY BUILDING          12) TRAINING FOR TRANSFORMATION
14) FREE MARKET                13) PROVIDING SPACES FOR TRADERS
                                   ESPECIALLY WOMEN
15) AID & DEVELOPMMENT         15) REPARATIONS
    ASSISTANCE
                China airmiles
   2006: 50th anniversary of diplomatic ties with
    Africa
   June 2006: President Hu Jintao and Premier
    Wen Jiabao visit 10 African countries
   November 2006: African heads of states visit
    Beijing
   February 2007: Hu Jintao visits 8 countries in 12
    days, traveling 38,000 km, meets 20 leaders,
    100 high level persons, 90 activities, and makes
    more than 30 speeches.
           African Resources
   Water
   Genetic materials
   Petroleum/energy
   Minerals
   Food
   Human Resources
   Africa is more than minerals
            West African Oil
   Sweet =Low Sulphur Content
   Light = Easy to Pump and refine
    geographically close = compared to
    Middle East
   Comparative Low Political Risk
   Does not care about the environment
   History of environmental racism
       Top Twelve Oil Exporters
   1. Saudi Arabia      7. Kuwait
    2. Russia            8. Nigeria
    3. Norway            9. Mexico
    4. Iran             10. Algeria
    5. Venezuela        11. Iraq
    6. United Arab      12. Libya
    Emirates
                   Promises
   Double current assistance to Africa by 2009
   $3 billion preferential loans
   $2 billion preferential buyer’s credit
   Establish China-Africa development fund ($5
    billion) to encourage Chinese companies to
    invest in Africa
   Cancel debts to HIPC
   Establish 3-5 trade/economic cooperation zones
   Training and scholarships for thousands
   Build 30 hospitals
   Build AU Conference Centre
         China and Angola?

   Moving beyond Savimbi’s pseudo Maoism
   Oil Companies and China
   China and Angola’s Reconstruction
   Building New Communities
   European Responses
   US Response to China in Angola
   What is the African point of view?
Africa’s Share of Global Production
   Africa has 7 per cent of proven reserves
   Reserves amount to 76.7 billion barrels
   West Africa alone has 46 billion barrels
What is the nature of China’s
 engagement with Africa?
   New imperial ogre?
   Alternative paradigm of engagement?
   South-South partner?
   Different model of development?
   Exploiter with no regard for human
    rights?
   Voracious destroyer of the
    environment?
    Globalization and Imperialism
   Understanding Imperialism today
   Importance of seeing China’s engagement
    in the context of other players
   Assessing whether its behavior is really
    any different to the US or others
   What are the opportunities and threats for
    Africa
   Sudan and Zimbabwe?
   What way forward?
      Potential for development?
   ‘... there is no doubt that Chinese investments in
    Africa are having and could continue to have
    some positive impacts. China is helping African
    countries to rebuild their infrastructure and
    providing other types of assistance to
    agriculture, water, health, education and other
    sectors. This could have very positive spin-offs
    in lowering transaction costs and assisting
    African governments to address social calamities
       John Rocha
Changed International Situation
   War in Iraq and Decline of the USA
   Rise of Bolivarian Revolution and Left Turn
    in Latin America
   New Awareness by African workers –
    industrial actions in Nigeria and South
    Africa
   Importance of tackling Global Warming
   Rise of China as a Superpower
   Declining Importance of Western Europe
Image of US in Iraq
             Weakening of the
              USA
An observation by Business Day (July 2003)


                       intimate trust between [Bush]
                    'abiding impression is of a growing,
                 if not and Mbeki. The amount of public
                    touching, hugging and backpatting
                     they went through was well beyond
                     the call of even friendly diplomatic
                                    duty.'
           Establishment of US Africa
                   Command
   African Contingency Operations Training Assistance
    (ACOTA) - replaced ACRI, Spring 2002
   under ACOTA, African troops will also be provided with
    offensive military weaponry, including rifles, machine
    guns, and mortars.

   US and fighting in Africa
   The Africa Regional Peacekeeping (ARP) to equip, train,
    and support troops from selected African countries that
    are involved in peacekeeping operations
   Will US and China fight in Africa
   Chinese answer to Star Wars
               Who benefits?
   ‘The majority of the Chinese people are
    not too concerned about when China will
    become the world’s largest economy.
    Rather they are saying asking: When will
    the benefits of China’s rise to superpower
    status start to affect our lives positively.’
      Dorothy Guerrero
      Chinese African Relations
   People to People Relations
   Chinese workers and African workers
   Chinese students and African students
   Traditional Healers in China and Africa
   Mutual cooperation in the transformation of
    science and technology in the 21st century
   Chinese demands for Reparations
   African calls for the rewriting of European
    textbooks
      Strategic Planning in Africa
   Short Term Relations with China

   Medium term Relations and the changing global
    political system

   Long term relations with all big powers

   Urgency of the Union Government of Africa

				
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