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LATEST IMO DEVELOPMENTS ON FIRE PROTECTION Mr Chairman

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LATEST IMO DEVELOPMENTS ON FIRE PROTECTION Mr Chairman Powered By Docstoc
					                LATEST IMO DEVELOPMENTS ON FIRE PROTECTION


Mr. Chairman, distinguished delegates, ladies and gentlemen.

        First of all, I wish to thank the organizers of this important event for the opportunity to
address the Lloyds List Conference on Fire on Ships on the latest IMO developments on fire
protection.

        The possibility of fire is about the worst thing that can happen to a vessel of any type. It
can be devastating, particularly on a passenger ship, where large numbers of people may need to
be evacuated, or on a ship carrying inflammable cargo, with serious risks to crewmembers or to
ports and harbours.

        This presentation will start with a brief history of IMO fire protection requirements, from
the 1914 SOLAS Convention to the 1992 fire safety amendments, and finally provide an update
on the latest developments on fire protection. The following topics will be covered:

       •       Brief history of the IMO fire protection requirements;
       •       Revised SOLAS chapter II-2 and the Fire Safety Systems (FSS) Code; and
       •       Latest IMO developments on fire protection.

       It is important to note that, although the complete revision of the Fire Test Procedures
Code (FTP Code) is very important on the latest developments, it is not going to be considered
on this presentation, taking into account that it is subject of another presentation during this
conference.


HISTORY OF SOLAS FIRE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS

1914 and 1929 SOLAS Conventions

        The first fire protection requirements for international shipping were developed as part of
the 1914 Safety of Life at Sea Convention (SOLAS), which was developed in response to the
sinking of the Titanic in 1912. Although the 1914 SOLAS Convention was prevented from
coming into force due to World War I, it did contain basic fire safety requirements which were
later carried over to the 1929 SOLAS Convention.

1948 and 1960 SOLAS Conventions

        After the adoption of the 1929 SOLAS Convention, many lessons were learned about the
safety of shipping in general, including fire protection, which led to the adoption of the
1948 SOLAS Convention. In 1934, a fire aboard the passenger ship Morro Castle caused
134 casualties. The investigation of the Morro Castle fire, and the lessons learned from it,
played a major part in the development of the non-combustible construction regulations which
today form the basis of the fire safety regulations for passengers ships. In addition, many
advances in maritime technology were made during World War II and subsequently incorporated
into the 1948 SOLAS Convention. As a result, a greater emphasis was placed on fire safety
aboard ships and this was demonstrated by the development of three new parts (parts D, E and F)
being added to chapter II of the 1948 SOLAS Convention which were exclusively dedicated to
fire safety. In addition, the SOLAS 1948 requirements applied to both passenger ships and cargo
ships.

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        The 1948 SOLAS Convention established three methods of construction for passenger
ships and basic fire protection requirements for cargo ships. The 1948 SOLAS Convention was
eventually updated with the 1960 SOLAS Convention. The most significant change incorporated
into the 1960 SOLAS Convention, related to fire safety, was the application of certain passenger
ship fire safety requirements to cargo ships.

The Sub-Committee on Fire Protection

       In light of the aforementioned developments on the fire protection scenario, the
Sub-Committee on Fire Protection (FP) held its first session at the old Headquarters of the then
Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), in Chancery House, from 14 to
18 December 1964, almost 43 years ago.

        Over the years since the establishment of the FP Sub-Committee, many advances in the
field of fire protection engineering and in the regulations which incorporate fire safety
technologies, drills and fire-fighting operations and practices on board ships were achieved. Few
examples of the work done by the Sub-Committee are requirements on automatic sprinklers, inert
gas systems, fire detection systems, machinery space fire-extinguishing systems, automated
safety control systems, new non-combustible materials and enhanced personal protection for
fire-fighters. Thanks to its work, numerous fire test procedures and performance standards have
been developed to ensure the emerging technologies are up to the task, which has also
significantly contributed to enhanced fire safety at sea.

1974 SOLAS Convention

        While the SOLAS conventions of 1914, 1929, 1948 and 1960 did contain fire safety
requirements, they proved inadequate for passenger ships. In the 1960s and 70s, a series of
several major fire casualties (including the “Laconia”, “Viking Princess” and “Yarmouth
Castle”) highlighted many problems and, as a result, many changes were incorporated into the
1974 SOLAS Convention. In the 1974 Convention (which came into effect in 1980 and is still in
force today, as amended) separated the fire requirements into a separate chapter:
SOLAS chapter II (Construction) of the 1960 SOLAS Convention was divided into two new
chapters: chapter II-1 (Construction - Structure, subdivision and stability, machinery and
electrical requirements) and chapter II-2 (Construction - Fire protection, fire detection and fire
extinction).

       The 1974 SOLAS required all new passenger ships to be built of non-combustible
materials and to have either a fixed fire sprinkler system or fixed fire detection system installed.
Requirements for cargo ships were also updated with special regulations for specific types of
cargo ships such as tankers.

1981 revision

       The 1981 Amendments, which entered into force on 1 September 1984, completely
revised SOLAS chapter II-2. The amendments included requirements on Recommendation
concerning fire safety requirements for cargo ships (resolution A.327(IX), which was
incorporated in resolution MSC.1(XLV)), on Recommendation concerning fire safety
requirements for passenger ships carrying not more than 36 passengers (resolution A.372(X),
which was incorporated in resolution MSC.1(XLV)), provisions for halogenated hydrocarbon fire
extinguishing systems and a new regulation 62 on inert gas systems.




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REVISED SOLAS CHAPTER II-2


        In 1992, the Sub-Committee on Fire Protection agreed to undertake a comprehensive
revision of chapter II-2 of the 1974 SOLAS Convention, as amended, following the adoption,
over a number years, of various sets of amendments, which made the chapter difficult to use and
implement. Technological advancements and lessons learned from accidents since the chapter’s
last revision in 1981, required new provisions to be added and for existing requirements to be
modified. However, the outcome of this eight year effort resulted in more than just a
“user-friendly” amalgamation of the latest amendments, but an entirely new structure for
SOLAS chapter II-2, with a new part D dedicated to means of escape issues.

        The new structure focuses on the “fire scenario process” rather than on ship type, as the
old SOLAS chapter II-2 was structured. Thus, the regulations start with prevention, detection,
and suppression following all the way through to escape and training. In addition, to make the
revised SOLAS chapter II-2 more user-friendly, specific system related technical requirements
were moved to a new International Fire Safety Systems (FSS) Code, which covers the technical
specifications for the arrangement of means of escape, low-location lighting systems and the new
requirements for the carriage of emergency escape breathing devices (EEBDs), which must now
be carried on all types of ships, including existing ships.

        The revised SOLAS chapter II-2 and the associated FSS Code entered into force on
1 July 2002 and apply to all ships built on or after 1 July 2002, although some of the amendments
apply to existing ships as well as new ones. A summary of the revised SOLAS chapter II-2
provisions is contained in annex 1 to this paper.

The International Fire Safety Systems (FSS) Code

        The adoption of the FSS Code was a major change to the original Convention. Some of
the original technical provisions have been transferred from the Convention to the Code and
many others have been spelled out in greater detail in the Code. The main reason behind this
decision was to separate carriage and other statutory requirements, which clearly belong in the
Convention and are meant for the Administration, from purely technical provisions, which are
better suited for the Code and may be applied in a more user-friendly manner by equipment
manufacturers, systems engineers, etc.

        As mentioned earlier, the purpose of the FSS Code is to provide international standards
for fire safety systems required by revised SOLAS chapter II-2, under which it is made
mandatory. The FSS Code consists of fifteen chapters, each addressing specific systems and
arrangements, except for chapter I which contains several definitions and also general
requirements for approval of alternative designs and toxic extinguishing media. Annex 2 to this
paper contains a list of the chapters in the new FSS Code.

LATEST IMO DEVELOPMENTS ON FIRE PROTECTION

Star Princess - fire regulations for balconies adopted

        The Maritime Safety Committee (MSC), at its eighty-second session (29 November to
8 December 2006), adopted amendments to SOLAS chapter II-2 and to the International Code
for Fire Safety Systems (FSS Code) to strengthen the fire protection arrangements in relation to
cabin balconies on passenger vessels. The amendments were developed in response to the fire
aboard the cruise ship Star Princess, while on passage between Grand Cayman and Montego
Bay, Jamaica, in March of the same year. The fire began on an external balcony and spread over
several decks.
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        The amendments to SOLAS chapter II-2 are aimed at ensuring that existing regulations
4.4 (Primary deck coverings), 5.3.1.2 (Ceilings and linings), 5.3.2 (Use of combustible materials)
and 6 (Smoke generation potential and toxicity) are also applied to cabin balconies on new
passenger ships.

        For existing passenger ships, relevant provisions require that furniture on cabin balconies
be of restricted fire risk unless fixed water spraying systems, fixed fire detection and fire alarm
systems are fitted and that partitions separating balconies be constructed of non-combustible
materials, similar to the provisions for new passenger ships.

       The amendments are expected to enter into force on 1 July 2008.

Guidelines for fixed water spraying, fire detection and fire alarm systems for cabin
balconies

         Following the adoption by MSC 82 of aforementioned amendments to
SOLAS chapter II-2 related to the fire safety of cabin balconies, the FP Sub-Committee, at its
fifty-first session (5 to 9 February 2007), finalized its work on the fire safety of cabin balconies
on passenger ships. The Sub-Committee agreed on draft Guidelines for the approval of fixed
pressure water-spraying and water-based fire-extinguishing systems for cabin balconies, and
draft Guidelines for the approval of fixed fire detection and fire alarm systems for cabin
balconies, with a view to approval at MSC 83, which will take place in Copenhagen, from 3 to
12 October 2007.

       The Sub-Committee agreed that the approval of such systems on passenger ships installed
before 1 July 2008 should be left to the satisfaction of the Administration.

        The draft Guidelines for the approval of fixed pressure water-spraying and water-based
fire-extinguishing systems for cabin balconies note that such systems, as required by SOLAS
regulation II 2/10.6.1.3, for the protection of cabin balconies where furniture and furnishings
other than those of restricted fire risk are used, should be shown by test to have the capability of
suppressing typical fires expected in such areas, and preventing them from spreading to the
adjacent cabins and to other balconies. The Guidelines provide a detailed test method intended
for evaluating the effectiveness of fixed pressure water spraying and water-based fire
extinguishing systems for cabin balconies, developed for ceiling or sidewall mounted nozzles
located to protect external cabin balconies that are open to the atmosphere with natural wind
conditions.

       The latter draft guidelines note that fixed fire detection and fire alarm systems, as
required by SOLAS regulation II-2/7.10, for the protection of cabin balconies where furniture
and furnishings other than those of restricted fire risk are used, should be shown by test to have
the capability of detecting typical fires expected in such areas before they spread to the adjacent
cabin and to other balconies. The draft standards were based on full scale testing conducted by
Finland and the United States to provide a sound technical basis for their development.

Review of fire safety of external areas on passenger ships

       The Sub-Committee, at its fifty-first session, also began its review of fire safety of
external areas on passenger ships. A Correspondence Group was established to develop draft
guidelines for categorization of external areas based on fire risk, and relevant fire safety
measures; and draft guidelines for a simplified risk assessment method to allow operators to
perform an onboard evaluation of the relative fire risk of external areas, taking into account the

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category of the area, the materials used therein, relevant operational measures, and potential
sources of ignition. The completion of the work is intended for 2009.

Revised recommendation on evacuation analyses for new and existing passenger ships

        The FP Sub-Committee finalized draft Revised Guidelines for evacuation analyses for
new and existing passenger ships, with a view to approval at MSC 83. The purpose of the
guidelines is to present the methodology for conducting a simplified evacuation analysis and, in
particular, to:

   •   identify and eliminate, as far as practicable, congestion which may develop during an
       abandonment, due to normal movement of passengers and crew along escape routes,
       taking into account the possibility that crew may need to move along these routes in a
       direction opposite to the movement of passengers; and

   •   demonstrate that escape arrangements are sufficiently flexible to provide for the
       possibility that certain escape routes, assembly stations, embarkation stations or survival
       craft may be unavailable as a result of a casualty.

        The Guidelines offer the possibility of using one of two distinct methods: (1) a simplified
evacuation analysis; or (2) an advanced evacuation analysis, with the Guidelines noting that the
assumptions inherent within the simplified method are, by their nature, limiting. As the
complexity of the vessel increases (through the mix of passenger types, accommodation types,
number of decks and number of stairways), use of the advanced method would be preferred.
However, in early design iterations of the vessel, the simplified method has merit due to its
relative ease of use and its ability to provide an approximation to expected evacuation
performance.

       The Guidelines, once approved by the MSC, will supersede the Interim Guidelines on
evacuation analyses for new and existing passenger ships (MSC/Circ.1033), approved in
May 2002.

Fire safety - performance testing and approval standards agreed

       Revised performance testing and approval standards for fire safety systems were agreed
by the FP Sub-Committee, at its 51st session. The revised standards will be forwarded to the
MSC 83, as proposed draft amendments to the International Code for Fire Safety Systems
(FSS Code).

        The Sub-Committee has been carrying out a comprehensive review of the performance
testing and approval standards for fire safety systems in order to harmonize all of the relevant
standards so far adopted by the Organization, as referred to in the revised SOLAS chapter II 2,
the FSS Code and the Fire Test Procedures Code.

        The revised standards include amendments to the Revised Guidelines for approval of
sprinkler systems equivalent to that referred to in SOLAS regulation II-2/12
(resolution A.800(19)), with a view to approval at MSC 83.

      The Sub-Committee also agreed to draft amendments to the Revised Guidelines for the
approval of equivalent water-based fire-extinguishing systems for machinery spaces and cargo
pump-rooms (MSC/Circ.1165), also with a view to approval at MSC 83.




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        The work on standards related to the maintenance and inspections of fixed carbon dioxide
fire-extinguishing systems and aerosol fixed fire-extinguishing systems were also agreed, in
principle, for inclusion on the revised FSS Code, to be completed in 2009.

       Meanwhile, further work is in progress, within the FP Sub-Committee, on draft
Guidelines for fixed high-expansion foam systems using inside air; draft Guidelines for the
approval of fixed water-based fire fighting systems for ro-ro spaces and special category spaces;
draft amendments to chapter 9 of the FSS Code concerning fixed fire detection and fire alarm
systems; and draft amendments to chapter 10 of the FSS Code concerning sample extraction
smoke detection systems.

Safety of oil and chemical tankers

       Following discussions during MSC 81 on the report of the Inter-Industry Working Group
(IIWG) and the Human Factors Task Group (HFTG), established to study the reported incidents
of explosions on chemical and product carriers, the FP Sub-Committee agreed to recommend to
the Maritime Safety Committee to include, in the Sub-Committee's work programme, a new item
on "Measures to prevent explosions on oil and chemical tankers transporting low flash point
cargoes", in co-operation with the Sub-Committees on Bulk Liquids and Gases (BLG) and Ship
Design and Equipment (DE).

       It was also agreed that, under the proposed new work programme item, the
Sub-Committee should initially consider measures for new ships. However, depending on the
outcome of the consideration of the inert gas systems and other measures for new ships, it was
agreed that the Sub-Committee should also consider the appropriate measures for existing oil and
chemical tankers transporting low flash point cargoes.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

        I wish to conclude by suggesting that we should seize this opportunity, when setting the
course for the future, to also recall the past achievements of the shipping industry, particularly
during the last two decades. The shipping industry is better served today than ever before. The
overall accident rate of merchant ships is on the decline and pollution of the marine environment
has been reduced considerably. Whilst not allowing ourselves to indulge in any complacency,
we should feel proud of the transformation of our industry into a safer and cleaner one than ever
before.

         I also believe that the past achievements should act as an impetus and motivation for us
all to try even harder to capitalize and build on them and to be ready to respond to any challenges
the future may hold. To succeed in this, there is a need for a total commitment on the part of all
the components of the industry.

       Thank you.

                                               ***




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                                           ANNEX 1

            SUMMARY OF REVISED SOLAS CHAPTER II-2
 CONSTRUCTION – FIRE PROTECTION, FIRE DETECTION AND FIRE EXTINCTION

PART A - GENERAL

Regulation 1 - Application - The chapter applies to ships built on or after 1 July 2002. Ships
constructed before that date should comply with the chapter in force prior to 1 July 2002,
however there are some requirements for existing ships in the revised chapter.

Regulation 2 - Fire safety objectives and functional requirements – Provides the fire safety
objectives and functional requirements for the chapter.

Regulation 3 - Definitions - Gives definitions of terms used in the chapter.


PART B - PREVENTION OF FIRE AND EXPLOSION

Regulation 4 - Probability of ignition - The purpose of this regulation is to prevent the ignition
of combustible materials or flammable liquids.

Regulation 5 - Fire growth potential - The purpose of this regulation is to limit the fire growth
potential in every space of the ship.

Regulation 6 - Smoke generation potential and toxicity - The purpose of this regulation is to
reduce the hazard to life from smoke and toxic products generated during a fire in spaces where
persons normally work or live.


PART C- SUPPRESSION OF FIRE

Regulation 7 - Detection and alarm - The purpose of this regulation is to detect a fire in the
space of origin and to provide for alarm for safe escape and fire-fighting activities.

Regulation 8 - Control of smoke spread - The purpose of this regulation is to control the spread
of smoke in order to minimize the hazards from smoke.

Regulation 9 - Containment of fire - The purpose of this regulation is to contain a fire in the
space of origin.

Regulation 10 - Fire fighting - The purpose of this regulation is to suppress and swiftly
extinguish a fire in the space of origin.

Regulation 11 - Structural integrity - The purpose of this regulation is to maintain structural
integrity of the ship preventing partial or whole collapse of the ship structures due to strength
deterioration by heat.




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PART D - ESCAPE

Regulation 12 - Notification of crew and passengers - The purpose of this regulation is to
notify crew and passengers of a fire for safe evacuation.

Regulation 13 - Means of escape -The purpose of this regulation is to provide means of escape
so that persons onboard can safely and swiftly escape to the lifeboat and liferaft embarkation
deck.


PART E - OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

Regulation 14 - Operational readiness and maintenance - The purpose of this regulation is to
maintain and monitor the effectiveness of the fire safety measures the ship is provided with.

Regulation 15 - Instructions, onboard training and drills -The purpose of this regulation is to
mitigate the consequences of fire by means of proper instructions for training and drills for
persons onboard responsible for carrying out ship procedures under emergency conditions.

Regulation 16 – Operations -The purpose of this regulation is to provide information and
instructions for proper ship and cargo handling operations in relation to fire safety.


PART F - ALTERNATIVE DESIGN AND ARRANGEMENTS

Regulation 17 - Alternative design and arrangements - The purpose of this regulation is to
provide a methodology for approving alternative design and arrangements for fire safety.


PART G - SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS

Regulation 18 - Helicopter facilities - The purpose of this regulation is to provide additional
measures in order to address the fire safety objectives of this chapter for ships fitted with special
facilities for helicopters.

Regulation 19 - Carriage of dangerous goods - The purpose of this regulation is to provide
additional safety measures in order to address the fire safety objectives of this chapter for ships
carrying dangerous goods.

Regulation 20 - Protection of vehicle, special category and ro-ro spaces - The purpose of this
regulation is to provide additional safety measures in order to address the fire safety objectives of
this chapter for ships fitted with vehicle, special category and ro-ro spaces.



                                                ***




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                                          ANNEX 2

             THE INTERNATIONAL FIRE SAFETY SYSTEMS (FSS) CODE

                                      Table of contents



Preamble

Chapter 1     General

Chapter 2     International shore connections

Chapter 3     Personnel protection

Chapter 4     Fire extinguishers

Chapter 5     Fixed gas fire-extinguishing systems

Chapter 6     Fixed foam fire-extinguishing systems

Chapter 7     Fixed pressure water-spraying and water-mist fire-extinguishing systems

Chapter 8     Automatic sprinkler, fire detection and fire alarm systems

Chapter 9     Fixed fire detection and fire alarm systems

Chapter 10    Sample extraction smoke detection systems

Chapter 11    Low-location lighting systems

Chapter 12    Fixed emergency fire pumps

Chapter 13    Arrangement of means of escape

Chapter 14    Fixed deck foam systems

Chapter 15    Inert gas systems



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Description: LATEST IMO DEVELOPMENTS ON FIRE PROTECTION Mr Chairman